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NASA Applied Sciences: An Example from the Agricultural Efficiency Program Element Ed Sheffner Earth NASA Applied Sciences: An Example from the Agricultural Efficiency Program Element Ed Sheffner Earth Science Division NASA Headquarters IGARSS Workshop July 30, 2006

Topics • Summary of current NASA organization and strategic plan. • Key elements in Topics • Summary of current NASA organization and strategic plan. • Key elements in the approach of the Applied Sciences Program. • The NASA collaboration with FAS as an example of the approach.

NASA is a research and development agency formed in 1958 with responsibility for all NASA is a research and development agency formed in 1958 with responsibility for all US government, non-military aeronautic and space activities. Agency objectives (from 1958): – Expansion of knowledge of atmospheric phenomena; – Development and operation of vehicles carrying instruments in space; – Establishment of long range studies of the potential benefits accrued through the utilization of space for scientific purposes; – Assurance of US leadership in space science and technology and the application of that technology in peaceful activities “within and outside the atmosphere”; and, – Cooperation with other nations in the pursuit of peaceful application of NASA developed technology.

NASA Strategic Goals* 1. Fly the Shuttle as safely as possible until its retirement, NASA Strategic Goals* 1. Fly the Shuttle as safely as possible until its retirement, not later than 2010. 2. Complete the International Space Station in a manner consistent with NASA’s international partner commitments and the need of human exploration. 3. Develop a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics consistent with the redirection of the human spaceflight program to focus on exploration. 4. Bring a Crew Exploration Vehicle into service as soon as possible after Shuttle retirement. 5. Encourage the pursuit of appropriate partnerships with the emerging commercial space sector. 6. Establish a lunar return program having the maximum possible utility for later missions to Mars and other destinations. *NASA 2006 Strategic Plan

NASA Organization Four Mission Directorates – Aeronautics – Exploration Systems – Space Operations – NASA Organization Four Mission Directorates – Aeronautics – Exploration Systems – Space Operations – Science (four divisions) • Earth Science – Flight/missions – Research – Applied Sciences • Heliophysics • Planetary Science • Astrophysics

Strategic Goal #3 A. Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet Strategic Goal #3 A. Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs. B. Understand the Sun and its effects on Earth and the solar system. C. Advance scientific knowledge of the origin and history of the solar system, the potential for life elsewhere, and the hazards and resources present as humans explore space. Discover the origin, structure, evolution and destiny of the universe, and search for Earth-like planets. E. Advance knowledge in the fundamental disciplines of aeronautics, and develop technologies for safer aircraft and higher capacity airspace systems. F. Understand the effects of the space environment on human performance, and test new technologies and countermeasures for long duration space exploration.

Approach of the Applied Sciences Program • Draw upon NASA Earth Science capabilities: observations, Approach of the Applied Sciences Program • Draw upon NASA Earth Science capabilities: observations, measurements and predictive models. • Draw upon NASA Earth science research results. • Extend NASA capabilities and results to maximize the return-on-investment by addressing issues with substantial social and economic benefits.

Approach Elements of Applied Sciences Program (cont. ) • Select projects through open, competitive Approach Elements of Applied Sciences Program (cont. ) • Select projects through open, competitive solicitations. • Use existing infrastructure for data archiving, distribution and product generation. • Define projects, and identify decision support tools, through partnerships with organizations with operational responsibilities.

Approach Elements of Applied Sciences Program (cont. ) • Program processes: – Solutions networks Approach Elements of Applied Sciences Program (cont. ) • Program processes: – Solutions networks (identification) – Rapid prototyping (evaluation) – Integrated systems solutions (implementation)

Solutions Networks: Consider the results from NASA funded research in the six science focus Solutions Networks: Consider the results from NASA funded research in the six science focus areas of the Earth Science Division: - Atmospheric composition - Carbon cycle and ecosystems - Climate variability and change - Earth surface and interior - Water and energy cycle - Weather Identify potential improvements in the decision support tools within the portfolio of projects in the Applied Sciences Program.

Rapid Prototyping: Use specific research results in simulated operational environments to evaluate components and/or Rapid Prototyping: Use specific research results in simulated operational environments to evaluate components and/or configurations for integrated systems solutions with the specific decision support tools within the portfolio of projects in the Applied Sciences Program.

Integrated System Solution: A rigorous systems engineering process that: • describes (evaluates) the state Integrated System Solution: A rigorous systems engineering process that: • describes (evaluates) the state of a decision support tool/system, • verifies and validates new data products and other enhancements in the decision making process, and, • benchmarks the performance of the assimilation of NASA research results and capabilities in the decision making process.

What the Applied Sciences Program Prefers Not to Do • Develop new algorithms • What the Applied Sciences Program Prefers Not to Do • Develop new algorithms • Create new decision support tools • Long term support for infrastructure • Provide support for operational activities • Fund the research of other agencies The Program may participate in projects in which these activities occur, but those tasks will be supported by someone other than NASA, e. g. , the user/partner.

