Скачать презентацию Nervous System AP Biology 2003 -2004 Why Скачать презентацию Nervous System AP Biology 2003 -2004 Why

890f71b5f6908705e131799ddd7cabc4.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 42

Nervous System AP Biology 2003 -2004 Nervous System AP Biology 2003 -2004

Why do animals need a nervous system? § What characteristics do animals need in Why do animals need a nervous system? § What characteristics do animals need in a nervous system? u fast u accurate u reset quickly Remember… think about Poor bunny! the bunny… Regents Biology 2003 -2004

Nervous System cerebrum cerebellum spinal cord § Central nervous system u brain & spinal Nervous System cerebrum cerebellum spinal cord § Central nervous system u brain & spinal chord § Peripheral nervous system nerves from senses u nerves to muscles u cervical nerves thoracic nerves lumbar nerves femoral nerve sciatic nerve tibial nerve Regents Biology 2003 -2004

Nervous system cells § Neuron signal u direction a nerve cell dendrites cell body Nervous system cells § Neuron signal u direction a nerve cell dendrites cell body axon signal direction synapse Regents Biology 2003 -2004

Fun facts about neurons § Most specialized cell in § animals Longest cell u Fun facts about neurons § Most specialized cell in § animals Longest cell u blue whale neuron § 10 -30 meters u giraffe axon § 5 meters u human neuron § 1 -2 meters Nervous system allows for 1 millisecond response time Regents Biology 2003 -2004

Myelin sheath signal direction § Axon coated with insulation made of myelin cells u Myelin sheath signal direction § Axon coated with insulation made of myelin cells u speeds signal § signal hops from node to node u Multiple Sclerosis § immune system (T cells) attacks myelin sheath Regents Biology § loss of signal 330 mph vs. 11 mph myelin sheath 2003 -2004

Synapse Junction between nerve cells u u 1 st cell releases chemical to trigger Synapse Junction between nerve cells u u 1 st cell releases chemical to trigger next cell this is where drugs affect nervous system Synapse Regents Biology 2003 -2004

§ http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=HXx 9 ql. Jet. SU&list=PL 6 C 5 E § http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=HXx 9 ql. Jet. SU&list=PL 6 C 5 E 12 A 50 A 29788 F Regents Biology 2003 -2004

Types of neurons sensory neuron (from senses) interneuron (brain & spinal chord) Regents Biology Types of neurons sensory neuron (from senses) interneuron (brain & spinal chord) Regents Biology motor neuron (to muscle) 2003 -2004

Simplest Nerve Circuit § Reflex, or automatic response rapid response § automated u signal Simplest Nerve Circuit § Reflex, or automatic response rapid response § automated u signal only goes to spinal cord § no higher level processing u advantage § essential actions § don’t need to think or make decisions about § blinking § balance § pupil dilation § startle 2003 -2004 u Regents Biology

Eye Blink or Pain Withdrawal Reflex Gray Interneuron matter White matter Stimulus Sensory neuron Eye Blink or Pain Withdrawal Reflex Gray Interneuron matter White matter Stimulus Sensory neuron Receptor in skin Motor neuron Spinal cord Regents Biology Effector 2003 -2004 (muscle)

§ Resting Potential = -70 millivolts § Many Na+ on the outside of the § Resting Potential = -70 millivolts § Many Na+ on the outside of the neuron § Many K+ on the inside of the neuron § Many large negatively charged ions Regents Biology 2003 -2004

§ Threshold voltage = -50 m. V ( Na+ start rushing in) Action Potential § Threshold voltage = -50 m. V ( Na+ start rushing in) Action Potential = +30 m. V § Na+ continue to rush in and the K + rush out § Wave of depolarization § Refractory period-no impulse can be sent § Na-K pump-reset resting potential Regents Biology 2003 -2004

Divisions of the Peripheral Nervous System Regents Biology 2003 -2004 Divisions of the Peripheral Nervous System Regents Biology 2003 -2004

Regents Biology 2003 -2004 Regents Biology 2003 -2004

Blood Brain Barrier § blue dye that tissues of the whole body EXCEPT the Blood Brain Barrier § blue dye that tissues of the whole body EXCEPT the brain and spinal cord would turn blue § Functions Protects the brain from "foreign substances" in the blood that may injure the brain. u Protects the brain from hormones and neurotransmitters in the rest of the body. u Maintains a constant environment for the brain. u Regents Biology 2003 -2004

The ventricles of the brain are a communicating network of cavities filled with cerebrospinal The ventricles of the brain are a communicating network of cavities filled with cerebrospinal fluid Regents Biology 2003 -2004

Central Canal Regents Biology 2003 -2004 Central Canal Regents Biology 2003 -2004

