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New York and the American Revolution New York and the American Revolution

Vocabulary Vocabulary

Parliament n Britain's law making assembly Parliament n Britain's law making assembly

tax n Money a government collects from its people tax n Money a government collects from its people

tariff n Tax on goods shipped into a country tariff n Tax on goods shipped into a country

representative n Someone chosen to represent the people in an assembly, congress, parliament, or representative n Someone chosen to represent the people in an assembly, congress, parliament, or other lawmaking group

Stamp Act n A tax that British Parliament put on the people of the Stamp Act n A tax that British Parliament put on the people of the colonies – any official papers and newspapers sold in the 13 colonies had to have special stamps on them, to get the paper stamped colonists had to pay a tax

protest n To argue or make a statement against something protest n To argue or make a statement against something

boycott n Refusing to buy goods as a form of protest. boycott n Refusing to buy goods as a form of protest.

repeal n To take back a law or tax repeal n To take back a law or tax

Boston Tea Party n When a British ship arrived in Boston a group of Boston Tea Party n When a British ship arrived in Boston a group of Patriots (Sons of Liberty) dressed as Native Americans boarded the ship, broke open the chest of tea and dumped the tea into the Boston Harbor. This was a protest to the tea tax

Boston Tea Party Boston Tea Party

French and Indian War n A war the British fought against France and some French and Indian War n A war the British fought against France and some Native Americans. Some colonists fought along side of the British

Whose land? n n n After French and Indian War many colonists wanted to Whose land? n n n After French and Indian War many colonists wanted to move onto land that once belonged to France Native Americans didn’t want this Britain didn’t want to go to war with the Native Americans Britain passed a law saying colonists couldn’t move onto lands in the west Colonists were angry over this law

“No taxation without representation” French and Indian War was expensive n British Parliament passed “No taxation without representation” French and Indian War was expensive n British Parliament passed the Stamp Act which said colonists had to pay a tax on all official papers and newspapers. n

“No taxation without representation” Colonists were used to making their own laws. Colonists were “No taxation without representation” Colonists were used to making their own laws. Colonists were angry over the tax. Tax had been passed in Britain by Parliament. The colonists didn’t have a representative in Parliament, so they didn’t think it was fair for Parliament to tax them

Boycotts n n The colonists protested against the Stamp Tax. They refused to buy Boycotts n n The colonists protested against the Stamp Tax. They refused to buy paper goods that required the tax (boycott) They had marches and even burned stamps Eventually the Stamp Tax was repealed

No taxation without representation No taxation without representation

New taxes - tariffs n n Even though Britain took back the Stamp tax New taxes - tariffs n n Even though Britain took back the Stamp tax they imposed new taxes These taxes were on goods sent to the colonies by England (tariffs) Taxes were on clothing, paper, cloth, glass and tea Many colonists started refusing to buy these British goods (boycott)

Boston Tea Party n n n In 1773 a ship carrying tea from England Boston Tea Party n n n In 1773 a ship carrying tea from England was in Boston Harbor A group of patriots called the Sons of Liberty rowed out to the ship at night, dressed as Native Americans They opened chest of tea and dumped it into the Boston Harbor in protest of the tea tax

Boston Tea Party Boston Tea Party

Liberty n Freedom Liberty n Freedom

freedom n State of being free freedom n State of being free

independence n Politically free – self governing independence n Politically free – self governing

American Revolution n War in which the colonies fought for freedom Great Britain American Revolution n War in which the colonies fought for freedom Great Britain

Revolution n Abrupt overthrow of a government Revolution n Abrupt overthrow of a government

Patriots n Colonists who supported freedom from Britain in the American Revolution Patriots n Colonists who supported freedom from Britain in the American Revolution

Sons of Liberty n A secret group of colonists started by Samuel Adams to Sons of Liberty n A secret group of colonists started by Samuel Adams to protest unfair laws and taxes made by Britain to the colonies. Sons of Liberty were Patriots.

Loyalists n Colonists who supported the King and Great Britain during the American Revolution Loyalists n Colonists who supported the King and Great Britain during the American Revolution

neutral n Not taking sides in an argument or war neutral n Not taking sides in an argument or war

militia n A volunteer army made up of local men who trained and did militia n A volunteer army made up of local men who trained and did drills on a regular basis.

minutemen n n Name given to farmers and villagers who were ready to fight minutemen n n Name given to farmers and villagers who were ready to fight at a moments notice, often they would join the militias to help fight. (ready to fight in minutes)

Continental Congress n An official meeting of leaders from the 13 colonies. This group Continental Congress n An official meeting of leaders from the 13 colonies. This group made very important decisions

Declaration on Independence n A document explaining why the colonists wanted freedom from British Declaration on Independence n A document explaining why the colonists wanted freedom from British rule, written by Thomas Jefferson.

