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NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET Information Visualization & Resources Seminar for NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET Information Visualization & Resources Seminar for K-12 Economics Educators Federal Reserve Bank of New York August 23 and 25, 2006 Elizabeth S. Webbink, Ph. D NCEE. Vice President. Economics. America

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET INFORMATION GRAPHICS Edward R Tufte is NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET INFORMATION GRAPHICS Edward R Tufte is Professor Emeritus at Yale University. His work has been described as "a visual Strunk and White“. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information Envisioning Information Visual Explanations : Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative Beautiful Evidence Inspiration for Good Design

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET Data Presentation Principles • • • NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET Data Presentation Principles • • • Use Handouts Be Clear, but not Simple Minimize Mapping Cross-Pollinate Compare and Contrast Normalize the data Maximize the Data: Ink Ratio & Eliminate Chartjunk Use Multiples to reduce the new information to be filtered Combine Multiples with Multidimensional Elements Layer Information Build data structures that facilitate rapid assimilation and analysis of large amounts of information • Standardize elements • Integrate words and numbers • DON’T use graphs for few data points or highly localized comparisons • DO enjoy the time savings and productivity improvements of better graphic design

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET DATA CAN BE RICH, DENSE AND NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET DATA CAN BE RICH, DENSE AND COMPLEX http: //www. bell. lib. umn. edu/map/OLAUS/lgola us. html Olaus Magnus' Map of Scandinavia 1539

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET DATA CONVEYS MORE INFORMATION WHEN PRESENTED NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET DATA CONVEYS MORE INFORMATION WHEN PRESENTED IN CONTEXT with clearly marked boundaries http: //www. eaudrey. com /myth/Places/styles_of_ old_maps. htm Mapus Mundi

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET COMPLEXITY CAN BE MADE CLEAR MAPQUEST’s NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET COMPLEXITY CAN BE MADE CLEAR MAPQUEST’s view of Nantucket is clear, but simple and flat. Examples of richer, more densely packed graphics abound in every port, (illustrated here by a clear but information-rich map of Nantucket Harbor) Also try Google Maps (select the hybrid version) and look for your home or school! http: //www. google. com/ maphp? hl=en&tab=wl&q = With permission of Youngs Bicycle Shop, Steamboat Wharf, Nantucket, MA 02554

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET MINIMIZE MAPPING Trends in Developing Countries, NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET MINIMIZE MAPPING Trends in Developing Countries, 1969 drew countries according to the size of their GNP Later versions removed the direct visual cue for size and forced the user to “map” through the color legend to determine the relative size of GDP WORLD BANK

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET COLOR CAN FACILITATE RAPID ABSORPTION OF NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET COLOR CAN FACILITATE RAPID ABSORPTION OF INFORMATION Gradations in a monochromatic scheme are readily understood as lower to higher values of the indicator being displayed

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET HOWEVER, COLOR CAN SLOW THE ABSORPTION NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET HOWEVER, COLOR CAN SLOW THE ABSORPTION OF INFORMATION IF IT REQUIRES THE VIEWER TO “MAP” INFORMATION THROUGH A LEGEND In this illustration, a polychromatic scheme requires the viewer to refer—or map—to the legend to determine which colors represent higher or lower values.

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET TOO MUCH MAPPING ONLY ADDS TO NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET TOO MUCH MAPPING ONLY ADDS TO THE CONFUSION Toll payers contend with several payment options keyed to colored signs. The sign over each booth is (unnecessarily) paired with a smaller number which the driver must match to numbers painted on the approach lanes. Garden State Parkway Toll Booths are models for unfriendly Graphic User Interface (GUI) design! This is further complicated in the Northbound lanes where -- numbers are painted on the road prior to a curve and -- before the numbers are discernible

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET MINIMIZE MAPPING & MAXIMIZE VISUAL CUES NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET MINIMIZE MAPPING & MAXIMIZE VISUAL CUES Place descriptive information as close as possible to the data it describes Color code scales with the data series which use them – here the index and right hand scale are in red.

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET MINIMIZE MAPPING (cont. ) Common scales NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET MINIMIZE MAPPING (cont. ) Common scales can facilitate comparison of multiple datasets. The three graphs on top show State data relative to their U. S. average, However, the States cannot be compared easily to each other. The three graphs on the bottom were redrawn with the same scale so that State data could be compared with each other as well as the U. S. average.

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET CROSSPOLLINATE TREE OF LIFE There are NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET CROSSPOLLINATE TREE OF LIFE There are examples of good design in many fields. This is an example from Bio. Informatics, a field integrating Biology and the Computer Sciences Shown here is part of the Tree of Life. David Hillis, Paul Lewis, and their collaborators are working on new methodologies for the analysis of extremely large data sets. Reprinted with permission of David Hillis, University of Texas, Austin, TX

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET GOOD DESIGN HELPS VIEWERS “COMPARE & NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET GOOD DESIGN HELPS VIEWERS “COMPARE & CONTRAST” Well-organized data presentations can analyze as well as display information, e. g. to compare two leeches, researchers arrayed the DNA sequence -- vertically for the leech with the blood coagulating property -- horizontally for the leech without that property then marked on the diagonal where the DNA matched. Breaks along the diagonal marked the DNA segment that determines coagulation — valuable information for medical science.

