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MPLS Traffic Engineering NANOG 18 Robert Raszuk - IOS Engineering raszuk@cisco. com © 1999, MPLS Traffic Engineering NANOG 18 Robert Raszuk - IOS Engineering [email protected] com © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 1

Location of files This presentation, handouts & demo are located at: ftp: //ftpeng. cisco. Location of files This presentation, handouts & demo are located at: ftp: //ftpeng. cisco. com/rraszuk/nanog 18 • RR_MPLS_TE_Nanog. pdf - this presentation • TE_Monitor. pdf - show & debug commands • TE_Config. pdf - full configuration syntax • TE_Sample. Cfg. pdf - configuration sample • TE_DEMO. tar - Tared TE offline demo (HTML) • TEisistdp_1. pdf - Demo’s Lab Topology NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 2

Traffic Engineering: Motivations • Reduce the overall cost of operations by more efficient use Traffic Engineering: Motivations • Reduce the overall cost of operations by more efficient use of bandwidth resources – by preventing a situation where some parts of a service provider network are over-utilized (congested), while other parts under-utilized The ultimate goal is cost saving ! NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 3

Traffic Engineering: Motivations • MPLS and Traffic Eng allows for one to spread the Traffic Engineering: Motivations • MPLS and Traffic Eng allows for one to spread the traffic and distribute it across the entire network infrastructure like magnetic fields between poles while also providing the redundancy required for high availability service. (Eric Dean) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 4

Without Traffic Engineering Cars: SFO-LAX SAN-SMF LAX-SFO SMF-SAN No Traffic Engineering analogy to Human Without Traffic Engineering Cars: SFO-LAX SAN-SMF LAX-SFO SMF-SAN No Traffic Engineering analogy to Human Drivers NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 5

With Traffic Engineering Cars: SFO-LAX SAN-SMF LAX-SFO SMF-SAN Traffic Engineering analogy to Auto Pilot With Traffic Engineering Cars: SFO-LAX SAN-SMF LAX-SFO SMF-SAN Traffic Engineering analogy to Auto Pilot NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 6

Routing solution to Traffic Engineering R 2 R 3 R 1 • Construct routes Routing solution to Traffic Engineering R 2 R 3 R 1 • Construct routes for traffic streams within a service provider in such a way, as to avoids causing some parts of the provider’s network to be over-utilized, while others parts remain underutilized NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 7

The “Overlay” Solution L 3 L 2 L 2 L 3 L 3 Physical The “Overlay” Solution L 3 L 2 L 2 L 3 L 3 Physical Logical • Routing at layer 2 (ATM or FR) is used for traffic engineering • Analogy to direct highways between SFO-LAX & SAN-SMF. Nobody enters the highway in between. NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 8

Traffic engineering with overlay R 2 R 3 R 1 PVC for R 2 Traffic engineering with overlay R 2 R 3 R 1 PVC for R 2 to R 3 traffic PVC for R 1 to R 3 traffic NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 9

“Overlay” solution: drawbacks • Extra network devices (cost) • More complex network management (cost) “Overlay” solution: drawbacks • Extra network devices (cost) • More complex network management (cost) – two-level network without integrated network management – additional training, technical support, field engineering • IGP routing scalability issue for meshes • Additional bandwidth overhead (“cell tax”) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 10

Traffic engineering with Layer 3 R 2 R 3 R 1 IP routing: destination-based Traffic engineering with Layer 3 R 2 R 3 R 1 IP routing: destination-based least-cost routing Path for R 2 to R 3 traffic Path for R 1 to R 3 traffic under-utilized alternate path NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 11

Traffic engineering with Layer 3 R 2 R 3 R 1 IP routing: destination-based Traffic engineering with Layer 3 R 2 R 3 R 1 IP routing: destination-based least-cost routing Path for R 2 to R 3 traffic Path for R 1 to R 3 traffic under-utilized alternate path NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 12

Traffic engineering with Layer 3 what is missing ? • Path computation based just Traffic engineering with Layer 3 what is missing ? • Path computation based just on IGP metric is not enough • Support for “explicit” routing (aka “source routing”) is not available • Analogy: NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. San Jose 13

MPLS Traffic Engineering © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 14 MPLS Traffic Engineering © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 14

TE - key mechanisms • “Explicit” routing (aka “source routing”) – Constrained-based Path Selection TE - key mechanisms • “Explicit” routing (aka “source routing”) – Constrained-based Path Selection Algorithm (Example: Choose path with no congestion, avoid highways, select scenic roads etc…) – Extensions to OSPF/ISIS for flooding of resources / policy information (Live collection of traffic statistics - pilot tests in Europe) – MPLS as the forwarding mechanism (Auto Pilot programmed in each car when entering city) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 15

