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NASDA i-Space Project And Its Approach To Regional Cooperation for Satellite Application Experiments APAN NASDA i-Space Project And Its Approach To Regional Cooperation for Satellite Application Experiments APAN meeting January 23 -24, 2001 Tsutomu SHIGETA Satellite Mission Research Center National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA)

Satellite Mission Research Center Promoting space utilization Utilization experiments Mission planning Satellite Mission Research Satellite Mission Research Center Promoting space utilization Utilization experiments Mission planning Satellite Mission Research Center Creating new satellite missions Research Project teams Operations Development Manufacture Point of contact for cooperative activities

i-Space for the Coming Information Society Space Infrastructure Information Technology (IT) WINDS, ETS-VIII, Quasi-Zenith i-Space for the Coming Information Society Space Infrastructure Information Technology (IT) WINDS, ETS-VIII, Quasi-Zenith Satellite User oriented High-speed internet access Advanced ITS Disaster management Environment monitoring Remote medical treatment Remote education Academic research network

i-Space (Space information infrastructure) Pilot experiment with existing commercial satellite Satellite multicasting and Satellite i-Space (Space information infrastructure) Pilot experiment with existing commercial satellite Satellite multicasting and Satellite IX WINDS Quasi-zenith Satellite Sea, Land & Air Intelligent Transport System ETS-VIII Tele-medicine Tele-education Overcoming digital divide Satellite mobile communications

Implementation Plan Quasi-zenith Satellite System 2005 - 2004 - Advanced satellite mobile communications & Implementation Plan Quasi-zenith Satellite System 2005 - 2004 - Advanced satellite mobile communications & positioning WINDS High-data-rate communications & satellite-based internet ETS-VIII Satellite mobile communication 2001 Pilot experiments Experiments on element technologies

ETS-VIII ETS-VIII

ETS-VIII - (Engineering Test Satellite - VIII) Launch in 2004 FY Large-scale deployable reflector ETS-VIII - (Engineering Test Satellite - VIII) Launch in 2004 FY Large-scale deployable reflector Mobile satellite communications system Mobile satellite multimedia Phased Array broadcasting system Antenna Feeder - Satellite positioning Large-Scale Deployable Reflector Antenna for Positioning Experiment Deployable Solar Paddles

Coverage of S-band Communication Antenna -4 -2 0 2 Hand-held Terminal : Portable telephone Coverage of S-band Communication Antenna -4 -2 0 2 Hand-held Terminal : Portable telephone size Handheld Terminal Experiment Area Portable Terminal: Note-book computer size 6 Portable Terminal Experiment Area Transportable station: High-gain antenna of 1 m diameter Fixed Beam Area Hong Kong Taipei 4 Scanning Beam Area Transportable station Experiment Area Manila 2 Ø Number of scanning beams are three Ø The beam can scan anywhere in the scanning area disc

Coverage of Satellite Navigation - 5. 00 0. 00 DEG 5. 00 DEG L-band Coverage of Satellite Navigation - 5. 00 0. 00 DEG 5. 00 DEG L-band Service Area S-band-10 d. B Area 5. 00 0. 00 - 5. 00 L-band -10 d. B Area - 5. 00 0. 00 5. 00

WINDS (Wideband Inter. Networking engineering test and Demonstration Satellite) WINDS (Wideband Inter. Networking engineering test and Demonstration Satellite)

WINDS Tx & Rx Antenna(Overseas) Tx Antenna(Japan & the neighborhood) Solar Paddle Rx APAA WINDS Tx & Rx Antenna(Overseas) Tx Antenna(Japan & the neighborhood) Solar Paddle Rx APAA Tx APAA Rx Antenna(Japan & the neighborhood) 23 m Launch Orbit Weight Year of 2005 Geostationary orbit (chosen from 143, 146 and 154. 5゜E) About 2400 kg(Dry-without fuel) About 990kg(Mission Weight)

Mission Communication Links (tentative) Data Relay Bent Pipe Regenerative processing & ATM Switching Frequency Mission Communication Links (tentative) Data Relay Bent Pipe Regenerative processing & ATM Switching Frequency U/L: 27. 5~ 28. 6 GHz D/L: 17. 7~ 18. 8 GHz Antenna Beams • Fixed Beams for Japan • Fixed Beams for 10 major cities in Asia • Spot Beam for other area Max 1. 2 Gbps Data Rate (622 Mbps× 2) U/L: 1. 5, 6, 24, 51, 155 Mbps D/L: 155 Mbps

