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Network & Internet Security Chapter 4 Network & Internet Security Chapter 4

Information Technology • Helps to produce, manipulate, store, communicate, and/or disseminate information • Consists Information Technology • Helps to produce, manipulate, store, communicate, and/or disseminate information • Consists of Computers + Communications • Most computers today have Internet access

LANS, MANS, and WANS • Local area network (LAN) - a network of computers LANS, MANS, and WANS • Local area network (LAN) - a network of computers and other devices that is confined to a relatively small space, such as one building or even one office. • Metropolitan area network (MAN) - a network that connects clients and servers in multiple buildings in a region. • Wide area network (WAN) - a network that connects two or more geographically distinct LANs

LAN (Short distance) LAN (Short distance)

MAN (Usually within a city) MAN (Usually within a city)

WAN (Large distance) Chicago Seattle Boston Washington San Diego Dallas WAN (Large distance) Chicago Seattle Boston Washington San Diego Dallas

From the Analog to the Digital Age • Tape recorders, voices, and musical instruments From the Analog to the Digital Age • Tape recorders, voices, and musical instruments are analog. • CDs are digital.

Going Digital • • Music CD’s Computers TVs Web TV Telephones Movies (DVD) Newspapers Going Digital • • Music CD’s Computers TVs Web TV Telephones Movies (DVD) Newspapers

Digital Television • Clearer picture • Supports HDTV Digital Television • Clearer picture • Supports HDTV

HDTV HDTV

Forms of Connectivity • • • Videoconferencing Virtual Private Networks Telecommuting & virtual offices Forms of Connectivity • • • Videoconferencing Virtual Private Networks Telecommuting & virtual offices Home networks (Wi. Fi) Cell Phones Bluetooth Plymouth State College

Videoconferencing Plymouth State College Videoconferencing Plymouth State College

VPNs • Virtual Private Networks – Private networks that use a public network, usually VPNs • Virtual Private Networks – Private networks that use a public network, usually the internet, to connect remote sites

VPN (Virtual Private Network) Node node Internet node Node VPN (Virtual Private Network) Node node Internet node Node

Network Concerns and Protection • Hackers • Viruses • Snooping • Firewalls Network Concerns and Protection • Hackers • Viruses • Snooping • Firewalls

Cyberthreats, Hackers, & Safeguards • Problem: • Initially no security was built into the Cyberthreats, Hackers, & Safeguards • Problem: • Initially no security was built into the Internet. • The internet is used by some people who are not trustworthy. • All it takes is one computer on a LAN that has been compromised for all computers on it to be vulnerable.

Cybercrime • Crimes committed with or against computers and networks • Includes unauthorized access Cybercrime • Crimes committed with or against computers and networks • Includes unauthorized access or use • Hacking – Individual information – Business information – National security information Plymouth State University

Cyberthreats, Hackers, & Safeguards • Hackers – People who gain unauthorized access to computers Cyberthreats, Hackers, & Safeguards • Hackers – People who gain unauthorized access to computers or networks, often for fun or to see if they can (not good) • Crackers – Malicious hackers who break into computers for malicious purposes

Threats to Computers & Communications Systems • Worms ü A program that copies itself Threats to Computers & Communications Systems • Worms ü A program that copies itself repeatedly into a computer’s memory or onto a disk drive • Viruses ü A is a “deviant” program, stored on a computer hard drive, that can cause unexpected and undesirable effects. 11/2/00 Plymouth State University 19

Viruses & Worms • How they spread – – Via e-mail attachments By infected Viruses & Worms • How they spread – – Via e-mail attachments By infected floppies or CDs By clicking on infiltrated websites By downloading from infected files from websites – Through infiltrated Wi-Fi hotspots – From one infected PC on a LAN to another • What can you do about it? – Install anti-virus software and subscribe to the automatic anti-virus update service

Cyberthreats, Hackers, & Safeguards • Trojan Horses – Programs that pretend to be a Cyberthreats, Hackers, & Safeguards • Trojan Horses – Programs that pretend to be a useful program such as a free game or screensaver. – Carry viruses or malicious instructions that damage your computer or install a backdoor or spyware – Backdoors and spyware allow others to access your computer without your knowledge

Backdoor • Sometimes installed by a virus • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=ahc. Vp Backdoor • Sometimes installed by a virus • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=ahc. Vp 8 v. Iic. I Plymouth State University

Disgruntled Employees 11/2/00 Plymouth State University 23 Disgruntled Employees 11/2/00 Plymouth State University 23

Computer Criminals • Hackers • Crackers • Employees 11/2/00 Plymouth State University 24 Computer Criminals • Hackers • Crackers • Employees 11/2/00 Plymouth State University 24

