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Nanotechnology and Energy Be a Scientist – Save the World! RTI 2006 Fellows Symposium Nanotechnology and Energy Be a Scientist – Save the World! RTI 2006 Fellows Symposium Exploring Frontiers in Science: Implications for Research and Policy April 2 , 2006 Wade Adams, Amy Jaffe, and Rick Smalley www. nano. rice. edu

Professor Richard E. Smalley 1943 - 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996 A 6 Professor Richard E. Smalley 1943 - 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996 A 6 week summer project in 1985 2 – page paper in Nature with Robert F. Curl and Harold Kroto C 60 Buckminsterfullerene: Buckyballs

National Nanotechnology Program White House – November 2003 National Nanotechnology Program White House – November 2003

Rick Smalley with his favorite students: anyone, any age!! Rick Smalley with his favorite students: anyone, any age!!

What is Nanotechnology? • “Nanotechnology now represents no less than the next Industrial Revolution. What is Nanotechnology? • “Nanotechnology now represents no less than the next Industrial Revolution. ” Red Herring, December 2001 • “Nanotechnology is all the rage… but what the heck is it? ” Scientific American, September 2001 • “Anything is nanotechnology that, under the rubric of nanotechnology, makes money. ” Rice Alliance Technology Entrepreneurship Workshop, October 2002

What is Nanotechnology? Molecular Engineering? Nanobots? What is Nanotechnology? Molecular Engineering? Nanobots?

C 60 -wheel-assisted motions Pivot motion Pivot & Linear motion No lateral motion Pseudo-1 C 60 -wheel-assisted motions Pivot motion Pivot & Linear motion No lateral motion Pseudo-1 D Brownian motion Y. Shirai, K. Kelly

Synthesis of G 4 Nano. Car “Z” Y. Shirai Z Nano. Car Synthesis of G 4 Nano. Car “Z” Y. Shirai Z Nano. Car

Random Thermal Motion (Brownian Motion) Nano. Cars are mobile at high temperature (~194ºC), and Random Thermal Motion (Brownian Motion) Nano. Cars are mobile at high temperature (~194ºC), and show random thermal motion. Pivot & rolling Lateral motion is parallel to Nano. Car chassis. (Pseudo-1 D Brownian motion) Pivot Supports the idea that & Nano. Car is rolling, rolling not sliding via a stick slip mechanism Nano. Collision! Y. Shirai K. Kelly

Nano-Hummer, The New H 3 Nano-Hummer, The New H 3

i. Pod Nano Apple's new Nano music player has several features that are not i. Pod Nano Apple's new Nano music player has several features that are not found in other i. Pods, such as the ability to display the lyrics of whatever song is now playing. If your eyes are good enough to read them! Paul Sakuma/Associated Press

Reality of Nanotech • • Hard drives Sunscreens Automotive catalysts Car bumpers Paints and Reality of Nanotech • • Hard drives Sunscreens Automotive catalysts Car bumpers Paints and coatings Tennis balls and racquets Stain-resistant clothing New cancer therapies www. nanotechproject. org/consumerproducts

Sean Murdock, Nano. Business Alliance, 2005 Sean Murdock, Nano. Business Alliance, 2005

Nurturing Nanoscience into Nanotechnology DOD Nano SRA DARPA ULTRA ONR PINS ARI N N Nurturing Nanoscience into Nanotechnology DOD Nano SRA DARPA ULTRA ONR PINS ARI N N I * Roco, Journal of Nanoparticle Research 2004 ** Science Citation Index Expanded, ISI Web of Science Murday, NRL #206 10/02

Global Participation in Nanoscience Canada 382/545 USA 5395/6149/7850 Germany 1949/2282/2429 England 906/1000 France 1317/1561 Global Participation in Nanoscience Canada 382/545 USA 5395/6149/7850 Germany 1949/2282/2429 England 906/1000 France 1317/1561 Sweden 297/320 Israel 273/253 Russia 854/1025/1128 Japan 2289/3002/3350 China 2474/3493/4618 Switzerland 372/369 Italy 631/829 Mexico 166/218 India 461/650/862 Brazil 285/311 Singapore 209/277/439 Korea 760/1103/1466 Taiwan 282/465/706 Australia 236/348/416 CY 2002/03/04 PUBLICATION COUNT (By Keyword Nano*) Science Citation Index of 5300 Journals Total Worldwide- 18539 /24208 /28177_

