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Background on Global Warming • GHHs responsible for Global Warming: Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, Background on Global Warming • GHHs responsible for Global Warming: Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, Methane, and CFCs. They come from things such as car, refrigerators, landfills, fertilizer and factories. • CO 2 is responsible for the most global warming. • Deforestation→ less trees to soak up more CO 2. • Since 1990, CO 2 emission equivalents have increase by more than 20%. • Oceans more acidic and warmer →cant absorb CO 2 →CO 2 stays in the atmosphere. • Greenhouse Effect Source 1 Source 2

Looking to the Future study the effects of • Scientists global warming by looking Looking to the Future study the effects of • Scientists global warming by looking at past heating cycles • Last heat peak occurred during Pliocene period • Mass extinctions (seen in fossils) • Temperatures could exceed living conditions • CO 2 and CH 4 prevent heat from leaving the Earth • Crop yields will decrease as the global population in increasing • Drinking water shortages, flooding picture this!

Advantages of Global Warming • Less energy required to heat colder regions of the Advantages of Global Warming • Less energy required to heat colder regions of the earth • Increased plant growth and milder climate in frozen areas • Seas that were formerly impassable due to floating ice now usable as shipping routes • Longer growing season equals greater agricultural production in some regions • Beaches move closer to us Mr. Pipik

Sources • http: //www. sciencedaily. com/releases/2010/05/100504155413. htm • http: //www. global-warming-forecasts. com/2090 -climate-change-globalwarming-2090. php Sources • http: //www. sciencedaily. com/releases/2010/05/100504155413. htm • http: //www. global-warming-forecasts. com/2090 -climate-change-globalwarming-2090. php • http: //www. bu. edu/today/2011/using-the-past-to-predict-globalwarming%E 2%80%99 s-future/

Carbon Offsets: The Solution to World Problems Gavin Morrow Carbon Offset Film Taylor Hogan Carbon Offsets: The Solution to World Problems Gavin Morrow Carbon Offset Film Taylor Hogan Rachel Baum Leah Samson

Definition: • The World Resources Institute define a carbon offset as “a unit of Definition: • The World Resources Institute define a carbon offset as “a unit of carbon dioxideequivalent that is reduced or avoided to compensate for emissions occurring elsewhere. • Group Three’s official definition is: Doing something to equalize the amount of carbon emissions by using a type of renewable energy. • The purpose of this is to offset the carbon emissions by forcing bigger companies to either buy carbon credits or make their

PRO’s of Cap and Trade • Projected to decrease carbon emissions by 80% by PRO’s of Cap and Trade • Projected to decrease carbon emissions by 80% by 2050 • Gives companies a reason to want to “go green” and decrease their emissions with economic incentives • Creates revenues for the government that can be spent on consumer energy programs • More liberal or “democratic” way of attempting to control Carbon emissions then setting limits that must be obeyed • States that do not produce mass amounts of carbon dioxide will benefit much more than states that who do not, causing states with high emission rates to seriously look at the ways in which they produce energy

Pros • Reduces overall carbon output by promoting clean energy sources. • Makes company’s Pros • Reduces overall carbon output by promoting clean energy sources. • Makes company’s either find better energy sources or pay a fine for releasing too much carbon dioxide. • Monetary incentives to develop greener manufacturing technologies. • The funds gained by the purchase of the carbon credits go toward research.

Leah’s Con Slide • Big companies can purchase carbon credits to get around • Leah’s Con Slide • Big companies can purchase carbon credits to get around • Buying carbon credits does nothing to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide already released into the atmosphere. • According to BBC, only about 10% of the money goes to funding new green energy projects. • Some people believe offsetting can be utilized as a justification to have an excessively carbon intensive lifestyle.

Into the Future • In 2009, 8. 2 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide Into the Future • In 2009, 8. 2 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide were accounted for through the system. • Carbon offsets is now a $144 billion dollar market • Offsetting carbon emissions is a transition into green energy; we are beginning to decrease our emissions, and are striving toward a zero carbon infrastructure.