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET LAYOUT CAN HELP A USER RAPIDLY NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET LAYOUT CAN HELP A USER RAPIDLY ABSORB LARGE AMOUNTS OF INFROMATION A matrix of information will provide a visual structure to the information. In this case, NCEE publications are arrayed according to grade level and subject area. http: //www. ncee. net/ ea/public/ncee_poste r. xls NCEE Publications by Grade & Subject Area

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF VISUAL STRUCTURE FACILITATING NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF VISUAL STRUCTURE FACILITATING RAPID IDENTIFICATION L’EGGS HOSIERY The display organizes merchandise by - style - color and - size

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET SMALL MULTIPLES MAKE A BIG IMPRESSION NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET SMALL MULTIPLES MAKE A BIG IMPRESSION BRONX ZOO Robin’s egg exhibit I … In nature you start with 100 robins eggs II … about 74 eggs become hatchlings III …approximately 52 hatchlings grow to fledgling stage IV … and roughly 10 fledglings survive to be adult robins -- and make more eggs Photography by Kate Webbink

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET MULTIPLES – OR REPEATED USE OF NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET MULTIPLES – OR REPEATED USE OF THE SAME STRUCTURE FACILITATES COMPARISON AND ANALYSIS OF LARGE AMOUNTS OF INFORMATION Spreadsheets can be powerful data visualization and productivity tools. Inspiration can be found in art museums and many other places http: //www. ibiblio. org/w m/paint/auth/mondrian/ broadway. jpg

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET OVERLAY DIFFERENT INFORMATION ON A COMMON NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET OVERLAY DIFFERENT INFORMATION ON A COMMON ELEMENT REUSING THE BASIC ELEMENT TO DISPLAY NEW INFORMATION HERE THE BASIC MAP ELEMENT IS USED w/6 TYPES OF INFORMATION "HOMELAND SECURITY: How Infotech can combat homeland insecurity. “ FORTUNE MAGAZINE, Monday, July 22, 2002

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET MULTIPLES ALLOW THE VIEWER TO QUICKLY NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET MULTIPLES ALLOW THE VIEWER TO QUICKLY FOCUS ON “WHAT’S DIFFERENT” Productivity improvements such as more rapid assimilation of information can mean: • greater output in the same amount of time or • less time to produce the same output with increased time to enjoy a sunrise! Photography by Greg Webbink

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET COMPARABILITY AND CAUSALITY CAN ALSO BE NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET COMPARABILITY AND CAUSALITY CAN ALSO BE DISPLAYED VISUALLY What goes into the U. S. Energy Supply and how is it used? Source: Energy Information Agency http: //www. eia. doe. gov/ emeu/aer/pdf/pages/se c 1_3. pdf#search=%22 %2 B%22 energy%20 flo w%22%20%2 B 2005% 22 See Also: Energy Outlook Energy Flow in the U. S. Economy

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET CAUSALITY & INTERCONNECTIVITY COME TO LIFE NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET CAUSALITY & INTERCONNECTIVITY COME TO LIFE IN MIND MAPS (also referred to as Concept Maps) SOURCE: Budd, John W. 2004. Mind Maps as Classroom Excercises, Journal of Economic Education, (Winter): 3546. http: //www. indiana. edu/ ~econed/pdffiles/winter 0 4/Budd. pdf#search=%2 2%2 B%22 mind%20 map %22%20%2 Bbudd%22 Mind Map for Housing Prices

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET Appendix A: Economic Statistics for use NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET Appendix A: Economic Statistics for use in the classroom How DO you use data in your classes? How would you LIKE to use data in your classes? What TYPES of data would you like to have available?

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS excellent sources NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS excellent sources of data & educational materials Federal Reserve Statistical Releases http: //www. federalreserv e. gov/releases/h 15/Curre nt/ Board of Governors Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Federal Reserve Bank of Boston Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Federal Reserve Bank of New York Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis http: //www. federalreserve. gov/releases/h 15/Current/

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET FRED LOG ON! The St. Louis NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET FRED LOG ON! The St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank has a very convenient, simple to use site for data retrieval. Log on to http: //research. stlouisfed. org/useraccount/register/step 1 Register for a free account. While you do not NEED to do this to have access to the data, if you have an account, you can store up to 25 sets, each with 25 series, to update and download whenever you log on. You can log in or visit https: //research. stlouisfed. org/fred 2/ For instance: Scroll down to Categories Click on U. S. Trade & International Transactions Select Balance on Current Account VIOLA! A chart with options to download data, add to your data set, etc.

