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North Carolina 2005 Recycling Legislation The Day After…. North Carolina 2005 Recycling Legislation The Day After….

Focus on Two Main Bills n H 1465 – banning the disposal of materials Focus on Two Main Bills n H 1465 – banning the disposal of materials effective October 2009: n n n Plastic bottles Wooden Pallets Oil Filters Oyster shells H 1518 – requiring certain ABC permitholders to recycle beverage containers by January 2008.

Information for Local Governments and Private Sector (generators) n Websites: n n n n Information for Local Governments and Private Sector (generators) n Websites: n n n n http: //www. p 2 pays. org/localgov/ http: //www. p 2 pays. org/Banned. Materials/ABCcontainer/ http: //www. p 2 pays. org/Banned. Materials/Oil. Filters/ http: //www. p 2 pays. org/Banned. Materials/Wooden. Pallets/ http: //www. ncfisheries. net/shellfish/recycle 1. htm http: //www. allplasticbottles. org/ Don’t forget grant opportunities!

Some key aspects of H 1465 n No requirement for local governments to start Some key aspects of H 1465 n No requirement for local governments to start recycling programs for materials Escape clause: A county or city may petition n Pallets not banned from C&D landfills n the Department for a waiver from the prohibition on disposal of a material described in subdivisions (9), (10), (11) and (12) of subsection (f) of this section in a landfill based on a showing that prohibiting the disposal of the material would constitute an economic hardship. “

Oyster Shells n U. S. Harvest 130, 000 tons n n Exact tonnage disposed Oyster Shells n U. S. Harvest 130, 000 tons n n Exact tonnage disposed in NC is unknown, but very small NC Harvest trends 1902 – 1. 8 million bushels n 1988 – 138, 000 bushels n Current – 40, 000 bushels n n Decrease primarily caused by disease

Why Ban Oyster Shells? n Shells have multiple uses Driveway or trail bedding n Why Ban Oyster Shells? n Shells have multiple uses Driveway or trail bedding n Decorative ground or whole mulch n #1 – Can be used to help grow more oysters n

Oyster to Oyster Recycling n n n Shells are used as “cultch” or bedding Oyster to Oyster Recycling n n n Shells are used as “cultch” or bedding to create reefs Cultch from oyster shells is a preferred substrate for new oysters Oyster reefs also attract other marine organisms Oysters are an economic resource n Building reefs helps support/expand the fishery They are also an environmental resource n Filter feeders

Division of Marine Fisheries n n n Plants about 250, 000 bushels of cultch Division of Marine Fisheries n n n Plants about 250, 000 bushels of cultch per year. Operates an oyster shell recycling program using drop-off sites and stock piles. Sites are listed in 11 eastern counties n n www. ncfisheries. net Some located at county or private solid waste facilities

DMF Recycling Program Collect from drop-off sites in 11 eastern counties n Shells are DMF Recycling Program Collect from drop-off sites in 11 eastern counties n Shells are moved to stockpiles n Most recycling occurs in winter n System is at capacity n Need volunteers and consolidation points n

DMF Fisheries Contact n Craig Hardy North Carolina Oyster Shell Recycling Program P. O. DMF Fisheries Contact n Craig Hardy North Carolina Oyster Shell Recycling Program P. O. Box 769 Morehead City, NC 28557 800 -682 -2632 or 252 -726 -7021 craig. [email protected] net

Oil Filter Ban n NC Oil Filter Generation n n Filter recycling rate 30 Oil Filter Ban n NC Oil Filter Generation n n Filter recycling rate 30 % n n 14. 3 million filters 7, 150 tons (at 1 lb. Per filter) 2 to 8 ounces of oil in each filter 4, 290, 000 filters Disposal n n 10, 000 filters Oil entering MSW facilities 156, 000 to 625, 000 gallons

Recycling Oil Filters n Straightforward Process n Infrastructure is in place • Oil collection Recycling Oil Filters n Straightforward Process n Infrastructure is in place • Oil collection contractor • Filter contractor n n Collection is similar to other special wastes Filter recycling is a cost market 17 local government already have programs Local govt not required to serve private sector

Oil Filter Recycling (cont) n Process similar for public and private sector 55 -gallon Oil Filter Recycling (cont) n Process similar for public and private sector 55 -gallon collection barrels n Barrels hold 250 to 400 filters n Collection cost - $40 to $85 per barrel n Avg. program recovers 1 filter for every 2 to 3 gallons of oil recovered from residential sources n

Oil Filter Recycling Containers Oil Filter Recycling Containers

Private Sector Recycling n n n Many garages or “lube shops” already recovery filters Private Sector Recycling n n n Many garages or “lube shops” already recovery filters or collect filters separate from regular waste Auto part stores may add filter programs to augment oil, LAB and other recycling programs Collection process and markets basically the same as for government programs

Wooden Pallets – Reasons for the Ban n n n As much as 250, Wooden Pallets – Reasons for the Ban n n n As much as 250, 000 to 300, 000 tons disposed each year Over 600, 000 tons already recycled annually. Large number of pallet recyclers in state, employing over 1, 000 people. Unused capacity in pallet recycling industry. Many uses wooden pallets – reuse, recycling, mulch, fuel, value-added products. Alternative management techniques and products available to generators.

