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Mykhailo Yavorsky FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL POTENTIAL OF UKRAINE Lviv Centre for Scientific, Technical and Economic Information Lviv, UA, E-mail: [email protected] lviv. ua URL: http: //www. cstei. lviv. ua UKRAINE: Science and technologies According to the materials of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine
FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL POTENTIAL OF UKRAINE Ukraine as a European country In 1991 a new state appeared on the political map of the world. Ukraine, a democratic legal state, “was established on the basis of Ukrainian people’s Sovereign right to self-determination”. It comprises of 24 administrative regions and Autonomous Republic of Crimea. Kyiv and Sevastopol are the cities of national jurisdiction. The population is about 49 million people, 46 % of the population are men, and 54 % are women. 33. 3 million people are urban inhabitants, and 15. 7 million people are rural dwellers. Population density has 85 people for 1 sq. km. People of 128 nations, nationalities and ethnic groups live in Ukraine. The Ukrainian language is native for 66. 3 % of population, for 31. 3 % of population the native is Russian. English is the most widely spread foreign language. The surface of Ukraine is 603. 7 thousand sq. km. By its dimensions Ukraine occupies the first place in Europe. The neighbors of Ukraine are Byelorus, Russia, Hungary, Romania, Moldova, Poland Slovakia. In the South Ukraine is washed by the Black and Azov Seas. Across the Black Sea waters Ukraine borders on Turkey, Bulgaria, Georgia and Russia, Romania. The total length of the frontiers is 6500 km, including 1050 km of maritime ones.
FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL POTENTIAL OF UKRAINE Scientific personnel There is a tendency of reduction of the scientific personnel in Ukraine beginning from 1995. In 2001 it was 3, 4 % as compared to 2000, and in the whole period of 1991 - 2001 the scientific personnel was reduced more than by half. Combining jobs became widely used. Joining pedagogical activity with business is livening up among higher education instructors. The number of scientific organizations personnel in Ukraine in 2001 (thousand people) (Diagram 1). Diagram 1
FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL POTENTIAL OF UKRAINE Industry branch sector has 64 % of the organizations that conducted scientific research. 20 % of scientific research organizations are concentrated in academic sector, this of higher education has 10 %, and 6 % are in the factory sector. In comparison with 1991, the academic and higher educational sectors almost have not changed, but the industry branch has grew and the factory one has decreased (Diagram 2). Diagram 2
FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL POTENTIAL OF UKRAINE The distribution of scientific organizations by regions of Ukraine is presented by Diagram 1. 4. , which shows that the majority of organizations (20 %) is concentrated in the city of Kyiv. The following stand out among the regions: Kharkiv region – 14. 1 %, Donetsk region – 7. 7 %, Dnipropetrovsk region – 6. 6 % of the total number. Diagram 3
FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL POTENTIAL OF UKRAINE The number of scientists entering postgraduate and doctor studies has grown in these recent years (Diagram 4, 5). In 2001 among 434 institutions that trained post-graduates there were 234 scientific research institutions and 200 higher educational establishments. On the whole in 1990 -2001 the total number of post-graduates of all forms of studies increased by 81 %. Diagram 4 Especially this growth was due to admittance to post-graduate studies at higher educational institutions (almost twice). The biggest increase in number of post-graduates was noted in the following sciences: political – 12. 8 %, legal – 11. 9 %, psychological – 8. 6 %, economic – 7. 8 %, and at the same time the number of post graduates diminished in the following sciences: technical – 3 %, historic – 4 %. Diagram 5
FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL POTENTIAL OF UKRAINE As the general tendency shows the reduction of people employed in scientific and technical spheres, the share of specialists with academic degrees (candidates and doctors) has more stable form (Diagram 6). The scientific organizations personnel in Ukraine have the following scientific degrees: Diagram 6
FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL POTENTIAL OF UKRAINE Financial support of the science The share of total national allocations for scientific research in gross domestic product (GDP) is the main indicator of materialized attention of the society to the science. Analysis of this indicator dynamics proved the presence of several phases during the past decade: 1990 -1991 – the index was at rather high levels; 1993 -1995 – new economic conditions resulted in two time reduction of the support for science; 1996 -1997 – the reduction of scientific allocations was almost proportional to the general decrease of GDP. In 2001 the national expenditures for science in Ukraine were 2433 million hryvnias or 1. 2 % of GDP (Diagram 7). Diagram 7
FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL POTENTIAL OF UKRAINE The distribution of expenditures for science in 1999 presented in Diagram 8. More than the half of scientific research was conducted with the customers’ funds. Among the customers there are domestic non-governmental entities, non-budget funds, foreign orders and grants. As for proper assets of the scientific research organizations they also play an important role, which confirms the creation of some industries that are in demand. Diagram 8
FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL POTENTIAL OF UKRAINE By October 1, 2000 the State Registers of Ukraine comprise: 27 685 patents for inventions (Diagram 9); 3 666 patents for industrial prototypes (Diagram 10); 569 patents for active models (Diagram 11). 16 313 certificates for goods and services trademarks are registered as well. There were 26 970 international registration of goods and services trademarks (Diagram 12). Diagram 9 Diagram 11 Diagram 10 Diagram 12
FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL POTENTIAL OF UKRAINE Priority directions of the science and technics development It is stated in the President’s Message to Verkhovna Rada that the basis of the further strategic course and its determinative priority should be formation and realization of the State policy, which is aimed at restructuring of the industry and development of innovation model of economic growth, strengthening of Ukraine as a high technology state.
FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL POTENTIAL OF UKRAINE The priority directions of the science and technics development aimed at further creation of the state scientific and technical programs on their basis were approved by Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine for the period of 2001 -2004. Priority directions of the science and technics development 1. Scientific directions of Ukrainian State development 2. Human health 3. Environment protection 6. Scientific and technical support 5. Energy provision and saving 4. Information development of society
FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL POTENTIAL OF UKRAINE International activity International scientific and technical cooperation is one of the most active and effective means of Ukraine’s integration in European and global space. During the recent years the Ukrainian scientists intensified their contacts with foreign scientific organizations and educational institutions. For that in 1999 the scientists went abroad 13. 4 thousand times (Diagram 13). Diagram 13 Numbers of times the Ukrainian scientists went abroad
FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL POTENTIAL OF UKRAINE Ukrainian scientists are carrying out joint projects in the following frameworks: • International Association for Cooperation Assistance between the scientists of the CIS and European Union (INTAS); • European Union (INCO-COPERNICUS); • NATO (Science For Peace); • under international agreements. The governments of the USA, Canada and Sweden financed the scientific and research conversion work for the approximate amount of 18. 5 million USD. USA - 15 million Canada - 2 million Sweden - 1. 5 million The greatest experience of international scientific, scientific and technical cooperation was accumulated in NAS of Ukraine, Ministry of Education and Science, State Committee on Industrial Policy, Ukrainian Academy of Agrarian Sciences, Ministry of Health. The NAS of Ukraine signed and uses more than 40 documents on cooperation with the Academies of Sciences of Austria, Czech Republic, Bulgaria, corresponding Ministries of Netherlands, Korea, Romania, Hungary and China.
FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL POTENTIAL OF UKRAINE Joint research is conducted on almost 600 subjects. Joint scientific activity is reflected in common publications. Diagram 14 shows the data on the countries that have the closest cooperation with Ukraine. Diagram 14
FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL POTENTIAL OF UKRAINE About 50 projects are carried out under NATO Scientific Program and “Science For Peace” program. Traditionally the CIS countries, especially Russia, occupy significant place in the scientific cooperation. Long term scientific and technical programs of cooperation in the sphere of science and technologies are developed practically with all CIS countries. Successfully is realyzed bilateral cooperation with Western European countries, for example: · Germany – 23 projects under TRANSFORM program; · Poland – 54 scientific research projects; · Hungary – 37 joint projects. Intergovernmental agreements are planned to be signed with European countries: Italy, Portugal, Spain, Greece. Cooperation with the countries of Asia, Africa, Latin and South America, Republic of Cuba, the People’s Republic of China, the state of Israel, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Republic of India is considered as strategically important partnership.
FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL POTENTIAL OF UKRAINE International relations of the NAS of Ukraine have permanent nature. 58 legal documents on international scientific co-operation have been concluded. The direct constructive contacts with the Academies of Sciences and other scientific centres in a number of countries in Europe, Asia and America have been established. They include the Academies of Sciences in the USA, China, Austria, Norway, Sweden, Germany, England other scientific centres. The scientific institutions of the NAS of Ukraine take an active part in execution of international programs, participate in international forums and exhibitions. Scientists work on probation abroad, make scientific missions and receive foreign colleagues.
FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL POTENTIAL OF UKRAINE Number of missions made by the NASU's employees to the EC countries.
FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL POTENTIAL OF UKRAINE 51 scientific and information organizations are subordinated to Ministry of Education and Science, which carry out scientific projects, provide scientific, information and economic support, conduct examinations, etc. Functioning of the national system of scientific and technical information is defined as one of the Ministry’s activities. The system comprises: Ukrainian Institute of Scientific, Technical and Economic Information and 20 regional centers of scientific, technical and economic information. Scientific and technical activity of these centers is aimed to create conditions for growth of innovation activities in the regions. So, the Kyiv Center of scientific, technical and economic information has developed information search systems for completed scientific projects and scientific specialists; they enable enterprises to enlarge the assortment of competitive goods, and allow to update the list of progressive technologies, that Ukraine sends to “International Data Bank of Technologies and Business Opportunities” (the Kyiv CSTEI has exclusive rights to provide this information). Much in demand is the system of information services for Ukrainian administration authorities, which functions successfully providing daily news on events in the sphere of science and technologies.
FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL POTENTIAL OF UKRAINE The L’viv Center for scientific, technical and economic information actively and successfully supports the “L’viv Technopolis” regional program, which provides assistance for joint international scientific ventures, proceeding from the territorial features of L’viv region (international frontiers of the country).