Protecting Your Computer • Safeguards – Use antivirus software, and keep it current – Protecting Your Computer • Safeguards – Use antivirus software, and keep it current – Install a firewall to filter out undesirable traffic – Use robust passwords – • Minimum 8 characters with letters, numbers, characters • 4 cats is not a good password, but f 0 Ur. [email protected] Tz is – Install antispyware software – Encrypt financial and personal records – Back up your data, so if your PC is attacked and must be reformatted, you can restore your data

Protecting Your Computer • Encryption – The process of altering readable data into unreadable Protecting Your Computer • Encryption – The process of altering readable data into unreadable form to prevent unauthorized access – Two forms: • Private Key encryption means the same secret key is used by both the sender and receiver to encrypt and decrypt a message • Public Key encryption means that two keys are used

Encryption • Scrambles data before transmission • Uses encryption key • Plaintext versus cipher Encryption • Scrambles data before transmission • Uses encryption key • Plaintext versus cipher text

Proof of Authenticity • Certificate Authority • Entity that issues digital certificates • Digital Proof of Authenticity • Certificate Authority • Entity that issues digital certificates • Digital Certificate – Provided by a Certificate Authority – Has an expiration date • Digital Signature – Gives a recipient reason to believe that the message was created by a known sender Plymouth State University

Validation Plymouth State University Validation Plymouth State University

Vulnerable Communication • Home Wi. Fi Networks • Cellular phones • Bluetooth Plymouth State Vulnerable Communication • Home Wi. Fi Networks • Cellular phones • Bluetooth Plymouth State University

Cellular Phones Plymouth State University Cellular Phones Plymouth State University

Wireless Communications Media Short-range Wireless • Wi-Fi (802. 11) networks – – – Wi-Fi Wireless Communications Media Short-range Wireless • Wi-Fi (802. 11) networks – – – Wi-Fi b, a, and g correspond to 802. 11 b, 802. 11 a, and 802. 11 g 802. 11 is an IEEE wireless technical specification 802. 11 b is older, transmits 11 megabits per second 802. 11 a is faster than b but with weaker security than g 802. 11 g is 54 megabits per second and transmits 50 ft • Warning! Security is disabled by default on Wi-Fi

Wireless Communications Media Personal Area Wireless • Bluetooth – Short-range wireless standard to link Wireless Communications Media Personal Area Wireless • Bluetooth – Short-range wireless standard to link cellphones, PDAs, computers, and peripherals at distances up to 30 ft – Named after King Harald Bluetooth, the Viking who unified Denmark and Norway – Transmits 720 kilobits per second – Bluetooth can also be used to eavesdrop on networks – Turn it off on your cell phone unless you need it at that time

Safeguards Identification & Access • What you have – Cards, keys, signatures, badges, RFID, Safeguards Identification & Access • What you have – Cards, keys, signatures, badges, RFID, USB key Joe Smith • What you know – PINs, passwords, personal information • Who you are – Physical traits • Biometrics – fingerprints, iris, face recognition 11/2/00 Plymouth State University 34

Stealing Passwords http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=O 68 zx 6 x. Tubs http: //boing. Stealing Passwords http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=O 68 zx 6 x. Tubs http: //boing. net/2011/03/07/nevada-student-charg. html Plymouth State University

Iris Scan 11/2/00 Plymouth State University 36 Iris Scan 11/2/00 Plymouth State University 36

Safeguards • Encryption • Protection of software & data – Access, audit, & people Safeguards • Encryption • Protection of software & data – Access, audit, & people controls • Disaster-recovery plans 11/2/00 Plymouth State University 37

Protection of Software & Data • Security procedures – Control of access – Audit Protection of Software & Data • Security procedures – Control of access – Audit controls – People controls • Disaster-recovery plan What can a business do if there are no disasterrecovery plans in place and a disaster occurs? 11/2/00 Plymouth State University 38

Attacks on Computers and Networks • • Botnet Denial-of-Service attack Logic bomb Trojan Horse Attacks on Computers and Networks • • Botnet Denial-of-Service attack Logic bomb Trojan Horse Malware on cell phones Virus on router i. Pod infected during manufacturing Plymouth State University

Identity / Information Theft • • Requests for information Phishing (spoof E-mail) Pharming (fake Identity / Information Theft • • Requests for information Phishing (spoof E-mail) Pharming (fake web site) Auction fraud Plymouth State University

Real Web Site Plymouth State University Real Web Site Plymouth State University

Fake Web Site Plymouth State University Fake Web Site Plymouth State University

Protection at Work • No floppy / USB use • Secure access – Physical Protection at Work • No floppy / USB use • Secure access – Physical – Logical Plymouth State University

Recent Problems • • Cyberbullying Cyberstalking Pornography Child predators Plymouth State University Recent Problems • • Cyberbullying Cyberstalking Pornography Child predators Plymouth State University

Internet Predators Plymouth State College Internet Predators Plymouth State College

Legal Protection • Laws changing due to changing technology Plymouth State University Legal Protection • Laws changing due to changing technology Plymouth State University