Sean Murdock, Nano. Business Alliance, 2005 Sean Murdock, Nano. Business Alliance, 2005

Sean Murdock, Nano. Business Alliance, 2005 Sean Murdock, Nano. Business Alliance, 2005

Sean Murdock, Nano. Business Alliance, 2005 Sean Murdock, Nano. Business Alliance, 2005

Nanotechnology* Material or system with at least one constituent or phase exhibiting a scalar Nanotechnology* Material or system with at least one constituent or phase exhibiting a scalar dimension between 1 -100 nm Designed through processes that exhibit fundamental control over the chemical and physical attributes of molecular scale structures Can be combined to form larger structures *Mike Roco, definitions from NNI at www. nano. gov

How small is nano, really? Mountain 1 km Child 1 m Ant 1 mm How small is nano, really? Mountain 1 km Child 1 m Ant 1 mm 1/1000 of mountain 1/1000 of child 1/1, 000 of mountain Bacteria 1 mm Sugar Molecule 1 nm 1/1000 of ant 1/1, 000 of child 1/1000 of bacteria 1/1, 000 of ant 1/1, 000, 000 of child

Nanotechnology Size Bulk Gold = Yellow Nanogold = Red Numbers Surface Area (S/V) Quantum Nanotechnology Size Bulk Gold = Yellow Nanogold = Red Numbers Surface Area (S/V) Quantum Effects bulk scaling R x atomic

Nanoshell-Assisted Tumor Ablation Professors Naomi Halas and Jennifer West 20 nm Nanoshell-Assisted Tumor Ablation Professors Naomi Halas and Jennifer West 20 nm

Nanoshell-Assisted Tumor Ablation Antibody ligands on nanoshells match receptor sites specific to targeted cancer Nanoshell-Assisted Tumor Ablation Antibody ligands on nanoshells match receptor sites specific to targeted cancer cells. §PI: Dr. Jennifer West (Rice Bioengineering) §Dr. Naomi Halas (Rice ECE ) Nanoshells Absorb in IR l a. Mice Demonstratedn r in r te e Ex as L The inside joke is that the treated mice lived much longer than budgeted and have become a financial and accounting embarrassment. Target Cancer Cell §Dr. John Hazle (MDACC) §Investigating use of Rice invention (nanoshells) for highly specific, minimally invasive cancer therapy §Funded by NSF §Licensed by Nanospectra Biosciences, Inc.

Effect of Nanoshells on Mouse Tumor Direction of infrared laser beam Effect of Nanoshells on Mouse Tumor Direction of infrared laser beam

Nanoshell Treatment Increases Survival Time CBEN: www. rice. edu/cben Nanoshell Treatment Increases Survival Time CBEN: www. rice. edu/cben

The future(s) of nanotechnology Good news futures Bad news futures The future(s) of nanotechnology Good news futures Bad news futures

Technologies: From Wow to Yuck? DDT cured malaria Endangered birds Pesticides improved crop yields Technologies: From Wow to Yuck? DDT cured malaria Endangered birds Pesticides improved crop yields Toxic to animals Refrigerants made houses cool Lead to ozone hole Asbestos improved insulation Liability expenses The Public Benefits Risks

The future of nanotechnology DDT cured malaria Toxic to animals Pesticides improved crop yields The future of nanotechnology DDT cured malaria Toxic to animals Pesticides improved crop yields Human carcinogens Refrigerants made houses cool Lead to ozone hole Nanotechnology …… Nanotechnology provides us with the ideal opportunity to rewrite how emerging technologies handle the public question of risk

Nanotechnology for the Long Haul Nanomaterials What will be nanotechnology’s impact on the world’s Nanotechnology for the Long Haul Nanomaterials What will be nanotechnology’s impact on the world’s environment? Nanostructured Membranes • Fate and Transport of Nanomaterials •

ICON Website • • International partnership which includes many stakeholders Pooled resources for risk ICON Website • • International partnership which includes many stakeholders Pooled resources for risk assessment of nanotechnology Effective risk management policies through standards Shared risk communication strategies http: //icon. rice. edu/ Nano Coalition Unveils Environmental, Health and Safety Database - ICON Collects Diverse Scientific Findings

Humanity’s Top Ten Problems for next 50 years 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Humanity’s Top Ten Problems for next 50 years 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. ENERGY WATER FOOD ENVIRONMENT POVERTY TERRORISM & WAR DISEASE EDUCATION DEMOCRACY POPULATION 2003 2050 6. 5 8 -10 Billion People