TE - key mechanisms • “Explicit” routing (aka “source routing”) – RSVP as the TE - key mechanisms • “Explicit” routing (aka “source routing”) – RSVP as the mechanism for establishing Label Switched Paths (LSPs) – use of the explicitly routed LSP’s in the forwarding table NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 16

What is a “traffic trunk” ? A D B C • Aggregation of (micro) What is a “traffic trunk” ? A D B C • Aggregation of (micro) flows that are: – forwarded along a common path (within a service provider) – often from a POP to another POP – share a common Qo. S requirement (if L-LSPs are used) • Essential for scalability NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 17

TE basics • Traffic within a Service Provider as a collection of “POP to TE basics • Traffic within a Service Provider as a collection of “POP to POP traffic trunks” with known bandwidth and policy requirements • TE provides traffic trunk routing that meets the goal of Traffic Engineering – via a combination of on-line and offline procedures NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 18

Requirements: • Differentiating traffic trunks: – large, ‘critical’ traffic trunks must be well routed Requirements: • Differentiating traffic trunks: – large, ‘critical’ traffic trunks must be well routed in preference to other trunks • Handling failures: – automated re-routing in the presence of failures • Pre-configured paths: – for use in conjunction with the off-line route computation procedures • Support of multiple Classes of Service NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 19

Requirements (cont. ) • Constraining sub-optimality: – should re-optimize on new/restored bandwidth • in Requirements (cont. ) • Constraining sub-optimality: – should re-optimize on new/restored bandwidth • in a non-disruptive fashion - maintain the existing route until the new route is established, without any double counting • Ability to “spread” traffic trunk across multiple Label Switched Paths (LSPs) – could provide more efficient use of networking resources • Ability to include / exclude certain links for certain traffic trunks NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 20

Design Constraints • Constrained to a single routing domain – initially constrained to a Design Constraints • Constrained to a single routing domain – initially constrained to a single area • Requires OSPF or IS-IS • Unicast traffic • Focus on supporting routing based on a combination of administrative + bandwidth constraints NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 21

Trunks Attributes © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 22 Trunks Attributes © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 22

Trunk Attributes • Configured at the head-end of the trunk • Bandwidth • Priorities Trunk Attributes • Configured at the head-end of the trunk • Bandwidth • Priorities – setup priority: priority for taking a resource – holding priority: priority for holding a resource NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 23

Trunk attributes • Ordered list of Path Options – possible administratively specified paths (via Trunk attributes • Ordered list of Path Options – possible administratively specified paths (via an off-line central server) - {explicit list} – Constrained-based Dynamically computed paths based on combo of Bw and policies • Re-optimization – each path option is enabled or not for reoptimization, interval given in seconds. – Max 1 week (7*24*3600), Disable 0, Def 1 h. NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 24

Trunk Attributes • Resource class affinity (Policy) – supports the ability to include/exclude certain Trunk Attributes • Resource class affinity (Policy) – supports the ability to include/exclude certain links for certain traffic trunks based on a user-defined Policy – Tunnel is characterized by a • 32 -bit resource-class affinity bit string • 32 -bit resource-class mask (0= don’t care, I care) – Link is characterized by a 32 -bit resource-class attribute string – Default-value of tunnel/link bits is 0 – Default value of the tunnel mask = 0 x 0000 FFFF NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 25

Example 0: 4 -bit string, default C A 0000 D 0000 B 0000 E Example 0: 4 -bit string, default C A 0000 D 0000 B 0000 E • Trunk A to B: – tunnel = 0000, t-mask = 0011 • ADEB and ADCEB are possible NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 26

Example 1 a: 4 -bit string C A 0000 D 0010 B 0000 E Example 1 a: 4 -bit string C A 0000 D 0010 B 0000 E • Setting a link bit in the lower half drives all tunnels off the link, except those specially configured • Trunk A to B: – tunnel = 0000, t-mask = 0011 • Only ADCEB is possible NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 27

Example 1 b: 4 -bit string C A 0000 D 0010 B 0000 E Example 1 b: 4 -bit string C A 0000 D 0010 B 0000 E • A specific tunnel can then be configured to allow such links by clearing the bit in its affinity attribute mask • Trunk A to B: – tunnel = 0000, t-mask = 0001 • Again, ADEB and ADCEB are possible NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 28

Example 1 c: 4 -bit string C A 0000 D 0010 B 0000 E Example 1 c: 4 -bit string C A 0000 D 0010 B 0000 E • A specific tunnel can be restricted to only such links by instead turning on the bit in its affinity attribute bits • Trunk A to B: – tunnel = 0010, t-mask = 0011 • No path is possible NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 29