Regents Biology 2003 -2004 Regents Biology 2003 -2004

White and Gray matter Regents Biology 2003 -2004 White and Gray matter Regents Biology 2003 -2004

Cranial Nerves Regents Biology 2003 -2004 Cranial Nerves Regents Biology 2003 -2004

Spinal Nerves Regents Biology 2003 -2004 Spinal Nerves Regents Biology 2003 -2004

Human brain Regents Biology 2003 -2004 Human brain Regents Biology 2003 -2004

Primitive brain § The “lower brain” medulla oblongata u pons u cerebellum u § Primitive brain § The “lower brain” medulla oblongata u pons u cerebellum u § Functions u basic body functions § breathing, heart, digestion, swallowing, vomiting homeostasis u coordination of movement u Regents Biology 2003 -2004

Higher brain § Cerebrum hemispheres u left = right side of body u right Higher brain § Cerebrum hemispheres u left = right side of body u right = left side of body u § Corpus callosum u major connection between 2 hemispheres Regents Biology 2003 -2004

Division of Brain Function § Left hemisphere u u u “logic side” language, math, Division of Brain Function § Left hemisphere u u u “logic side” language, math, logic operations, vision & hearing details fine motor control § Right hemisphere u u “creative side” pattern recognition, spatial relationships, non-verbal ideas, emotional processing, parallel processing of information Regents Biology 2003 -2004

§ http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=z 7 Tc ug. Wqya. I § http: //www. § http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=z 7 Tc ug. Wqya. I § http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=lf. Gw s. Ad. S 9 Dc Regents Biology 2003 -2004

Cerebrum specialization § Regions of the cerebrum are § specialized for different functions Lobes Cerebrum specialization § Regions of the cerebrum are § specialized for different functions Lobes frontal u temporal u occipital u parietal u Regents Biology 2003 -2004

Limbic system Controls basic emotions (fear, anger), involved in emotional bonding, establishes emotional memory Limbic system Controls basic emotions (fear, anger), involved in emotional bonding, establishes emotional memory Regents Biology 2003 -2004

§ Reticular formation § Electroencephalogram EEG § Slow wave sleep § REM sleep Regents § Reticular formation § Electroencephalogram EEG § Slow wave sleep § REM sleep Regents Biology 2003 -2004

§ http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=sa 3 v Ldx. YTQY § http: //www. youtube. § http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=sa 3 v Ldx. YTQY § http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=q. NTL Iv 8 JZA 0 Regents Biology 2003 -2004

Regents Biology 2003 -2004 Regents Biology 2003 -2004

§ Short Term memory u Lasts only a few minutes § Long Term memory § Short Term memory u Lasts only a few minutes § Long Term memory u Lasts for weeks or years u To move from short term to long term: § Rehearsal § Emotional state § Association with old data Regents Biology 2003 -2004

Referred pain Regents Biology 2003 -2004 Referred pain Regents Biology 2003 -2004

Sensation vs perception Figure 29. 1 p 586 Regents Biology 2003 -2004 Sensation vs perception Figure 29. 1 p 586 Regents Biology 2003 -2004

Regents Biology 2003 -2004 Regents Biology 2003 -2004

Regents Biology 2003 -2004 Regents Biology 2003 -2004

http: //www. watchknowlearn. org/Video. aspx? Video. ID=39957&C ategory. ID=1885 http: //ed. ted. com/lessons/how-we-see-color-colm-kelleher http: http: //www. watchknowlearn. org/Video. aspx? Video. ID=39957&C ategory. ID=1885 http: //ed. ted. com/lessons/how-we-see-color-colm-kelleher http: //ed. ted. com/lessons/why-do-we-see-illusions-markchangizi HTTP: //WWW. MAYOCLINIC. CO M/HEALTH/LASIK-EYESURGERY/MM 00607 Regents Biology 2003 -2004

Regents Biology 2003 -2004 Regents Biology 2003 -2004

http: //www. wptv. com/dpp/news/local_news/wate r_cooler/amy-barber-cochlear-implant-videotoday-show-spotlights-the-moment-she-firsthears-her-family http: //www. hearinglink. org/howwehear Regents Biology 2003 -2004 http: //www. wptv. com/dpp/news/local_news/wate r_cooler/amy-barber-cochlear-implant-videotoday-show-spotlights-the-moment-she-firsthears-her-family http: //www. hearinglink. org/howwehear Regents Biology 2003 -2004

Muscle Contraction § Nerve releases acetylcholine which § § causes the sarcoplasmic reticulum to Muscle Contraction § Nerve releases acetylcholine which § § causes the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release Ca++ bond with troponin which causes tropomyosin to pull away from actin binding sites. Myosin cross bridges go in and muscle contracts. Regents Biology 2003 -2004

Regents Biology 2003 -2004 Regents Biology 2003 -2004