Energy Industry “Our Energy will be primarily from fossil fuels for the next 50 Energy Industry “Our Energy will be primarily from fossil fuels for the next 50 years” Lewis Norman Halliburton Energy Services Economides, M. and Oligney, R. : The Color of Oil, Round Oak Publishing Company, Inc. , Katy, TX, 2000

795, 000 million bbls (80 %) G 180 -Oil & Gas Lewis Norman Halliburton 795, 000 million bbls (80 %) G 180 -Oil & Gas Lewis Norman Halliburton Energy Services 35

“This galaxy he’s from---ask him if it’s got oil. ” “This galaxy he’s from---ask him if it’s got oil. ”

Hubbert’s Peak Hubbert’s Peak

U. S. Oil Production Hubbert’s Peak (2001) U. S. Oil Production Hubbert’s Peak (2001)

WORLD OIL PRODUCTION Hubbert’s Peak (2001) WORLD OIL PRODUCTION Hubbert’s Peak (2001)

Recent Newspaper Ad Recent Newspaper Ad

All I’m saying is now is the time to develop the technology to deflect All I’m saying is now is the time to develop the technology to deflect an asteroid.

STUDY Matthew Simmon’s Presentations on Saudi Arabian Oil (www. simmons-intl. com) and his new STUDY Matthew Simmon’s Presentations on Saudi Arabian Oil (www. simmons-intl. com) and his new book “Twilight in the Desert” John Wiley & Sons publishers, May 2005 When Saudi Arabia Peaks So does the World. GHAWAR, by far the world’s Largest and most prolific oil field may have already peaked. The days of cheap oil are over. Also Google “peak oil” and look at sites such as “peakoil. com”

2 Billion Poor – No Electricity 2 Billion Poor – Biomass Heating http: //www. 2 Billion Poor – No Electricity 2 Billion Poor – Biomass Heating http: //www. undp. org/energy

Global warming over the past millennium Very rapidly we have entered uncharted territory -– Global warming over the past millennium Very rapidly we have entered uncharted territory -– what some call the anthropocene climate regime. Over the 20 th century, human population quadrupled and energy consumption increased sixteenfold. Near the end of the last century, we crossed a critical threshold, and global warming from the fossil fuel greenhouse became a major, and increasingly dominant, factor in climate change. Global mean surface temperature is higher today than it’s been for at least a millennium. Slide from Marty Hoffert NYU

World Energy Millions of Barrels per Day (Oil Equivalent) 300 Very Conservative! 200 100 World Energy Millions of Barrels per Day (Oil Equivalent) 300 Very Conservative! 200 100 0 1860 2060 1900 2100 1940 1980 2020 Source: John F. Bookout (President of Shell USA) , “Two Centuries of Fossil Fuel Energy” International Geological Congress, Washington DC; July 10, 1985. Episodes, vol 12, 257 -262 (1989).

Uh Oh – China!! 1 Billion + people! Energy Growth Rate ~10%!! National Geographic Uh Oh – China!! 1 Billion + people! Energy Growth Rate ~10%!! National Geographic June 2004

Gee, this isn’t my mother-in-law’s Buick!! From bicycles……. to Buicks!! Gee, this isn’t my mother-in-law’s Buick!! From bicycles……. to Buicks!!

A Much Better Use for Oil than Gasoline! Professor Mark Foster and Family (Univ. A Much Better Use for Oil than Gasoline! Professor Mark Foster and Family (Univ. of Akron Polymer Science Department) with all their oil-based polymer belongings! -- Nat. Geog. June 2004

The ENERGY REVOLUTION (The Terawatt Challenge) 14 Terawatts 210 M BOE/day Energy: The Basis The ENERGY REVOLUTION (The Terawatt Challenge) 14 Terawatts 210 M BOE/day Energy: The Basis of Prosperity 20 st Century = OIL 21 st Century = ? ? 30 -- 60 Terawatts 450 – 900 MBOE/day

Energy-efficient Commuting Energy-efficient Commuting

Small efficiencies matter! National Geographic August 2005 Small efficiencies matter! National Geographic August 2005

Big efficiencies matter, too! Big efficiencies matter, too!

