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Network Layer: Routing & Forwarding Instructor: Anirban Mahanti Office: ICT 745 Email: mahanti@cpsc. ucalgary. Network Layer: Routing & Forwarding Instructor: Anirban Mahanti Office: ICT 745 Email: [email protected] ucalgary. ca Class Location: ICT 121 Lectures: MWF 12: 00 – 12: 50 hours Notes derived from “Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach Featuring the Internet”, 2005, 3 rd edition, Jim Kurose, Keith Ross, Addison-Wesley. Slides are adapted from the companion web site of the book, as modified by Anirban Mahanti (and Carey Williamson). Forwarding 1

Key Network-Layer Functions r forwarding: move packets from router’s input to appropriate router output Key Network-Layer Functions r forwarding: move packets from router’s input to appropriate router output r routing: determine the path taken by packets as they flow from a sender to a receiver m Routing algorithms – run at routers to determine m Routers have a forwarding table “paths”; • Destination address-based in Datagram networks • Virtual circuit number-based in VC Networks Forwarding 2

Interplay between routing and forwarding routing algorithm local forwarding table header value output link Interplay between routing and forwarding routing algorithm local forwarding table header value output link 0100 0101 0111 1001 3 2 2 1 value in arriving packet’s header 0111 1 3 2 Forwarding 3

VC Networks: Connection setup r 3 rd important function in some network architectures: m VC Networks: Connection setup r 3 rd important function in some network architectures: m ATM, frame relay, X. 25 r Before datagrams flow, two hosts and intervening routers establish virtual connection m Routers get involved r Network and transport layer cnctn service: m Network: between two hosts m Transport: between two processes Forwarding 4

Network service model Q: What service model for “channel” transporting datagrams from sender to Network service model Q: What service model for “channel” transporting datagrams from sender to rcvr? Example services for individual datagrams: r guaranteed delivery r Guaranteed delivery with less than 40 msec delay Example services for a flow of datagrams: r In-order datagram delivery r Guaranteed minimum bandwidth to flow r Restrictions on changes in interpacket spacing Forwarding 5

Network layer service models: Network Architecture Internet Service Model Guarantees ? Congestion Bandwidth Loss Network layer service models: Network Architecture Internet Service Model Guarantees ? Congestion Bandwidth Loss Order Timing feedback best effort none ATM CBR ATM VBR ATM ABR ATM UBR constant rate guaranteed minimum none no no no yes yes yes no no (inferred via loss) no congestion yes no no Forwarding 6

Network layer connection and connection-less service r Datagram network provides network-layer connectionless service r Network layer connection and connection-less service r Datagram network provides network-layer connectionless service r VC network provides network-layer connection service r Analogous to the transport-layer services, but: m Service: host-to-host m No choice: network provides one or the other m Implementation: in the core Forwarding 7

Virtual circuits “source-to-dest path behaves much like telephone circuit” m m performance-wise network actions Virtual circuits “source-to-dest path behaves much like telephone circuit” m m performance-wise network actions along source-to-dest path r call setup, teardown for each call before data can flow r each packet carries VC identifier (not destination host address) r every router on source-dest path maintains “state” for each passing connection r link, router resources (bandwidth, buffers) may be allocated to VC Forwarding 8

VC implementation A VC consists of: 1. 2. 3. Path from source to destination VC implementation A VC consists of: 1. 2. 3. Path from source to destination VC numbers, one number for each link along path Entries in forwarding tables in routers along path r Packet belonging to VC carries a VC number. r VC number must be changed on each link. m New VC number comes from forwarding table Forwarding 9

Forwarding table VC number 22 12 1 Forwarding table in Northwest router: Incoming interface Forwarding table VC number 22 12 1 Forwarding table in Northwest router: Incoming interface 1 2 3 1 … 2 32 3 interface number Incoming VC # 12 63 7 97 … Outgoing interface 2 1 2 3 … Outgoing VC # 22 18 17 87 … Routers maintain connection state information! Forwarding 10