Wooden Pallets – Options for Local Governments Passive Technical Assistance n Active Technical Assistance Wooden Pallets – Options for Local Governments Passive Technical Assistance n Active Technical Assistance n Pallet Recycling Program n Combinations of all three n

Wooden Pallets – Local Govt Recycling Option n Assess incoming stream of pallets. Evaluate Wooden Pallets – Local Govt Recycling Option n Assess incoming stream of pallets. Evaluate your current services, resources, and infrastructure. Determine best potential markets/uses of wood pallets: n n n Investigate collaboration with pallet recycler. Grind for mulch and compost (with or separate from yard wastes) – in-house or contract grinder? Use as boiler fuel or landfill cover. Set up collection/drop-off program according to needs/markets. Consider differential fees to encourage separation.

Wooden Pallets – Local Case Study Examples n Duplin County n n n began Wooden Pallets – Local Case Study Examples n Duplin County n n n began collection in 2005 usingle 40 yard container Materials taken to Parker Bark for manufacturing colorized mulch Macon County n n Recycling pallets since 1998, using differential tipping fees to encourage separation Pallets ground with yard waste for mulch but boiler fuel market pending.

Local Government Collections Catawba County Duplin County Pitt County Local Government Collections Catawba County Duplin County Pitt County

Wooden Pallets – Options for Private Generators n All generators should start with good Wooden Pallets – Options for Private Generators n All generators should start with good information: n n n What kind of pallets are being received/used How much of each kind Who are the sources Full costs of pallet handling and discarding Generators can then assess best options.

Options for Private Generators n Source Reduction: n n Take-backs by suppliers or eliminating Options for Private Generators n Source Reduction: n n Take-backs by suppliers or eliminating pallet receipts Switching to alternatives: Slip sheets, reusable containers, totes, rolling carts, etc. Use of alternative material pallets (e. g. , plastic or corrugated) Reuse/Recycling n n Use one of the many NC recycling companies Use third party pallet management companies Exchanges, giveaways, also possible Use local government program

Other Key Points for Private Pallet Generators Standardization and use of GMA pallets will Other Key Points for Private Pallet Generators Standardization and use of GMA pallets will help reusability and recyclability n Important to take advantage or cost avoidance, including: n Reduced waste container size n Changes in hauling container type n Reduced hauling schedule n

Chep 48 x 40 Pallet Rackable 40 X 48 Plastic Pallet Nestable 40 x Chep 48 x 40 Pallet Rackable 40 X 48 Plastic Pallet Nestable 40 x 48 plastic pallet Corrugated pallet Use of Slip Sheets Presswood pallet

Plastic bottles n H 1465 bans disposal of: Recyclable rigid plastic containers that are Plastic bottles n H 1465 bans disposal of: Recyclable rigid plastic containers that are required to be labeled as provided in subsection (e) of this section, that have a neck smaller than the body of the container, and that accept a screw top, snap cap, or other closure. The prohibition on disposal of recyclable rigid plastic containers in landfills does not apply to rigid plastic containers that are intended for use in the sale or distribution of motor oil.

Plastic bottles in local programs n n n Ban is an opportunity to evaluate Plastic bottles in local programs n n n Ban is an opportunity to evaluate plastic bottle collection efforts: n What does your program collect (soda bottles and milk jugs, 1’s and 2’s, all bottles)? n How does your program collect bottles – separation versus commingling, and from whom? n How is the public educated about plastic bottles? Markets for PET and HDPE are EXCELLENT! Many of the nation’s leading processors and largest recyclers are in the Carolinas.

Why Consider All Plastic Bottles? Because 96 % of all plastic bottles are PET Why Consider All Plastic Bottles? Because 96 % of all plastic bottles are PET and HDPE!