Boeing 787 Going in the right direction – Efficiency and economy Boeing 787 Going in the right direction – Efficiency and economy

Hydrogen – Not a Primary Fuel Hydrogen – Not a Primary Fuel

PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCES Alternatives to Oil TOO LITTLE • Conservation / Efficiency • Hydroelectric PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCES Alternatives to Oil TOO LITTLE • Conservation / Efficiency • Hydroelectric • Biomass • Wind • Wave & Tide ------ CHEMICAL • Natural Gas • Gas Hydrates • Clean Coal -- sequestration? , cost? NUCLEAR • Nuclear Fission • Nuclear Fusion • Geothermal HDR • Solar terrestrial • Solar power satellites • Lunar Solar Power ------- not enough not enough radioactive waste? , terrorism? , cost? too difficult? , cost? cost ? , enough? cost ?

165, 000 TW of sunlight hit the earth every day 165, 000 TW of sunlight hit the earth every day

PV Land Area Requirements Nathan S. Lewis, California Institute of Technology 3 TW 20 PV Land Area Requirements Nathan S. Lewis, California Institute of Technology 3 TW 20 TW

Solar Cell Land Area Requirements Nathan S. Lewis, California Institute of Technology 6 Boxes Solar Cell Land Area Requirements Nathan S. Lewis, California Institute of Technology 6 Boxes at 3. 3 TW Each = 20 TWe

≥ 20 TWe from the Moon “Harvested Moon” David Criswell Univ. Houston ≥ 20 TWe from the Moon “Harvested Moon” David Criswell Univ. Houston

Energy Nanotech Grand Challenges from Meeting at Rice University May 2003 Report available! 1. Energy Nanotech Grand Challenges from Meeting at Rice University May 2003 Report available! 1. Photovoltaics -- drop cost by 100 fold. 2. Photocatalytic reduction of CO 2 to methanol. 3. Direct photoconversion of light + water to produce H 2. 4. Fuel cells -- drop the cost by 10 -100 x + low temp start. 5. Batteries and supercapacitors -- improve by 10 -100 x for automotive and distributed generation applications. 6. H 2 storage -- light weight materials for pressure tanks and LH 2 vessels, and/or a new light weight, easily reversible hydrogen chemisorption system 7. Power cables (superconductors, or quantum conductors) with which to rewire the electrical transmission grid, and enable continental, and even worldwide electrical energy transport; and also to replace aluminum and copper wires essentially everywhere -- particularly in the windings of electric motors and generators (especially good if we can eliminate eddy current losses).

Energy Nanotech Grand Challenges 8. Nanoelectronics to revolutionize computers, sensors and devices. 9. Nanoelectronics Energy Nanotech Grand Challenges 8. Nanoelectronics to revolutionize computers, sensors and devices. 9. Nanoelectronics based Robotics with AI to enable construction maintenance of solar structures in space and on the moon; and to enable nuclear reactor maintenance and fuel reprocessing. 10. Super-strong, light weight materials to drop cost to LEO, GEO, and later the moon by > 100 x, to enable huge but low cost light harvesting structures in space; and to improve efficiency of cars, planes, etc. 11. Thermochemical processes with catalysts to generate H 2 from water that work efficiently at temperatures lower than 900 C. 12. Nanotech lighting to replace incandescent and fluorescent lights 13. Nano. Materials/ coatings that will enable vastly lower the cost of deep drilling, to enable HDR (hot dry rock) geothermal heat mining. 14. CO 2 mineralization schemes that can work on a vast scale, hopefully starting from basalt and having no waste streams.

One World Energy Scheme for 30 -60 TW in 2050: The Distributed Store-Gen Grid One World Energy Scheme for 30 -60 TW in 2050: The Distributed Store-Gen Grid • Energy transported as electrical energy over wire, rather than by transport of mass (coal, oil, gas) • Vast electrical power grid on continental scale interconnecting ~ 100 million asynchronous “local” storage and generation sites, entire system continually innovated by free enterprise • “Local” = house, block, community, business, town, … • Local storage = batteries, flywheels, hydrogen, etc. • Local generation = reverse of local storage + local solar and geo • Local “buy low, sell high” to electrical power grid • Local optimization of days of storage capacity, quality of local power • Electrical grid does not need to be very reliable, but it will be robust • Mass Primary Power input to grid via HV DC transmission lines from existing plants plus remote (up to 2000 mile) sources on TW scale, including vast solar farms in deserts, wind, NIMBY nuclear, clean coal, stranded gas, wave, hydro, space-based solar…”EVERYBODY PLAYS” • Hydrogen is transportation fuel • Transition technology – Plug-in Hybrids

The Blackout from Space Hoax Photo!! But it does nicely outline the blackout area! The Blackout from Space Hoax Photo!! But it does nicely outline the blackout area!