Example 2 a: 4 -bit string C A 0000 D 0100 B 0000 E Example 2 a: 4 -bit string C A 0000 D 0100 B 0000 E • Setting a link bit in the upper half drives has no immediate effect • Trunk A to B: – tunnel = 0000, t-mask = 0011 • ADEB and ADCEB are both possible NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 30

Example 2 b: 4 -bit string C A 0000 D 0100 B 0000 E Example 2 b: 4 -bit string C A 0000 D 0100 B 0000 E • A specific tunnel can be driven off the link by setting the bit in its mask • Trunk A to B: – tunnel = 0000, t-mask = 0111 • Only ADCEB is possible NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 31

Example 2 c: 4 -bit string C A 0000 D 0100 B 0000 E Example 2 c: 4 -bit string C A 0000 D 0100 B 0000 E • A specific tunnel can be restricted to only such links • Trunk A to B: – tunnel = 0100, t-mask = 0111 • No path is possible NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 32

Trunk Attribute Resource Class Affinity (Policy) • The user defines the semantics: – this Trunk Attribute Resource Class Affinity (Policy) • The user defines the semantics: – this bit/mask says “low-delay path excluded” • Flexible (maybe too flexible : ) – 1 c vs 2 c ? … in 1 c, the default tunnels will not be willing to flow via the special links NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 33

Link Attributes and their flooding © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 34 Link Attributes and their flooding © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 34

Link Resource Attributes • Resource attributes are configured on every link in a network Link Resource Attributes • Resource attributes are configured on every link in a network – bandwidth – Link Attributes – TE-specific link metric NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 35

Link Resource Attributes • Resource attributes are flooded throughout the network – bandwidth per Link Resource Attributes • Resource attributes are flooded throughout the network – bandwidth per priority (0 -7) – Link Attributes (Policy) – TE-specific link metric – draft-li-mpls-igp-te-00. txt NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 36

Per-Priority Available BW T=0 T=1 T=2 T=3 T=4 D Link L, BW=100 D advertises: Per-Priority Available BW T=0 T=1 T=2 T=3 T=4 D Link L, BW=100 D advertises: AB(0)=100=…= AB(7)=100 AB(i) = ‘Available Bandwidth at priority I” Setup of a tunnel over L at priority=3 for 30 units D Link L, BW=100 D advertises: AB(0)=AB(1)=AB(2)=100 AB(3)=AB(4)=…=AB(7)=70 Setup of an additional tunnel over L at priority=5 for 30 units D NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk Link L, BW=100 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. D advertises: AB(0)=AB(1)=AB(2)=100 AB(3)=AB(4)=70 AB(5)=AB(6)=AB(7)=40 37

Information Distribution • Re-use the flooding service from the Link-State IGP – opaque LSA Information Distribution • Re-use the flooding service from the Link-State IGP – opaque LSA for OSPF • draft-katz-yeung-ospf-traffic-00. txt – new wide TLV for IS-IS • draft-ietf-isis-traffic-00. txt NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 38

Information Distribution • Periodic (timer-based) • On significant changes of available bandwidth (threshold scheme) Information Distribution • Periodic (timer-based) • On significant changes of available bandwidth (threshold scheme) • On link configuration changes • On LSP Setup failure NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 39

Periodic Timer • Periodically, a node checks if the current TE status is the Periodic Timer • Periodically, a node checks if the current TE status is the same as the one lastly broadcasted. • If different, it floods its updated TE Links status NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 40

Significant Change 100% 92% 85% 70% Update 50% Update • Each time a threshold Significant Change 100% 92% 85% 70% Update 50% Update • Each time a threshold is crossed, an update is sent • Denser population as utilization increases • Different thresholds for UP and Down (stabler) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 41

LSP Setup Failure • Due to the threshold scheme, it is possible that one LSP Setup Failure • Due to the threshold scheme, it is possible that one node thinks he can signal an LSP tunnel via node Z while in fact, Z does not have the required resources • When Z receives the Resv message and refuses the LSP tunnel, it broadcasts an update of its status NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 42

Constrained-based Computation © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 43 Constrained-based Computation © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 43

Constrained-Based Routing • “In general, path computation for an LSP may seek to satisfy Constrained-Based Routing • “In general, path computation for an LSP may seek to satisfy a set of requirements associated with the LSP, taking into account a set of constraints imposed by administrative policies and the prevailing state of the network -- which usually relates to topology data and resource availability. Computation of an engineered path that satisfies an arbitrary set of constraints is referred to as "constraint based routing”. Draft-li-mpls-igp-te-00. txt NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 44