Continental Army n Army formed by the Continental Congress, made up of soldiers from Continental Army n Army formed by the Continental Congress, made up of soldiers from all colonies, led by George Washington.

traitor n A person who works against their country traitor n A person who works against their country

“The British are coming!” n n Britain sent more soldiers to the colonies Colonists “The British are coming!” n n Britain sent more soldiers to the colonies Colonists did not want to give in, many joined volunteer armies called militias, these soldiers were known as minutemen

http: //www. earlyamerica. com/paul_revere. htm http: //www. earlyamerica. com/paul_revere. htm

“Shot heard ‘round the world” n n n Colonists had weapons stored in a “Shot heard ‘round the world” n n n Colonists had weapons stored in a building in Concord, Massachusetts 700 British soldiers marched out of Boston toward Concord Paul Revere’s job was to ride to warn the minutemen that the British were coming! The first battles of the war took place in Lexington and Concord http: //www. earlyamerica. com/shot_heard. ht m

Fort Ticonderoga – New York n n Next battle took place in our state Fort Ticonderoga – New York n n Next battle took place in our state of New York Patriots decided to attack a British fort on Lake Champlain. Soldiers (called Green Mountain Boys) and rowed across the Lake and surprised the British. Fort was captured without fighting Many weapons were captured that would help in later battles

Fort Ticonderoga Fort Ticonderoga

Continental Congress n n Leaders from 13 colonies got together to make some important Continental Congress n n Leaders from 13 colonies got together to make some important decisions for the colonies (Continental Congress) Congress decided to form the Continental Army – official army of the colonies- George Washington chosen to lead this army.

Continental Congress *Most important decision the congress made was that the 13 colonies should Continental Congress *Most important decision the congress made was that the 13 colonies should be a free or independent country no long under British rule. n Thomas Jefferson was chosen to write statement or document that explained why the colonies wanted freedom Declaration of Independence n

the war n n Britain did not accept the declaration and they fought to the war n n Britain did not accept the declaration and they fought to keep the colonies under their control British army wanted to capture New York City and New York

New York’s importance n n British Army wanted New York under their control New New York’s importance n n British Army wanted New York under their control New York had New York City and New York Harbor New York had many important waterways: Hudson River, St. Lawrence River, Mohawk River, Great Lakes and Lake Champlain New York was also centrally located among the other colonies so capturing New York could “cut off” the colonies from each other

Battles in New York n n n Washington’s Army lost major battles in Long Battles in New York n n n Washington’s Army lost major battles in Long Island Harlem Heights (both part of today’s New York City) This gave British troops control over New York City Washington pulled his army out of NYC and many loyalists from all over the colonies moved to New York City where they felt safe. British Army also defeated Washington in White Plains causing the army out of NY

Turing Point of the war n n n British had a plan to take Turing Point of the war n n n British had a plan to take over New York entirely. Three different armies would march along New York waterways to meet at Albany, taking over each area as they marched One army would head south from Canada along the St. Lawrence River Another would march east along the Mohawk River and a third march North along the Hudson from NYC

Battle of Saratoga § § – NY American army decided to try and stop Battle of Saratoga § § – NY American army decided to try and stop the British near Saratoga Americans used a new technique in fighting – instead of fighting out in the open, or from the fort, they hid in the woods. This surprise style of fighting worked Eventually – after two separate battles the British surrendered to the Americas

Why a turning point? n n n Winning in Saratoga stopped the British from Why a turning point? n n n Winning in Saratoga stopped the British from taking over New York which was key to America winning. (because of its waterways and location to the other colonies) Winning also showed France that we were able to hold our own with the British and France decide to help us. France still considered Britain an enemy – so they sent us money, ships, and soldiers.

West Point – New York n n Benedict Arnold – general in charge of West Point – New York n n Benedict Arnold – general in charge of West Point Made a deal with the British – for money he would let the British take over the fort West Point was saved and Arnold was caught – known as a traitor Today when someone is know to be traitor they may be called a “Benedict Arnold”

Battle of Yorktown - Virginia n n Last major battle of the war French Battle of Yorktown - Virginia n n Last major battle of the war French ships and soldiers helped Washington’s army surround the British at Yorktown British were force to surrender Almost 2 years later the British and the American leaders signed a peace agreement that stated the United States of America was a free and independent country