Onboard Mission Equipment(draft) Throughput (Bent Pipe) LNA, D/C & IF SW MTX Rx APAA Onboard Mission Equipment(draft) Throughput (Bent Pipe) LNA, D/C & IF SW MTX Rx APAA … Rx MBA (Domestic) ATM-SW (Router) Tx and Rx MBA (Asia) MPA (#1) IF SW MTX & U/C MPA (#2) Tx MBA (Domestic) Tx APAA MBA: Multi-Beam Antenna, MPA: Multi-Port Amplifier

MBA Beam Arrangement (Domestic)(draft) MBA Beam Arrangement (Domestic)(draft)

MBA & APAA Beam Arrangement(draft) A Japanese mainland the neighborhood Southeast Asia region APAA MBA & APAA Beam Arrangement(draft) A Japanese mainland the neighborhood Southeast Asia region APAA beam(example) ※ Determination of beam arrangement for the Southeast Asia area is around April, 2002. Fixed beams for overseas : Shanghai, Beijing, Singapore, Hong Kong, Manila, Seoul, (tentative) Bangkok, Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur, Bangalore

MBA Beams for Asia Region(Tentative) Example Shanghai Rx/Tx Port Beijing Singapore (Selective from ground MBA Beams for Asia Region(Tentative) Example Shanghai Rx/Tx Port Beijing Singapore (Selective from ground control) Selective

Ground terminals(General) Tx Rx  Satellite  Bent-pipe ~1.2 Gbps Hub station (5 m) ~ Bent-pipe Ground terminals(General) Tx Rx  Satellite  Bent-pipe ~1.2 Gbps Hub station (5 m) ~ Bent-pipe ~622 Mbps 15 5 M bps SDR-VSAT (2. 4 m) ~ 51 Mbps HDR-VSAT (1. 2 m) USAT (45 cm) ~ .5 Mbps 1 1 6. ATM cell relay 155 Mbps HDR-VSAT (1. 2 m) USAT (45 cm)

Antenna Diameter (Tentative) Link Availability: Domestic 99. 5%, Overseas 98% Line 1 Line 2 Antenna Diameter (Tentative) Link Availability: Domestic 99. 5%, Overseas 98% Line 1 Line 2 Line 3 UP UP UP DOWN (155 Mbps DOWN (600 Mbps DOWN (1. 5 Mbps (155 Mbps (600 Mbps ) MBA (Domestic) (155 Mbps) ) ) 0. 45~1 1 0. 45~1 ) ) 2~3 MBA (Asia) 1~2 2~3 APAA (Honolulu) 5 15 APAA (Sydney) 3. 8 11 (m)

WINDS System High Speed Access with small earth terminal Existing Japanese satellite Impossible 2. WINDS System High Speed Access with small earth terminal Existing Japanese satellite Impossible 2. 4 m WINDS Access Speed (For Domestic) Antenna diameter 2 m 600 Mbps 155 Mbps 1 m 45 cm Bent-pipe 1. 2 m 1. 5 Mbps 45 cm Key Technologies :   ① High output multi-spot beam   ② Ka band frequency

WINDS System Flexibility against traffic demand WINDS Existing Japanese satellite Demand > supply in WINDS System Flexibility against traffic demand WINDS Existing Japanese satellite Demand > supply in some region Demand is not satisfied. Amount of traffic Demand can be satisfied by changing satellite Tx distribution. Amount of traffic supply demand Enable to carry out the optimum distribution of the satellite resource. Key Technologies :   ① Multi-port amplifier ② High power output multi-spot beam

Rain Attenuation Compensation(draft)  U/L:Transmit power control at every earth station  The amount of U/L Rain Attenuation Compensation(draft)  U/L:Transmit power control at every earth station  The amount of U/L 28 GHz attenuation is presumed from the amount of attenuation of D/L 18 GHz signal. D/L:Output control of MPA Input 1 Input 2 ・・・・ Input 8 8 ports of MPA Beam 1 Beam 2 Rain Beam 8