Song By: Tyler Becker Craig Manelius John Louie Cosmiano Jane Carletta Song By: Tyler Becker Craig Manelius John Louie Cosmiano Jane Carletta

RGGI • It is the first market-based regulatory program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions RGGI • It is the first market-based regulatory program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States • It is a joint effort between various states in the Northeast United States • Those include- CT, DE, MD, MA, NH, NY, RI, and VT • They have and will cap and reduce CO 2 emissions in the power sector • First U. S. multi-state gas cap and trade program • The cap began in 2009 • The cap will remain at the same level through 2014 • Then it will be lowered each year thereafter, dropping to ten percent below the 2009 level by 2018

History of RGGI • In 2003, the governor of NY sent a letter to History of RGGI • In 2003, the governor of NY sent a letter to the governors of the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic seeking “to develop a strategy that will help lead the nation in the effort to fight global climate change. • In August 2005, the RGGI staff proposed a plan about emission reduction program that would start in 2009 and lead to a stabilization of emissions at current levels by 2015. • By December 20 2005, seven Northeastern US states were involved in the new born RGGI system. Massachusetts and Rhode Island dropped out at the last second • Bu January 18 2007, Massachusetts rejoined, and Rhode Island rejoined January 30 2007. • The latest state that signed on was New Jersey in May 26 2011

CO 2 Allowance Auction • Allowance of CO 2 production is given through a CO 2 Allowance Auction • Allowance of CO 2 production is given through a CO 2 Auction. These are held 4 times a year, and the money gathered is distributed to various green companies. The total allowance is reduced yearly so the cooperating states gradually reduce emissions. • This Auction is mostly for power plants. They bid on CO 2 allowances per ton of Carbon Dioxide. The price has dropped over the years from $3. 07 per ton in 2008 to $2. 07 per ton for the 2012 Auction. • In 2008 12, 565, 387 allowances were sold for $3. 07 per ton of CO 2. This brought in $38, 575, 738 dollars.

Pros and Cons Pros • • • RGGI creates jobs Decreases dependence on fossil Pros and Cons Pros • • • RGGI creates jobs Decreases dependence on fossil fuel Starts global dialogue about energy efficiency Helps states involved to get involved in long term projects instead of throwing money everywhere Grants and incentives given to consumers who become energy efficient Auction revenue given to lowincome citizens to help with heating Cons • • No effect outside of region Increased taxes Electric rates increase Scientists still debating whether or not controlling CO 2 emissions is answer to global warming: is it worth investing in something we are not sure of?

KYOTO PROTOCOL By Matt Shinaman Yosef Boutakov Alana Basso Levi Lorenzo KYOTO PROTOCOL By Matt Shinaman Yosef Boutakov Alana Basso Levi Lorenzo

Backround • • • The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement setting targets for Backround • • • The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement setting targets for industrialized countries to cut their greenhouse gas emissions. These gases are considered at least partly responsible for global warming - the rise in global temperature which may have catastrophic consequences for life on Earth. The protocol was agreed in 1997, based on principles set out in a framework convention signed in 1992. • • TARGETED GASES Carbon dioxide (CO 2) Methane (CH 4) Hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs) • Per fluorocarbons (PFCs) • Sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6)

v. The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework v. The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. v. The Protocol sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The Kyoto protocol commits these 37 countries to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions instead of encouraging them to do so like at the convention. v. The protocol is also more effective than the convention because of its mechanisms for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. v. Emission trading (the carbon market), clean development mechanism, and joint implementation help stimulate green investment and help participating countries meet their emission targets in a more cost effective way.

Kyoto Target Status Kyoto Target Status

Cons v. The Kyoto Protocol limits the production of goods made by nations, but Cons v. The Kyoto Protocol limits the production of goods made by nations, but there is an “exception” for developing third world nations who have a much more favorable production limit. v. Third World nations FAR exceed the carbon emissions limit set by Kyoto. v. Kyoto recognizes Eucalyptus plantations as carbon sinks but does not recognize rain forests as one, so therefore nations are allowed to destroy rain forests legally for their own purposes. v. Kyoto does not keep in mind the financial capabilities of nations which means their goals are way too far fetched. v. The two worlds biggest carbon emitters China and the United States are not agreed into this agreement.

Summary • According to the United Nations website, the Koyoto Protocol is “…an international Summary • According to the United Nations website, the Koyoto Protocol is “…an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These amount to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008 -2012. ”

Sources • http: //maps. grida. no/go/graphic/kyoto_pro tocol_2002_target_status • http: //unfccc. int/kyoto_protocol/items/283 0. php • Sources • http: //maps. grida. no/go/graphic/kyoto_pro tocol_2002_target_status • http: //unfccc. int/kyoto_protocol/items/283 0. php • http: //www. kyotoprotocol. com/