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET A CLOSEUP of “FRED” NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET A CLOSEUP of “FRED”

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET THE WHITE HOUSE ECONOMIC STATISTICS BRIEFING NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET THE WHITE HOUSE ECONOMIC STATISTICS BRIEFING ROOM http: //www. whitehou se. gov/fsbr/output. ht ml White House Economic Statistics

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET THE WHITE HOUSE ECONOMIC STATISTICS BRIEFING NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET THE WHITE HOUSE ECONOMIC STATISTICS BRIEFING ROOM CLOSEUP

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET OECD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK This edition of NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET OECD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK This edition of the OECD Economic Outlook analyses the major trends that will mark the years 2006 and 2007. OECD Economic Outlook No. 79, May 2006 http: //www. oecd. org/doc ument/61/0, 2340, en_264 9_201185_2483901_1_1, 00. html OECD Economic Outlook

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET BRIEFING. COM http: //www. briefing. com NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET BRIEFING. COM http: //www. briefing. com /Investor/Public/Market Analysis/Calendars/Ec onomic. Calendar. htm Briefing. com

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET BRIEFING. COM http: //www. briefing. co NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET BRIEFING. COM http: //www. briefing. co m/Investor/Public/Mar ket. Analysis/Calendars /Economic. Calendar. ht m Briefing. com -- sample

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET ENERGY INFORMATION http: //www. eia. doe. NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET ENERGY INFORMATION http: //www. eia. doe. gov /oiaf/ieo/world. html http: //www 2. nsta. org/e nergy/find/primer/index. html http: //www. understandi ng-energy. com/ http: //www. classroomenergy. com/teachers/e nergy_tour/pg 1. html ENERGY DEMAND GROWTH 2003 -2030 (an interactive chart) http: //www. tmcclient. co m/exxonmobil/map/ Energy Information

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET THERE ABUNDANT DATA RESOURCES ON THE NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET THERE ABUNDANT DATA RESOURCES ON THE WEB Find additional links on Econ. Ed. Link http: //www. econedlink. org/ Try Econ. Edink’s Online Compound Interest Calculator http: //www. econedlink. org/interactives/interest. html NCEE’s Econ. Ed. Link

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET Why is it important to “think NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET Why is it important to “think in databases”? Helps deal with tremendous growth in information Forces formal specification of structure, e. g. , variables by which we filter — gender, country, age, etc. Facilitates recognition of patterns IF combined with appropriate visualization techniques Enables productivity enhancements both in the workplace and the “learning place” People get paid more for doing work faster/better, i. e. , with improved productivity

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET Appendix B: Overview of Excel Pivot NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET Appendix B: Overview of Excel Pivot Tables The following pages give a quick overview of the use of Excel’s Pivot Tables in handling and displaying large data sets. If you find the visual presentation of information helpful, you might enjoy the computer training books from the “Teach Yourself Visually” series.

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET Data sets are readily available from NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET Data sets are readily available from many sources over the internet

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET … but may need reformatting to NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET … but may need reformatting to increase their usefulness as databases

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET EXCEL Define a Range Select/Highlight your NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET EXCEL Define a Range Select/Highlight your data range Select Insert / Name / Define / db / OK Define your database range xxx

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET EXCEL Construct a Pivot Table Select NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET EXCEL Construct a Pivot Table Select Data / Pivot Table / MSOffice Excel list / Next Range: =db Next Create a Pivot Table

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET EXCEL Define a Range Select New NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET EXCEL Define a Range Select New worksheet / Layout / Drag “Field Names” to the positions where you want to place them in your Pivot Table. There are four choices: Rows, Columns, Pages, and Data Select OK / New worksheet / Finish

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET EXCEL You can now reorganize your NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET EXCEL You can now reorganize your display to meet your needs e. g. , Country by Year or Year by Country By dragging the field names to a different location

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET EXCEL You can select all or NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET EXCEL You can select all or one PAGE field Select Real GDP per Capita Select one or all Page items

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET EXCEL You can select and deselect NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET EXCEL You can select and deselect ROW and COLUMN fields Select Canada Japan United Kingdom United States Select ROW/COLUMN items

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET Pivots (continued) NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET Pivots (continued)

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET EXCEL Right click inside your table NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET EXCEL Right click inside your table and select Pivot. Chart Pivots (continued)

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET EXCEL You can now reorganize your NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET EXCEL You can now reorganize your display to meet your needs

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET EXCEL Select other Chart Types and NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET EXCEL Select other Chart Types and Options Right click inside the chart and make your selections

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET EXCEL Microsoft Office Excel 2003— Illustrated NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ECONOMIC EDUCATION WWW. NCEE. NET EXCEL Microsoft Office Excel 2003— Illustrated ADVANCED For more information on Pivot Tables: Thomson Learning Course Guide Help users master computer skills quickly and easily with this colorful, highly-visual Illustrated Course Guide for Excel 2003. Lessons are presented in an easy-to-follow 2 -page spread that introduces step-by-step instructions on the left page and large screenshots and illustrations on the right. This signature, streamlined approach allows continuing education students learn quickly, while also serving as an excellent reference tool http: //www. course. com/ catalog/product. cfm? isb n=0 -619 -057742&courseguide=y Additional EXCEL guides are available from Thomson at: http: //www. course. com/catalog/subcategory. cfm? category=Spreadsheets