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Nano-technology in a nutshell Dept of Phys M. C. Chang Nano-technology in a nutshell Dept of Phys M. C. Chang

ENIAC circa 1947 Physical characteristics: Future prediction (Popular Mechanics, 1949): • 17, 468 vacuum ENIAC circa 1947 Physical characteristics: Future prediction (Popular Mechanics, 1949): • 17, 468 vacuum tubes; 1, 500 relays • 1, 500 vacuum tubes; 10 kilowatts • 60, 000 pounds; 16, 200 cubic feet • 3, 000 pounds (~ size of an automobile) • 174 kilowatts (233 horsepower) • 5, 000 addition/sec. (~ same as Intel 4004) • 5. 25 MJoule/trajectory (~ fire an artillery shell)

The invention of transistor (1947, Bardeen, Brattain, Shockley) • small size • less electricity The invention of transistor (1947, Bardeen, Brattain, Shockley) • small size • less electricity • no movable part • faster turn-on time 1956

The invention of IC (1959, Kilby and Noyce) Intel 40044(1971) Pentium 2250 transistors 4. The invention of IC (1959, Kilby and Noyce) Intel 40044(1971) Pentium 2250 transistors 4. 2 million transistors 2000

A silicon single crystal A silicon wafer A silicon single crystal A silicon wafer

Moore’s law Moore’s law

Moore’s Second Law Cost of Fab $50 B $40 B 360 B $20 B Moore’s Second Law Cost of Fab $50 B $40 B 360 B $20 B $10 B $0 B 1992 1995 1998 2001 Year 2004 2007 2010

Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) • mems microphone (PC, cellular phone) • mems accelerometer (safety bag, Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) • mems microphone (PC, cellular phone) • mems accelerometer (safety bag, Wii, PC, camera, air guitar…) • other mems sensors (pressure, heat …) • mems oscillator (replaces quartz) • optical mems (VSCEL, micro projector) • microfluid (printer…) • biomems • … Cheaper, better, smaller, response time, energy consumption … + systems-on-a-chip (SOC) = multi-functional, mass production … (lab-on-a-chip)

Motion sensor DLP micro-projector MEMS mirror Motion sensor DLP micro-projector MEMS mirror

gene chip gene chip

Micro-fluid chip Micro-fluid chip

Top-down approach Top-down approach

Bottom-up approach Bottom-up approach

Self-organized (or self-assembled) Pb. Se dots (on Pb. Eu. Te) Self-organized (or self-assembled) Pb. Se dots (on Pb. Eu. Te)

Buckminster Fuller Buckminsterfullerene 1996 Carbon nanotube as nanowire Buckminster Fuller Buckminsterfullerene 1996 Carbon nanotube as nanowire

STM (Scanning Tunneling Microscope) 1980, Binning and Rohrer 1986 STM (Scanning Tunneling Microscope) 1980, Binning and Rohrer 1986

Quantum corral made by 48 iron atoms (D. Eigler) Quantum corral made by 48 iron atoms (D. Eigler)

Nano-machine, molecular robot … etc Nano-machine, molecular robot … etc

From sub-micron technology to nano-technology -- problems of this century Emergence of quantum effect From sub-micron technology to nano-technology -- problems of this century Emergence of quantum effect Quantum wire Quantum dot Self-assembly device Need better grasp of the fundamental physics of materials How long can we keep enjoying the amazing progress? A powerful computer in turn helps us explore the mystery of nature (high-Tc superconductor, DNA-coding, protein folding, drug design, better airplane… etc)