Carbon Nanotechnology Laboratory “Making Buckytubes “Be All They Can Be” Founded by Rick Smalley Carbon Nanotechnology Laboratory “Making Buckytubes “Be All They Can Be” Founded by Rick Smalley in 2003 as a division of CNST Coordinates SWNT Research with 10 Faculty in 6 Departments Prof. James M. Tour – Director Prof. Matteo Pasquali – Co-Director Dr. Howard K. Schmidt - Executive Director Dr. Robert H. Hauge - Technology Director

If it ain’t tubes, we don’t do it! If it ain’t tubes, we don’t do it!

Why Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes? MOLECULAR PERFECTION & EXTREME PERFORMANCE The Strongest Fiber Possible. Why Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes? MOLECULAR PERFECTION & EXTREME PERFORMANCE The Strongest Fiber Possible. Selectable Electrical Properties Metallic Tubes Better Than Copper Semiconductors Better Than In. Sb or Ga. As Thermal Conductivity of Diamond. The Unique Chemistry of Carbon. The Scale and Perfection of DNA. The Ultimately Versatile Engineering Material.

Graphene Sheet Texas Chicken Wire Graphene Sheet Texas Chicken Wire

SWNT: ROLLED-UP SHEET OF GRAPHITE SWNT: ROLLED-UP SHEET OF GRAPHITE

World’s largest SWNT model RAJAT DUGGAL (inside giant SWNT model) 22 April 2005, Guinness World’s largest SWNT model RAJAT DUGGAL (inside giant SWNT model) 22 April 2005, Guinness World Record Model of a 5 -5 SWNT ~65, 000 pieces 360 m long, 0. 36 m wide about 100 builders over 1000 in attendance “Supremely Silly” (from Rick Smalley) Cost of the parts: $6, 000 Building a 1000 -ft SWNT: p. RICEless

Types of SWNT – Cylindrical graphene sheet – Diameters of 0. 7 – 3. Types of SWNT – Cylindrical graphene sheet – Diameters of 0. 7 – 3. 0 nm armchair (a = 30°) • Observed tubes typically < 2 nm – Both metallic and semiconductor species possible – Length to diameter ratio as large as 104 – 105 zigzag (a = 0°) • can be considered 1 -D nanostructures intermediate (0 a 30°)

SWNT Quantum Wire Expected Features • 1 -10 x Copper Conductivity • 6 x SWNT Quantum Wire Expected Features • 1 -10 x Copper Conductivity • 6 x Less Mass • Stronger Than Steel • Zero Thermal Expansion Key Grid Benefits • Reduced Power Loss • Low-to-No Sag • Reduced Mass • Higher Power Density SWNT Technology Benefits • Type & Class Specific • Higher Purity • Lower Cost • Polymer Dispersible

Prototype Wire - SWNT Fibers • Producing Neat SWNT Fibers • Dry-Spun from Oleum Prototype Wire - SWNT Fibers • Producing Neat SWNT Fibers • Dry-Spun from Oleum • 6 to 14 Wt. % SWNT Dope • Extruded as 50 µm Dia. Fibers • 109 Tubes in Cross Section • 100 Meters Long Science 305, 1447 -1450, 3 September 2004!!!

NASA Success Stories h, High Pressure CO (Hi. PCO)t. Process CN l 26 L, NASA Success Stories h, High Pressure CO (Hi. PCO)t. Process CN l 26 L, A pri l day Acti u bu TCOes i CO + SWNT + impurities CO + Avely l NAS --ding 2005 coll ces ne w $16 M new un nnoabora Ao t fu to Ricio te n n rant d t swo G criti ersithiand t ys v Unical r pro SA Centers – ese A ardevelop Ngram o ch rc! t a !! h Rese Wire Fe, Ni Catalysts 900 -1200 C 10 -40 atm Continuous process 10 -100’s g/day Small diameters (0. 7 nm) Company spin-off (CNI) 2 Rice Univ. Carbon Nanotechnologies, Inc. & NASA tum W Quan the

Roadblocks • Vision without funding is hallucination. • Da Hsuan Feng – UT Dallas Roadblocks • Vision without funding is hallucination. • Da Hsuan Feng – UT Dallas • Vision without hardware is delusion. • Lockheed engineer

From the age of Space to the age of Medicine From the age of Space to the age of Medicine