Virtual circuits: signaling protocols r used to setup, maintain teardown VC r used in Virtual circuits: signaling protocols r used to setup, maintain teardown VC r used in ATM, frame-relay, X. 25 r not used in today’s Internet application transport 5. Data flow begins network 4. Call connected data link 1. Initiate call physical 6. Receive data application 3. Accept call transport 2. incoming call network data link physical Forwarding 11

Datagram networks r no call setup at network layer r routers: no state about Datagram networks r no call setup at network layer r routers: no state about end-to-end connections m no network-level concept of “connection” r packets forwarded using destination host address m packets between same source-dest pair may take different paths application transport network data link 1. Send data physical application transport 2. Receive data network data link physical Forwarding 12

Datagram or VC network: why? Internet r data exchange among ATM r evolved from Datagram or VC network: why? Internet r data exchange among ATM r evolved from telephony computers r human conversation: m “elastic” service, no strict m strict timing, reliability timing requirements r “smart” end systems m need for guaranteed (computers) service m can adapt, perform r “dumb” end systems control, error recovery m telephones m simple inside network, m complexity inside complexity at “edge” network r many link types m different characteristics m uniform service difficult Forwarding 13

Inside a Router Forwarding 14 Inside a Router Forwarding 14

Router Architecture Overview Two key router functions: r run routing algorithms/protocol (RIP, OSPF, BGP) Router Architecture Overview Two key router functions: r run routing algorithms/protocol (RIP, OSPF, BGP) r forwarding datagrams from incoming to outgoing link Forwarding 15

Input Port Functions Physical layer: bit-level reception Data link layer: e. g. , Ethernet Input Port Functions Physical layer: bit-level reception Data link layer: e. g. , Ethernet Decentralized switching: r given datagram dest. , lookup output port using forwarding table in input port memory (caching of entries? ) r goal: complete input port processing at ‘line speed’ r queuing: if datagrams arrive faster than forwarding rate into switch fabric Forwarding 16

Three types of switching fabrics Forwarding 17 Three types of switching fabrics Forwarding 17

Switching Via Memory First generation routers: r traditional computers with switching under direct control Switching Via Memory First generation routers: r traditional computers with switching under direct control of CPU rpacket copied to system’s memory r speed limited by memory bandwidth (2 bus crossings per datagram) Input Port Memory Output Port System Bus Forwarding 18

Switching Via a Bus r datagram from input port memory to output port memory Switching Via a Bus r datagram from input port memory to output port memory via a shared bus r bus contention: switching speed limited by bus bandwidth r 1 Gbps bus, Cisco 1900: sufficient speed for access and enterprise routers (not regional or backbone) Forwarding 19

Switching Via An Interconnection Network r overcome bus bandwidth limitations r Banyan networks, other Switching Via An Interconnection Network r overcome bus bandwidth limitations r Banyan networks, other interconnection nets initially developed to connect processors in multiprocessor r Advanced design: fragmenting datagram into fixed length cells, switch cells through the fabric. r Cisco 12000: switches Gbps through the interconnection network Forwarding 20

Output Ports r Buffering required when datagrams arrive from fabric faster than the transmission Output Ports r Buffering required when datagrams arrive from fabric faster than the transmission rate m m Need Queue Management Policy (Drop-Tail, AQM) Also need Packet Scheduling Policy (FCFS, WFQ) Forwarding 21

Output port queueing r buffering when arrival rate via switch exceeds output line speed Output port queueing r buffering when arrival rate via switch exceeds output line speed r queueing (delay) and loss due to output port buffer overflow! Forwarding 22

Input Port Queuing? r Fabric slower than input ports combined -> queueing may occur Input Port Queuing? r Fabric slower than input ports combined -> queueing may occur at input queues r Head-of-the-Line (HOL) blocking: queued datagram at front of queue prevents others in queue from moving forward (even though o/p port is free for the other datagram) Forwarding 23

Next Topic r Routing Algorithms r Routing in the Internet r Readings: Chapter 4 Next Topic r Routing Algorithms r Routing in the Internet r Readings: Chapter 4 in the K&R book Forwarding 24