Path Computation “On demand” by the trunk’s head-end: – for a new trunk – Path Computation “On demand” by the trunk’s head-end: – for a new trunk – for an existing trunk whose (current) LSP failed – for an existing trunk when doing reoptimization NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 45

Path Computation Input: – configured attributes of traffic trunks originated at this router – Path Computation Input: – configured attributes of traffic trunks originated at this router – attributes associated with resources • available from IS-IS or OSPF – topology state information • available from IS-IS or OSPF NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 46

Path Computation • Prune links if: – insufficient resources (e. g. , bandwidth) – Path Computation • Prune links if: – insufficient resources (e. g. , bandwidth) – violates policy constraints • Compute shortest distance path – TE uses its own metric – Tie-break: selects the path with the highest minimum bandwdith so far, then with the smallest hop-count NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 47

Path Computation Output: – explicit route - expressed as a sequence of router IP Path Computation Output: – explicit route - expressed as a sequence of router IP addresses • interface addresses for numbered links • loopback address for unnumbered links – used as an input to the path setup component NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 48

Example C BW(3)=80 0100 1000 BW(3)=60 A 0000 BW(3)=50 D 0000 BW(3)=20 E B Example C BW(3)=80 0100 1000 BW(3)=60 A 0000 BW(3)=50 D 0000 BW(3)=20 E B 0000 BW(3)=80 0010 BW(3)=70 1000 BW(3)=50 G • Tunnel’s request: – Priority 3, BW = 30 units, – Policy string: 0000, mask: 0011 NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 49

MPLS as the forwarding mechanism © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 50 MPLS as the forwarding mechanism © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 50

MPLS Labels Two types of MPLS Labels: Prefix Labels & Tunnel Labels LDP Distributed MPLS Labels Two types of MPLS Labels: Prefix Labels & Tunnel Labels LDP Distributed by: RSVP MP-BGP CR-LDP PIM NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 51

MPLS as forwarding engine • Traffic engineering requires explicit routing capability • IP supports MPLS as forwarding engine • Traffic engineering requires explicit routing capability • IP supports only the destination-based routing – not adequate for traffic engineering • MPLS provides simple and efficient support for explicit routing – label swapping – separation of routing and forwarding NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 52

LSP tunnel Setup © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 53 LSP tunnel Setup © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 53

RSVP Extensions to RFC 2205 for LSP Tunnels • downstream-on-demand label distribution • instantiation RSVP Extensions to RFC 2205 for LSP Tunnels • downstream-on-demand label distribution • instantiation of explicit label switched paths • allocation of network resources (e. g. , bandwidth) to explicit LSPs • rerouting of established LSP-tunnels in a smooth fashion using • the concept of make-before-break • tracking of the actual route traversed by an LSP-tunnel • diagnostics on LSP-tunnels • the concept of nodal abstraction • preemption options that are administratively controllable draft-ietf-mpls-rsvp-lsp-tunnel-0 X. txt NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 54

RSVP Extensions: new objects • LABEL_REQUEST found in Path • LABEL found in Resv RSVP Extensions: new objects • LABEL_REQUEST found in Path • LABEL found in Resv • EXPLICIT_ROUTE found in Path • RECORD_ROUTE found in Path, Resv • SESSION_ATTRIBUTE found in Path 0 x 01 Fast Reroute Capable, 0 x 02 Permit Merging, 0 x 04 May Reoptimize => SE • New C-Types are also assigned for the SESSION, SESSION SENDER_TEMPLATE, FILTER_SPEC, FLOWSPEC objects. SENDER_TEMPLATE FILTER_SPEC • All new objects are optional with respect to RSVP (RFC 2205). • The LABEL_REQUEST and LABEL objects are mandatory with respect to MPLS LSP signalisation specification. NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 55

LSP Setup • Initiated at the head-end of a trunk • Uses RSVP (with LSP Setup • Initiated at the head-end of a trunk • Uses RSVP (with extensions) to establish Label Switched Paths (LSPs) for traffic trunks NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 56

Path Setup - Example R 9 R 8 R 3 R 4 R 2 Path Setup - Example R 9 R 8 R 3 R 4 R 2 Pop R 5 R 1 Label 32 Label 49 Label 17 R 6 R 7 Label 22 Setup: Path (ERO = R 1 ->R 2 ->R 6 ->R 7 ->R 4 ->R 9) Reply: Resv communicates labels and reserves bandwidth on each link NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 57

