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Naval Postgraduate School Joint Task Force Katrina Relief Effort Unclassified Information Brief
Purpose/Objective • Purpose: To provide NCOIC with a sketch of NPS’s Hastily Formed Networks deployed in support of the emergency response to Hurricane Katrina. • Objective: To show relevance of Hastily Formed Networks and NPS’s Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief work to the global humanitarian assistance community.
HFN Defined…. . • Skills to Learn: – – Interagency / coalition ops (civ-mil boundary) Collaborative coordination tool set Capacity to Improvise Leadership in a network HFN Concept by Dr Peter Denning, NPS Cebrowski Institute Executive Director
Conversation Space…. . • Medium in which all communications take place • A set of interaction rules for effective coordination among all participants
Aspects of Conversation Space • Physical – communication systems – meeting places – distribution systems • Community – players and organizations • Practices – rules of interaction and coordination
Physical Aspects…. . • mobile networks • telephony • Internet • satellite • power • fast configurability • meeting places • pre-positioning essential equipment • distribution systems
Community Aspects…. . • including all players • transcending turf issues • civil-military boundaries • sharing information • situation awareness • planning • coordinating (action, OODA loops) • building trust
Practices Aspects…. . • rules of engagement for multiple, autonomous organizations • must be embodied -- not a step-by-step process • getting “buy-in” on the rules • decentralized control and decision making • collaboration without hierarchy
Instructive Examples…. . • NYC after 9/11 – open, included all NY conditioned tendency to stovepipe • SE Asian Tsunami Dec 26 ’ 04 – collaboration w/out hierarchy, ad hoc, no common conversation space • US Gulf Coast after Katrina Aug 29 ‘ 05 – partitioned, protecting turf, finger pointing, red tape, citizens initially not included
Claim: • Doing HFN well means mastery of conversation space – What are the rules of the most productive “game”? – What are the skills for successful play? – Where does technology fit in (HFN is the key to the kingdom)?
Hastily Formed Networks NPS’s Katrina Relief Effort
The Storm Surge…. .
Areas of Operation
Network Infrastructure Hancock Medical Center Law Enforcement EOC Relief Distribution Center Bay St Louis Fire & Police Station Waveland Police Station Relief Distribution Center NPS DET 1 NETWORK Tachyon Satellite 802. 16 Wireless 802. 11 Wireless 223 rd ENG BATT DET
The Images…. .
The Images…. .
The Images…. .
The Problem…. . • No power • No fiber/copper infrastructure • No push-to-talk comms to speak of • Cellular services totally jammed • Satellite phone service totally jammed • Not enough satellite eqpt suites available • No Internet access (web, email, VOIP)
THE PUZZLE…. .
Surrounded by the Civil. Military Boundary…. and Improvisation
One Viable Comms Solution…. . • SATCOM Internet Reachback • 802. 11 (Wi. Fi) and 802. 16 (Wi. Max) • Broadband Internet, Web, Email • Voice Over IP (basic dial-tone) • Skype (free internet phone) • Groove (collaboration solution)
Tie-in to Earlier HFN Definition…. . • Skills to Learn: – – Interagency / coalition ops (civ-mil boundary) Collaborative coordination tool set Capacity to Improvise Leadership in a network
Employed Technologies 2 Mbps Down 512 Kbps Up Long Haul Wide Area Network Connection 54 Mbps
The Team…… • NPS Faculty Members (2) • NPS Students (19) – Information Warfare, Information Systems and Technology, Joint C 4 I Systems, Space Systems Operations, Space Systems Engineering – Multi-service, Multi-designator • Others: – Naval Reservists (5) • Naval Security Group Reserve – OSD NII Observer • Active Duty Commander, USN – Corporate Partners • Cisco, Microsoft, Redline, Tachyon, Mercury Data Systems, Rajant Corp.
Accomplishments • Created and extended full scale, timely, and self contained wide area network in an austere environment – expanded from Tsunami work • First comms capability for *many* • Learned about civ-mil boundary issues CONUS vs International from Tsunami work • Valuable student real world application of technology (learned by doing – live lab work)
Benefits / Observations • NPS: – – TCP/IP glue that binds Practical value for students and faculty Enhanced research opportunities and theses insights New connections for collaboration (like with NCOIC) • Navy: – – Network Capability is a first responder necessity Time Matters Learned about adaptability in austere environments (improvisation) Reconfirmed applicability of wireless to disaster relief (ship/shore comms) • Joint: – – JTF Operations - collaborative environment using Internet technologies Comms interoperability one of biggest HA/DR issues Social/Political/Economic (soft science) as challenging as technical Civil/Military Boundary is a key with much work to be done
Lessons Learned • • Effect of No Common Situational Awareness Vo. IP Was HUGE Benefit Physical Access Was a Challenge PTT Radio Interoperability a Growing Concern • Creature Comforts – You’re on Your Own • Pre-Positioning Assets and Contracts – Can’t Negotiate in the Chaos ! • Force Protection • Active Military vs Nat’l Guard (or both)? • Providing Internet Access to the Public
Current NPS Research • PTT Radio Interoperability • More International HA/DR Issues • Hastily Formed Networks that Enable…. . – Noncombatant Evacuation Ops (NEO) Tracking Systems – Patient / Victim Tracking Systems – Ship-to-Shore Wireless for HA/DR and Hospital Ships • • Airline Luggage Capable Flyaway Kits Smaller Form Factor VSAT NCOIC CHD Case Study Strong Angel III (Aug 20 -26 San Diego)
Conclusion and Challenges…. . • • • “We” must do better ! Who are “We” ? How do “We” proceed ? Are We ready for the next hurricane season, international disaster, Japan’s “big one”, Global Avian Flu Pandemic, etc ? Need scalable, robust, interoperable comms !! Int’l Community, Private Sector, Do. D all have roles !! Brian Steckler, Associate Chair for Special Programs, Naval Postgraduate School [email protected] edu – 831. 402. 1584 http: //www. nps. navy. mil/disasterrelief
Bottom Line: No Way To Run A Railroad !!