WINDS System : On-board switching technology (ATM) WINDS Existing Japanese satellite 1 2 3 WINDS System : On-board switching technology (ATM) WINDS Existing Japanese satellite 1 2 3 A A B A B X C B A B C Bent-pipe A B B A B X C C B B X Onboard ATM A B c Data distribution and a link connection can be controlled flexibly.  Key Technology :  ①On-board ATM exchange technology

WINDS System : Existing Japanese satellite Even within beam coverage there is a limit WINDS System : Existing Japanese satellite Even within beam coverage there is a limit in circuit speed. Scanning spot beam of the WINDS Flexible beam pointing WINDS High-speed circuit can be set up between any arbitrary regions. Beam steer able area (use area) Key Technologies : ①Ka band frequency ②High-gain Adaptive Phased Array Antenna (APAA)

Quasi-zenith Satellite System Quasi-zenith Satellite System

Quasi-zenith Satellite System Quasi-zenith Geo-Stationary orbit About 45° 独立行政法人通信総合研究所(CRL)殿資料より Quasi-zenith Satellite System Quasi-zenith Geo-Stationary orbit About 45° 独立行政法人通信総合研究所(CRL)殿資料より

Quasi-zenith Satellite System EL of Geo Sat EL > 80° 独立行政法人通信総合研究所(CRL)殿資料より Quasi-zenith Satellite System EL of Geo Sat EL > 80° 独立行政法人通信総合研究所(CRL)殿資料より

Quasi-zenith Satellite System Hospital Quasi-zenith Satellite System Hospital

Examples of i-Space Experiments Examples of i-Space Experiments

Satellite Multicasting Communications Experiment ●Direct Multicasting to mass family users WINDS ●Storing information in Satellite Multicasting Communications Experiment ●Direct Multicasting to mass family users WINDS ●Storing information in home server  ・Local information Contents Distribution  ・Newspaper delivery  ・Net broadcasting  ・Electronic book  ・Multimedia educational material 155Mbps  ・Disaster information Contents Request ●High security through high-data-rate multicasting and IPv 6 Information/Contents Distributor Home Server

Information Network for Land Management and Disaster Monitoring Data Relay Test Satellite WINDS Real-time Information Network for Land Management and Disaster Monitoring Data Relay Test Satellite WINDS Real-time multicasting of several hundred mega bytes data Earth Observation Satellites Satellite Monitoring Airplane Monitoring Government Applications Ministries Autonomous body ・Real-time processor Monitor camera Institute Landslide ・Database of disaster information Ground Monitoring flood Urban disaster Monitor camera Forest Fire Tidal wave Red water Providing disaster information Access to/from small station Information gathering Glacier from disaster area

Pilot Experiments Pilot Experiments

Pilot Experiments • Precursor for ETS-VIII and WINDS • Selected 9 experiment themes • Pilot Experiments • Precursor for ETS-VIII and WINDS • Selected 9 experiment themes • Commenced from early 2001 • Joint collaboration with external partners

Pilot Experiments list Experiment field Experiment items a) Medical ① Mobile hospital ② Medicine Pilot Experiments list Experiment field Experiment items a) Medical ① Mobile hospital ② Medicine at home b) Educational ③ Field education c)Internet and multicast ④ IPv 6 multicasting transmission experiment ⑤ Radio Internet technology experiment ⑥ Ka-band high speed Internet experiment d) Disaster management ⑦ Wide area disaster information system e) Aircraft and ship communications ⑧ Image data transmission to/from aircraft ⑨ Ship communications and marine science education

IPv 6 multicasting transmission experiment Ku-band 3 Mbps Transmission Facility Receiving Facilities Network Operation IPv 6 multicasting transmission experiment Ku-band 3 Mbps Transmission Facility Receiving Facilities Network Operation Center Multicasting Transmission 45 cm Receiving Antenna Router IP v 6 Satellite Receiver Contents Server V 4 Router IPv 4 IPv 6 Router × 100 sets

Ka-band real time image data transmission from aircraft Communications Satellite Image and Voice Ka-band Ka-band real time image data transmission from aircraft Communications Satellite Image and Voice Ka-band MPEG 2〜 8 Mbps Aircraft Antenna Camera CRL Kashima Space Communications Center Fire Earthquake