Path Setup - more details R 1 2 1 R 2 2 R 3 Path Setup - more details R 1 2 1 R 2 2 R 3 1 Path: Common_Header Session(R 3 -lo 0, 0, R 1 -lo 0) PHOP(R 1 -2) Label_Request(IP) ERO (R 2 -1, R 3 -1) Session_Attribute (S(3), H(3), 0 x 04) Sender_Template(R 1 -lo 0, 00) Sender_Tspec(2 Mbps) Record_Route(R 1 -2) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 58

Path Setup - more details R 1 2 1 R 2 2 R 3 Path Setup - more details R 1 2 1 R 2 2 R 3 1 Path State: Session(R 3 -lo 0, 0, R 1 -lo 0) PHOP(R 1 -2) Label_Request(IP) ERO (R 2 -1, R 3 -1) Session_Attribute (S(3), H(3), 0 x 04) Sender_Template(R 1 -lo 0, 00) Sender_Tspec(2 Mbps) Record_Route (R 1 -2) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 59

Path Setup - more details R 1 2 1 R 2 2 R 3 Path Setup - more details R 1 2 1 R 2 2 R 3 1 Path: Common_Header Session(R 3 -lo 0, 0, R 1 -lo 0) PHOP(R 2 -2) Label_Request(IP) ERO (R 3 -1) Session_Attribute (S(3), H(3), 0 x 04) Sender_Template(R 1 -lo 0, 00) Sender_Tspec(2 Mbps) Record_Route (R 1 -2, R 2 -2) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 60

Path Setup - more details R 1 2 1 R 2 2 R 3 Path Setup - more details R 1 2 1 R 2 2 R 3 1 Path State: Session(R 3 -lo 0, 0, R 1 -lo 0) PHOP(R 2 -2) Label_Request(IP) ERO () Session_Attribute (S(3), H(3), 0 x 04) Sender_Template(R 1 -lo 0, 00) Sender_Tspec(2 Mbps) Record_Route (R 1 -2, R 2 -2, R 3 -1) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 61

Path Setup - more details R 1 2 1 R 2 2 R 3 Path Setup - more details R 1 2 1 R 2 2 R 3 1 Resv: Common_Header Session(R 3 -lo 0, 0, R 1 -lo 0) PHOP(R 3 -1) Style=SE Flow. Spec(2 Mbps) Sender_Template(R 1 -lo 0, 00) Label=POP Record_Route(R 3 -1) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 62

Path Setup - more details R 1 2 1 R 2 2 R 3 Path Setup - more details R 1 2 1 R 2 2 R 3 1 Resv State Session(R 3 -lo 0, 0, R 1 -lo 0) PHOP(R 3 -1) Style=SE Flow. Spec (2 Mbps) Sender_Template(R 1 -lo 0, 00) Out. Label=POP Int. Label=5 Record_Route(R 3 -1) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 63

Path Setup - more details R 1 2 1 R 2 2 R 3 Path Setup - more details R 1 2 1 R 2 2 R 3 1 Resv: Common_Header Session(R 3 -lo 0, 0, R 1 -lo 0) PHOP(R 2 -1) Style=SE Flow. Spec (2 Mbps) Sender_Template(R 1 -lo 0, 00) Label=5 Record_Route(R 2 -1, R 3 -1) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 64

Path Setup - more details R 1 2 1 R 2 2 R 3 Path Setup - more details R 1 2 1 R 2 2 R 3 1 Resv state: Session(R 3 -lo 0, 0, R 1 -lo 0) PHOP(R 2 -1) Style=SE Flow. Spec (2 Mbps) Sender_Template(R 1 -lo 0, 00) Label=5 Record_Route(R 1 -2, R 2 -1, R 3 -1) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 65

Trunk Admission Control • Performed by routers along a Label Switched Path (LSP) • Trunk Admission Control • Performed by routers along a Label Switched Path (LSP) • Determines if resources are available • May tear down (existing) LSPs with a lower priority • Does the local accounting • Triggers IGP information distribution when resource thresholds are crossed NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 66

Link Admission Control • Already invoked by Path message – if BW is available, Link Admission Control • Already invoked by Path message – if BW is available, this BW is put aside in a waiting pool (waiting for the RESV msg) – if this process required the pre-emption of resources, LCAC notified RSVP of the pre-emption which then sent Path. Err and/or Resv. Err for the preempted tunnel – if BW is not available, LCAC says “No” to RSVP and a Path error is sent. A flooding of the node’s resource info is triggered, if needed – ”draft-ietf-mpls-rsvp-lsp-tunnel-02. txt” NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 67

Path Monitoring • Use of new Record Route Object – keep track of the Path Monitoring • Use of new Record Route Object – keep track of the exact tunnel path – detects loops – copy of RRO to ERO allows for route pinning NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 68