New Energy Research Program (Smalley’s Nickel & Dime Solution) • For FY 06 -FY New Energy Research Program (Smalley’s Nickel & Dime Solution) • For FY 06 -FY 10 collect 5 cents from every gallon of oil product Invest the resultant > $10 Billion per year as additional funding in frontier energy research distributed among DOE, NSF, NIST, NASA, and Do. D. • For the next 10 years collect 10 cents from every gallon; invest the >$20 Billion per year in frontier energy research. • Devote a third of this money to New Energy Research Centers located adjacent to major US Research Universities, especially Zip Code 77005. • At worst this endeavor will create a cornucopia of new technologies and new industries. • At best, we will solve the energy problem before 2020, and thereby lay the basis for energy prosperity & peace worldwide.

Leadership • President Bush – State of the Union Address – Jan 31, 2006 Leadership • President Bush – State of the Union Address – Jan 31, 2006 – “America is addicted to oil” – Replace oil imports from Middle East by 75% by 2025 • DOE Advanced Energy Initiative 22% increase in clean energy research – – Zero emission coal Solar and wind Clean, safe nuclear Batteries, Hydrogen, ethanol • A BIG change from the 2001 Cheney Energy Report – drill our way to independence!

But… • Are these ideas tough or aggressive enough? • NO! – Biofuels budget But… • Are these ideas tough or aggressive enough? • NO! – Biofuels budget actually smaller than in FY 06 – No market signal for more efficient vehicles • Fuel economy standards – regulatory – 40 mpg in 10 years saves 2. 5 M BOE/day • Substantial gas tax – market mechanism • Up to Congress to execute programs – Incentives for alternate fuel production/vehicles – Funding for research initiatives

The biggest single challenge for the next few decades: ENERGY for 1010 people • The biggest single challenge for the next few decades: ENERGY for 1010 people • At MINIMUM we need 10 Terawatts (150 M BOE/day) from some new clean energy source by 2050 • For worldwide energy prosperity and peace we need it to be cheap. • We simply can not do this with current technology. • We need Boys and Girls to enter Physical Science and Engineering as they did after Sputnik. • Inspire in them a sense of MISSION ( BE A SCIENTIST --- SAVE THE WORLD ) • We need a bold new APOLLO PROGRAM to find the NEW ENERGY TECHNOLOGY

By 2012, if current trends continue, over 90% of all physical scientists and engineers By 2012, if current trends continue, over 90% of all physical scientists and engineers in the world will be Asians working in Asia.

Education • American Competitiveness Initiative – Double physical sciences research funding in ten years Education • American Competitiveness Initiative – Double physical sciences research funding in ten years (including nanotech, supercomputing, alternative energy sources) – Permanent R&D Tax Credit – HS Math/Science teacher training (70, 000) and add 30, 000 M&S professional teachers • YEA! – But will Congress fund the initiatives? – And will they sustain the funding? ?

2999 2999

What Can YOU Do Now? • Learn as much as possible about energy • What Can YOU Do Now? • Learn as much as possible about energy • Learn as much as possible about nanotechnology • Encourage kids to study science and engineering!!

Reading Assignments • • • • Twilight in the Desert, Matthew R. Simmons Winning Reading Assignments • • • • Twilight in the Desert, Matthew R. Simmons Winning the Oil Endgame, Amory Lovins Beyond Oil: The View from Hubbert’s Peak, Kenneth S. Deffeyes Out of Gas, Daniel Goodstein The End of Oil, Paul Roberts The Prize, Daniel Yergin Hubbert’s Peak, Kenneth S. Deffeyes The Hydrogen Economy, Jeremy Rifkin Twenty Hydrogen Myths, Amory Lovins (www. rmi. org) Matt Simmons, web site: (www. simmons-intl. com) M. I. Hoffert et. al. , Science, 2002, 298, 981, DOE BES Workshop Report on Hydrogen (www. sc. doe. org/bes/hydrogen. pdf) 2003 State of the Future, (www. stateofthefuture. org) Nanotechnology and Energy, 2003 Report, (www. cnst. rice. edu) National Nanotechnology Program, (www. nano. gov)

Rick was a visionary, and his charisma and logic made those he worked with Rick was a visionary, and his charisma and logic made those he worked with buy into the vision. Rick convinced us that we could be better, stronger and take more chances if we just tried. I hope that we don’t forget – then his legacy… will make a lasting transformative difference. -- Robert Curl October 28, 2005