Markets for Plastic Bottles PET & HDPE Baled Bottles Pricing • PET • HDPE Markets for Plastic Bottles PET & HDPE Baled Bottles Pricing • PET • HDPE Natural - $780 -820 per ton • (picked up) - $260 -320 per ton HDPE Pigment - $580 -640 per ton Source: www. Waste. News. com/smp – March 16, 2006

Plastic bottles (cont’d) n DPPEA Recommendation: Modernize your program by going to “all 1’s Plastic bottles (cont’d) n DPPEA Recommendation: Modernize your program by going to “all 1’s and 2’s” or “all bottles. ” n n Simplifies education and public understanding Increases diversion and capture rates Fits well with commingling – single or dual stream Downsides are manageable n n Increase of collected materials and less contamination will outweigh out-throws Less revenue will be balanced by greater collection efficiency and higher volumes.

Plastic bottles, cont’d n Help available: n n DPPEA technical assistance and grants. Peer Plastic bottles, cont’d n Help available: n n DPPEA technical assistance and grants. Peer communities who have implemented all bottles – e. g. , Orange, Iredell, and Perquimans/Chowan/Gates counties. Markets and MRFs should support program changes. American Plastics Council is a good source of information and assistance: allplasticbottles. org

APC/Resource Recycling Survey Results Recommend “All Plastic Bottles” to their Peers? n Over 75% APC/Resource Recycling Survey Results Recommend “All Plastic Bottles” to their Peers? n Over 75% would switch to “all bottles” again n Over 80% would recommend “all bottles” to peers n Peer list available on www. allplasticbottles. org Source: Resource Recycling, January 2003

For More Information American Plastics Council www. plastics. org www. plasticsresource. com www. allplasticbottles. For More Information American Plastics Council www. plastics. org www. plasticsresource. com www. allplasticbottles. org

ABC Permit Recycling n HB 1518 (SL 2005 -348) n Requires certain ABC permit ABC Permit Recycling n HB 1518 (SL 2005 -348) n Requires certain ABC permit holders to recycle beverage containers • On-site malt beverage • On-site fortified and unfortified wine • Mixed beverage Also bans disposal of beverage containers from these establishments n Effective January 1, 2008 n

Scope of HB 1518 n No specific requirements for local gov’t n n n Scope of HB 1518 n No specific requirements for local gov’t n n n Enforcement Services More than 8, 000 affected permit holders Governed by 150+ local ABC boards Most establishments in urban areas Searchable database – www. ncabc. com

Local Government Options Approach n Do Nothing (“Free Market”) n Provide technical assistance n Local Government Options Approach n Do Nothing (“Free Market”) n Provide technical assistance n Passive Collection n Active Collection Players n Permit Holders (business owners & property managers) n Service Providers (recycling collection companies) n Local ABC Board of ABC Commission

Do Nothing scenario n n n Let businesses contract on their own with private Do Nothing scenario n n n Let businesses contract on their own with private haulers Examples ‘Downtown’ - Asheville/Curbside Management - Fayetteville/Bryant’s Recycling - Durham/Shimar & Orange Brightleaf Square, recycling since 1995

Technical Assistance route Your burden n Help identify and choose service providers n Conduct Technical Assistance route Your burden n Help identify and choose service providers n Conduct waste assessments n Assist with designing the collection program Resources n Markets Directory (DMRM) n DPPEA Guide for Permit Holders + fact sheets Tactics n Mailing information, resources, newsletters n Post information online n Organize business recycling seminars

Technical Assistance example n n n Angus Barn, recycling since 1990 Contacted Wake County Technical Assistance example n n n Angus Barn, recycling since 1990 Contacted Wake County Recycling and Solid Waste Department Contacted DPPEA Conducted waste assessment Added composting Streamlined waste reduction program Glass bottles, aluminum cans, grease and meat by -products, edible foods, food scraps, corrugated containers, office paper, high density polyethylene buckets, magazines

Passive Collection AKA Drop-Off System Access Options Continue to Allow Access, Promote, or Restrict Passive Collection AKA Drop-Off System Access Options Continue to Allow Access, Promote, or Restrict Logistics n Feasible for rural areas with sparse restaurant and bar establishments n May be effective if site is added specifically for businesses in highly concentrated area of establishments n Likely only be utilized by smaller establishments n Potential to significantly increase containers at drop-off sites, particularly glass

Active Collection n n n Incorporate into a county run collection program OR add Active Collection n n n Incorporate into a county run collection program OR add onto service contract agreement you already have Provide roll carts or dumpster service Tax subsidized or fee based service Voluntary or Required? Benefits: efficient and effective means to contract business recycling, high participation rates, more reasonable cost for businesses Challenges: costly for county, requires more labor