Path Re-Optimization • Looks for opportunities to re-optimize – make before break – no Path Re-Optimization • Looks for opportunities to re-optimize – make before break – no double counting of reservations – via RSVP “shared explicit” style! NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 69

Non-disruptive rerouting - new path setup R 9 R 8 R 3 R 4 Non-disruptive rerouting - new path setup R 9 R 8 R 3 R 4 R 2 Pop R 5 R 1 32 49 17 R 6 R 7 22 Current Path (ERO = R 1 ->R 2 ->R 6 ->R 7 ->R 4 ->R 9) New Path (ERO = R 1 ->R 2 ->R 3 ->R 4 ->R 9) - shared with Current Path Until R 9 gets new Path Message, current Resv is refreshed NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 70

Non-disruptive rerouting switching paths R 9 R 8 R 3 R 4 R 2 Non-disruptive rerouting switching paths R 9 R 8 R 3 R 4 R 2 Pop 26 89 R 5 R 1 32 38 49 17 R 6 R 7 22 Resv: allocates labels for both paths Reserves bandwidth once per link Path. Tear can then be sent to remove old path (and release resources) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 71

Reroute - More Details ERO (R 2 -1, R 3 -1) R 3 -1 Reroute - More Details ERO (R 2 -1, R 3 -1) R 3 -1 Sender_Template(R 1 -lo 0, 00) 00 Session(R 3 -lo 0, 0, R 1 -lo 0) 00 R 1 2 R 3 1 R 2 2 01 1 3 01 Resource Sharing NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. ERO (R 2 -1, …, R 3 -3) R 3 -3 Sender_Template(R 1 -lo 0, 01) 01 72

Reroute - More Details R 1 2 1 R 2 R 3 2 3 Reroute - More Details R 1 2 1 R 2 R 3 2 3 Path: Common_Header Session(R 3 -lo 0, 0, R 1 -lo 0) PHOP(R 1 -2) Label_Request(IP) ERO (R 2 -1, …, R 3 -3) Session_Attribute (S(3), H(3), 0 x 04) Sender_Template(R 1 -lo 0, 01) Sender_Tspec(3 Mbps) Record_Route(R 1 -2) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 1 3 73

Reroute - More Details R 1 2 1 R 2 3 R 3 3 Reroute - More Details R 1 2 1 R 2 3 R 3 3 Path State: Session(R 3 -lo 0, 0, R 1 -lo 0) PHOP(R 1 -2) Label_Request(IP) ERO (R 2 -1, …, R 3 -3) Session_Attribute (S(3), H(3), 0 x 04) Sender_Template(R 1 -lo 0, 01) Sender_Tspec(3 Mbps) Record_Route (R 1 -2) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 74

Reroute - More Details R 1 2 NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Reroute - More Details R 1 2 NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 1 R 2 3 R 3 3 75

Reroute - More Details R 1 2 1 R 2 3 R 3 3 Reroute - More Details R 1 2 1 R 2 3 R 3 3 RSVP: Common_Header Session(R 3 -lo 0, 0, R 1 -lo 0) PHOP(R 3 -3) Style=SE Flow. Spec(3 Mbps) Sender_Template(R 1 -lo 0, 01) Label=POP Record_Route(R 3 -3) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 76

Reroute - More Details R 1 2 NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Reroute - More Details R 1 2 NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 1 R 2 3 R 3 3 77

Reroute - More Details R 1 2 1 R 2 3 R 3 3 Reroute - More Details R 1 2 1 R 2 3 R 3 3 RSVP: Common_Header Session(R 3 -lo 0, 0, R 1 -lo 0) PHOP(R 2 -1) Style=SE Flow. Spec (3 Mbps) Sender_Template(R 1 -lo 0, 01) Label=6 Record_Route(R 2 -1, …, R 3 -3) Sender_Template(R 1 -lo 0, 00) Label=5 Record_Route(R 2 -1, R 3 -1) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 78

Reroute - More Details R 1 2 1 R 2 3 R 3 3 Reroute - More Details R 1 2 1 R 2 3 R 3 3 RSVP state: Session(R 3 -lo 0, 0, R 1 -lo 0) PHOP(R 2 -1) Style=SE Flow. Spec Sender_Template(R 1 -lo 0, 01) Label=6 Record_Route(R 2 -1, …, R 3 -3) Sender_Template(R 1 -lo 0, 00) Label=5 Record_Route(R 2 -1, R 3 -1) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 79

Fast Restoration Handling link failures - two complementary mechanisms: • Path protection • Link/Node Fast Restoration Handling link failures - two complementary mechanisms: • Path protection • Link/Node protection NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 80