Idea for collaboration with APAN Idea for collaboration with APAN

Status Domestic researchers are; • Making i-Space experiment concept • Planning to propose for Status Domestic researchers are; • Making i-Space experiment concept • Planning to propose for the NASDA pilot experiments as a precursor for the i–Space experiment • Exploring possibility for collaboration with APAN activities

Requirements from academic researchers • Monitoring from field sites • ASIAFLUX monitoring, Ecosystem monitoring, Requirements from academic researchers • Monitoring from field sites • ASIAFLUX monitoring, Ecosystem monitoring, Volcano monitoring, etc • Camera image, Observation data gathering • Remote-control of monitoring equipment, etc • Application for Remote sensing ground truth • Distribution of large volume data • Multicasting of MODIS (NASA/Terra, Aqua)data from data receiving station • Establishing joint research environment through networking for • Data access • Distributed database access • Remote discussions • Multi-points TV conference with multimedia tools

Asia Environment and Natural-Resources Information Network(tentative theme) Field Monitoring Remote-sensing data Researchers WINDS Forest Asia Environment and Natural-Resources Information Network(tentative theme) Field Monitoring Remote-sensing data Researchers WINDS Forest Monitoring Establishing Monitoring Network for Environment and Natural Resources in Asia Agriculture Monitoring Data analysis, discussions Real-time simulation Collaboration with universities, etc Global warming real-time simulation Ecosystem Monitoring

Pilot Experiment Proposal 1 ― Field data gathering ― Overseas research field Domestic research Pilot Experiment Proposal 1 ― Field data gathering ― Overseas research field Domestic research field Cedar pollen monitor Field of FFPRI (Gunma) Field of NIES Jeju Island(KOREA), Jilin(China), Malaysia • Research data from various field is multicastingdistributed to research organizations. • Remote control and a maintenance of monitoring equipment Ecosystem monitor Research organization Field of FFPRI (Ogasawara) Forest monitor maintenance FFPRI NIES Field of NIES (Hokkaido) • Joint use of research data • Web server

Pilot Experiment Proposal 2 ― Multicasting earth observation data and Ground truth ― Comm. Pilot Experiment Proposal 2 ― Multicasting earth observation data and Ground truth ― Comm. , Sat. • Multicasting distribution of mass earth observation data Earth Observation Satellite Overseas (Southeast Asia) NARO field (Hokkaido) • Verification information from the field NARO field (Tsukuba) AIT Field • MODIS image reception of the outskirts of Southeast Asia Verification information from the domestic field Domestic Data-processing organization AIT Kumamoto Data Receiving Station • MODIS image reception around Japan • Web for the of processed data • Ground truth by field data NASDA EORC NARO

Candidate Site for access to WINDS Agriculture fields Field for remote-sensing ground truth NARO Candidate Site for access to WINDS Agriculture fields Field for remote-sensing ground truth NARO Field of NARO(Hokkaido) (Tsukuba) Field of AIT AFFR Field of FFPRI (Ogasawara) FFPRI AIT NIES Overseas NOC Field of NIES Jeju Island(KOREA), Jilin(China), Malaysia Field of NIES (Hokkaido) NASDA Earth Observation Center Environment fields Communication unit for field Forest fields (Gunma)

Features of satellite communications – Multiple Access Capability Efficient ground network strengthening is realized Features of satellite communications – Multiple Access Capability Efficient ground network strengthening is realized by assigning the satellite link to a required site, when needed. – Wide Coverage For dissolution of Digital Divide, International cooperation, etc – Multicast Capability Mitigation of the load of ground NW by satellite multicasting – Immunity from Terrestrial Disaster Reservation of a lifeline (Foothold at the time of ground infrastructure fragmentation ) – Global Coverage

Abbreviations APAA: Adaptive Phased Array Antenna MBA : Multi-Beam Antenna MPA : Multi-Port Amplifier Abbreviations APAA: Adaptive Phased Array Antenna MBA : Multi-Beam Antenna MPA : Multi-Port Amplifier FFPRI: Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute NIES : National Institute for Environmental Studies NARO: National Agriculture Research Organization NARC: National Agriculture Research Center AFFR: Computer Center for Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research MAFF, JAPAN AIT : Asian Institute of Technology