Ahead of the Curve Active Collection Orange County n 100 businesses since 1992 n Ahead of the Curve Active Collection Orange County n 100 businesses since 1992 n Separate materials in roll carts by glass (source separated brown, green, clear), cans, plastic, and newspaper n 2005 recycled 646 tons; estimated paper 100 tons, 548 cans and bottles, 16 tons plastics Pasquotank County n Commercial/business recycling since 1995 n 96 gall and 105 gallon roll out carts n Dual stream – fiber and containers n Fully funded through tax base

Pasquotank County Commercial Recycling Program Pasquotank County Commercial Recycling Program

Common Barriers n n n n Glass breakage Source separation vs commingled Space constrictions Common Barriers n n n n Glass breakage Source separation vs commingled Space constrictions behind the bar and by the dumpster Maneuvering trucks in tight downtown spaces Cost Viable markets Enforcement

Conclusion n n Trying to avoid “I DON’T KNOW” Focus on strengths of your Conclusion n n Trying to avoid “I DON’T KNOW” Focus on strengths of your community - Strong private sector recycling infrastructure = focus on haulers providing service - Have a local government processing facility? Consider providing direct service n Recycling markets are improving across the state – Don’t miss out on opportunities!

What Businesses Are Affected By The New Legislation? Certain Businesses That Hold Alcohol Beverage What Businesses Are Affected By The New Legislation? Certain Businesses That Hold Alcohol Beverage Control Permits Must Separate, Store All Recyclable Beverage Containers. Only holders of on-premises malt beverage, on-premises unfortified wine, on-premises fortified wine and mixed beverages permits are affected by the bill. Recycling is only required for those containers that are sold at retail for on-premises consumption.

Which Containers Will You Be Required To Recycle? • Glass Beverage Bottles • Aluminum Which Containers Will You Be Required To Recycle? • Glass Beverage Bottles • Aluminum Cans • Plastic Bottles

Step 1. Locate A Market For The Containers Generated By Your Establishment Step 1. Locate A Market For The Containers Generated By Your Establishment

Markets May Include: • Some Waste Haulers • Recycling Services Companies • Some Local Markets May Include: • Some Waste Haulers • Recycling Services Companies • Some Local Governments

Finding The Right Market: • Check With Your Waste Hauler • Call A Recycling Finding The Right Market: • Check With Your Waste Hauler • Call A Recycling Service • Check With Your Local Government

Checking Your Resources You Can Find Local Government Contacts At This Website: http: //www. Checking Your Resources You Can Find Local Government Contacts At This Website: http: //www. p 2 pays. org/localgov/PAYT/ncwaste. asp You Can Find Recycling Services At This Website: http: //www. p 2 pays/DMRM/start. aspx

Step 2. Arranging For Handling • Self Haul? • Inside Collection? • Outside Collection? Step 2. Arranging For Handling • Self Haul? • Inside Collection? • Outside Collection? • Which Contractor? • Which Containers?

Container Vendors Toter, Inc. 800 -772 -0071 Busch Systems 800 -565 -9931 Recycling Products Container Vendors Toter, Inc. 800 -772 -0071 Busch Systems 800 -565 -9931 Recycling Products 800 -875 -1735 Mid-Point Intl 888 -646 -4246 Rubbermaid 800 -347 -9800 Rehrig Pacific 800 -421 -6244 Otto 800 -227 -5885 Zarn 501 -951 -2045 Amick Equipment 800 -922 -3795 Ultra-Cart 800 -899 -7856 IPL Plastics 800 -818 -1318

Step 3. Employee Training Should Include: • Top-Down Commitment • Designating Leaders • Designating Step 3. Employee Training Should Include: • Top-Down Commitment • Designating Leaders • Designating A Recycling Team • Conducting Basic Training • Providing Written Information and Good Signage • Rewarding Good Behavior!

Program Cost Evaluation Some Costs Include: • Purchase or rental of internal or external Program Cost Evaluation Some Costs Include: • Purchase or rental of internal or external containers • Ongoing collection charges by haulers or recycling companies • Costs of transporting materials to a local drop-off center • Signage and other informational materials

Recycling Can Be Cost Effective! • In many instances, businesses that recycle can reduce Recycling Can Be Cost Effective! • In many instances, businesses that recycle can reduce the number of waste containers they buy or rent and they can reduce the number of waste container “pulls” required, thus saving money.

Key Strategies • Make a thorough search for recycling services. • Ask your hauler Key Strategies • Make a thorough search for recycling services. • Ask your hauler or recycling company to provide containers as part of their service to avoid having to purchase them. • Use opportunities to commingle materials (as allowed by your service provider or local drop-off) to decrease the number of bins you will need. • Explore the idea of sharing revenues from the sale of recyclables by your service provider. • You may be able to save money by recycling more materials.