Path Protection © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 81 Path Protection © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 81

Path Protection • Step 1: link failure detection – O(depends on L 2/L 1) Path Protection • Step 1: link failure detection – O(depends on L 2/L 1) • Step 2 a: IGP reaction (ISIS case) – Either via Step 1 or via IGP hello expiration (30 s by default for ISIS) – 5 s (default) must occur by default before the generation of a new LSP – 5. 5 s (default) must occur before a change of the LSPDB and the consecutive SPF run. The next SPF run can only occur 10 s after (default) – Flooding time (LSP are paced (16 ms for first LSP, 33 ms between LSP’s, depend also on link speed) – Once the RIB is updated, this change must be incorporated into CEF. Þ The Head-end finally computes the new topology and finds out that some established LSP’s are affected. It schedules a reoptimization for them NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 82

Path Protection • Step 2 b: RSVP signalisation – rsvp path states with the Path Protection • Step 2 b: RSVP signalisation – rsvp path states with the failed intf as oif is detected – check if another oif available (if loose ero) – if not, clear path state and send tear to head-end • Step 2: Either step. A or step. B alarms the head-end • Step 3: Re-optimization – dijkstra computation: O(0. 5)ms per node (rule of thumb) – RSVP signalisation time to instal rerouted tunnel Þ convergence in the order of several seconds (at least). NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 83

Path Protection Speed it Up • Fine Tune the IGP convergence – Through adequate Path Protection Speed it Up • Fine Tune the IGP convergence – Through adequate tuning, ISIS could be tuned to converge in 2 -3 s, this ensuring that the convergence time bottleneck is the signalisation time for the new tunnel. • Several tunnels in parallel with load-babalancing – if combined with the IGP convergence, the path resilience could be brought to around 2 -3 s • One end-2 -end tunnel in parallel but in backup mode – feature under development (Fast Path Protection) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 84

Fast Re. Route (aka Link Protection) An Overview © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 85 Fast Re. Route (aka Link Protection) An Overview © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 85

Objective • FRR allows for temporarily routing around a failed link or node while Objective • FRR allows for temporarily routing around a failed link or node while the head-end may reoptimize the entire LSP – rerouting under 50 ms – scalable (must support lots of LSP’s) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 86

Fast reroute Overview • Controlled by the routers at ends of a failed link Fast reroute Overview • Controlled by the routers at ends of a failed link – link protection is configured on a per link basis – Session_Attribute’s Flag 0 x 01 allows the use of Link Protection for the signalled LSP • Uses nested LSPs (stack of labels) – original LSP nested within link protection LSP NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 87

Static backup Tunnel R 9 R 8 R 4 R 2 R 5 R Static backup Tunnel R 9 R 8 R 4 R 2 R 5 R 1 Pop 17 R 6 R 7 22 Setup: Path (R 2 ->R 6 ->R 7 ->R 4) Labels Established on Resv message NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 88

Routing prior R 2 -R 4 link failure R 9 R 8 R 4 Routing prior R 2 -R 4 link failure R 9 R 8 R 4 R 2 Pop R 1 R 5 14 37 R 6 R 7 Setup: Path (R 1 ->R 2 ->R 4 ->R 9) Labels Established on Resv message NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 89

Link Protection Active R 9 R 8 R 4 R 2 R 5 R Link Protection Active R 9 R 8 R 4 R 2 R 5 R 1 R 6 R 7 On failure of link from R 2 -> R 4, R 2 simply changes outgoing Label Stack from 14 to <17, 14> NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 90

Link Protection Active R 8 R 9 Pop 14 Swap 37 ->14 Push 17 Link Protection Active R 8 R 9 Pop 14 Swap 37 ->14 Push 17 R 4 R 2 Push 37 R 5 R 1 R 7 R 6 Swap 17 ->22 Label Stack: Pop 22 R 1 R 2 37 NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. R 6 17 14 R 7 22 14 R 4 14 R 9 None 91

Fast Re. Route More details on Link Protection (FRR v 1) © 1999, Cisco Fast Re. Route More details on Link Protection (FRR v 1) © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 92

V 1 Constrain • We protect the facility (link), not individual LSP’s – scalability V 1 Constrain • We protect the facility (link), not individual LSP’s – scalability vs granularity • No node resilience • Static backup tunnel • The protected link must use the Global Label space • A backup tunnel can backup at most one link, but n LSPs travelling via this link NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 93