Current NASA Earth Observing Systems Aqua* Aura CALIPSO Cloudsat CHAMPCluster (with ESA) EO-1* FAST Current NASA Earth Observing Systems Aqua* Aura CALIPSO Cloudsat CHAMPCluster (with ESA) EO-1* FAST Geotail (with Japan GOES-M* GRACE* ICESat* JASON-1* Landsat-7* NOAA-M(POES) Polar Quick. SCAT SAGE III (with Russia) Sea. Winds* (with Japan) SORCE TERRA* TIMED TRMM* (with Japan) *Land observations

Planned NASA Earth Observing Systems Aquarius (2009) GPM* (2010) LDCM* (under review) NPP* (under Planned NASA Earth Observing Systems Aquarius (2009) GPM* (2010) LDCM* (under review) NPP* (under review) NPOESS* (under review) OSTM (2008) OCO (2008) *Land observations

Agricultural Efficiency Integrated Systems Solution EARTH SYSTEM MODELS • Agricultural Meteorological Model: AGRMET 2 Agricultural Efficiency Integrated Systems Solution EARTH SYSTEM MODELS • Agricultural Meteorological Model: AGRMET 2 2 Layer Soil Moisture Model: • Layer Soil Moisture Models: Crop Models: CERES, AGRISTARS, • Crop Models: CERES, AGRISTARS, Mass, URCROP, Sinclair Pre dict ions • 12 Month Global *Supported Non-NASA Model Seasonal Surface Temperature/ Soil Moisture/ Precipitation Forecast • Crop maturity • Crop yield • Water availability Data OBSERVATIONS and MEASUREMENTS Land: Aqua, Terra, Landsat 7, SRTM, • Land: Aqua, Aquarius NPP, NPOESS, Terra, Landsat 7, SRTM, TOPEX, JASON-1, GPM Atmosphere: TRMM, NPP, NPOESS, HYDROS Ocean: Sea. WIFS, Quikscat, Aqua • Atmosphere: TRMM, OCO, GPM • Ocean: Sea. WIFS, Quikscat, Aquarius, *Future Mission • Biomass • Land Cover/ Use • Land Surface Topog. • Ocean Surface Currents • Global Precipitation • Soil Moisture • Reservoir level • Evapotranspiration • Radiation DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS • PECAD/CADRE (Crop Assessment Data Retrieval & Evaluation) • Generated time series graphs for rainfall, temperature , and soil moisture • Multi-year time series/ crop comparisons • Vegetation anomaly detection • Automated web products VALUE & BENEFITS Early warning of problems in major agricultural commodities • Better assessments of Reduction in production early season production costs. outlook Better seasonal yield • Better seasonal yield estimates Early warning of food • Faster response to major shortages events during the season, e. g. , floods or droughts • Greater economic security for agriculture sector n ions s vratatio ere v bb OOs s DRAFT- 2/04

Agricultural Efficiency Global Agricultural Production Assessments Transition to NPOESS with cross calibration to legacy Agricultural Efficiency Global Agricultural Production Assessments Transition to NPOESS with cross calibration to legacy systems. Integrated system to ingest data from wide variety of commercial high-resolution systems. Transition to VIIRS/NPP, and other new data sources as they come on-line. Integrate NASA model output into DST. Evaluate, via data simulations, new data sources (OCO, Aquarius, ) on predictive capabilities and production estimates. New MODIS-based vegetation, ET, and TRMM products for CADRE database and crop models. Transition to VIIRS TOPEX TRMM Outcomes: Better information on hot spots Outcomes: New tools to exploit enhanced capability for region-specific modeling and prediction. Ability to compare new data to archive Outcomes: New tools for analysts to exploit enhanced system capability for region-specific modeling and prediction Outcomes: New source of precipitation, land cover and available water data offering more comprehensive knowledge base for in-season crop monitoring Impacts: Long-term operational sustainability that exploits all available systems Enhanced operational decision support systems for prediction and monitoring of agricultural production. Socioeconomic Impact Enhanced DSS integrating new generation image products, precip. data, and crop and weather models for more accurate crop production assessments Impacts: More accurate crop assessments based on new operational capabilities Impacts: More accurate production estimates Impacts: More accurate and timely drought monitoring. Enhanced prediction of yield Lsat 5, 7 LDCM Terra Jason-1 Aqua Current 2006 NPP 2008 Aquarius OCO 2010 GPM NPOESS 2012 01/12/06

NASA Collaboration with FAS • Based on three projects selected through competitive solicitations: – NASA Collaboration with FAS • Based on three projects selected through competitive solicitations: – Univ. of Maryland (Justice): Integration of MODIS land observation products – NASA/Goddard (Kempler): Integration of rainfall and soil moisture products – UMD/GSFC (Birkett): Reservoir height for water availability. • These products contribute to the “convergence of evidence” approach used by FAS to generate monthly production and yield estimates.

PECAD/CADRE Data & Information Requirements and Data Sources • Hydrologic data (rainfall, soil moisture): PECAD/CADRE Data & Information Requirements and Data Sources • Hydrologic data (rainfall, soil moisture): - WMO station data - TRMM, AMSR • Inter–annual crop phenology: - AVHRR: GIMMS - MODIS • Crop identification & within season crop phenology: - Landsat, SPOT, IKONOS - MODIS Rapid Response • Stored water availability: - TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 radar altimeters • Economic information: - In country observations - Published reports

NASA transfers technology to the user community through partnerships and an “integrated systems solution” NASA transfers technology to the user community through partnerships and an “integrated systems solution” model. Earth System Models Soil moisture (Modified Palmer, Penman-Monteith) Crop yield/stage (Robertson BMTS, EPIC, Hanway, and others) Hazard models (Winter kill and others) US Air Force weather (AGRMET) Predictions/Forecasts National and sub-national yield forecast (grains, oil seeds, cotton and rice) Condition forecasts Decision Support Tools Observations, Parameters and Products Earth Observation Systems SPOT VEG/HRV TRMM Jason-1 & Topex/Poseidon MODIS VIIRS Landsat ALI/Hyperion GPM NASA/FAS partnership NDVI Rainfall Land use Reservoir height Soil moisture Weather Crop condition PECAD/CADRE Famine Early Warning Societal Benefit Areas Global Commodity Forecast, Mitigate climate change, Disaster response

Contact Information: Ed Sheffner edwin. j. sheffner@nasa. gov 202 -358 -0239 Contact Information: Ed Sheffner edwin. j. [email protected] gov 202 -358 -0239