Terminology R 9 R 8 R 4 R 2 R 5 R 1 R Terminology R 9 R 8 R 4 R 2 R 5 R 1 R 6 R 7 • LSP: end-to-end tunnel onto which data normally flows (eg R 1 to R 9) • Back. Up tunnel: temporary route to take in the event of a failure NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 94

Terminology • Link Protection – In the event of a link failure, an LSP Terminology • Link Protection – In the event of a link failure, an LSP is rerouted to the next-hop using a preconfigured backup tunnel NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 95

How to indicate a link is protected and which tunnel is the backup? • How to indicate a link is protected and which tunnel is the backup? • On R 2 (For LSP’s flowing from R 2 to R 4): interface pos mpls traffic-eng backup tunnel 1000 link • LSP’s are unidirectional, so the same protection should be enable for the opposite direction if reverse LSP is conf. NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 96

How to setup the backup tunnel? • Just as a normal tunnel whose headend How to setup the backup tunnel? • Just as a normal tunnel whose headend is R 2 and tail-end is R 4 – v 1 requires a manually configured ERO interface Tunnel 1000 ip unnumbered Loopback 0 tunnel destination R 4 tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority 7 7 tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth 800 tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option 1 explicit name backuppath 1 NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. ip explicit-path name backuppath 1 enable next-address R 6 next-address R 7 next-address R 4 97

Which LSP’s can be rerouted on R 2 in the event of R 2 Which LSP’s can be rerouted on R 2 in the event of R 2 -R 4 failure? • The LSP’s flowing through R 2 that – have R 2 -R 4 as Outgoing Interface – have been signalled by their respective head-ends with a session attribute flag 0 x 01=ON (may use fast-reroute tunnels) • int tunnel 1 ## config on the head-end tunnel mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 98

Global Label Allocation POP R 8 14 R 9 R 4 R 2 R Global Label Allocation POP R 8 14 R 9 R 4 R 2 R 5 R 1 R 6 R 7 • For the blue LSP, R 4 bound a global label of 14 • Any MPLS frame received by R 4, with label 14, will be switched onto the link to R 9 with a POP, whatever the incoming interface NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 99

How fast is fast? • Link Failure Notification – Usual Po. S alarm detection How fast is fast? • Link Failure Notification – Usual Po. S alarm detection – Po. S driver optimisation to interrupt RP in < 1 ms – Expected call to net_cstate(idb, UP/DOWN) identifying the DOWN state of the protected int to start our protection action. • RP updates the master TFIB (replace a swap by a swap-push) – < 1 ms • Master TFIB change notified to the linecards – < 1 ms NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 100

Path state while Rerouting Path (…, PHOP=R 2, …) R 8 Back. UP tunnel Path state while Rerouting Path (…, PHOP=R 2, …) R 8 Back. UP tunnel R 9 Path state R 4 R 2 R 5 R 1 R 6 R 7 Path. Error (Reservation in Place) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 101

Path & Resv Msgs [Error & Tear] R 2 R 1 R 4 R Path & Resv Msgs [Error & Tear] R 2 R 1 R 4 R 3 When no link protection: Resv Tear Conf. Path Tear Conf. Resv Tear When link protection: Path Error Resv in place NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. R 4 waits for refresh 102

LSP reoptimization • Head-end notified by Path. Error – special flag (reservation in place) LSP reoptimization • Head-end notified by Path. Error – special flag (reservation in place) indicates that the path states must not be destroyed. It is just a hint to the headend that the path should be reoptimized • Head-end notified by IGP NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 103

Why the Patherror? • The Patherror might be faster • In case of multi-area Why the Patherror? • The Patherror might be faster • In case of multi-area IGP, the IGP will not provide the information • In case of very fast up-down-up, the LSP will be put on the backup tunnel and will stay there as the IGP will not have originated a new LSP/LSA – a router waits a certain time before originating a new LSP/LSA after a topological change • Reliable Path. Err optimization NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 104

Resv state while Rerouting The loss of the interface does not affect the Path Resv state while Rerouting The loss of the interface does not affect the Path and Resv states for the LSP’s received on that interface that are marked fast reroutable! R 9 R 8 Resv state Back. UP tunnel R 4 R 2 R 5 R 1 Resv R 6 R 7 • Resv Message is unicast to the Phop (R 2) • R 2’s Path State has been informed that the Resv might arrive over a different intf as the one used by the Path message NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 105

Diff. Serv and LSP Reoptimization • In order to optimize the bandwdith usage, backup Diff. Serv and LSP Reoptimization • In order to optimize the bandwdith usage, backup tunnels might be configured with 0 kbps – no ‘non-working’ bandwdith as in SDH! • Although usually the backbone is though as being congestion-free, during rerouting some local congestion might occur – Use diffserv to handle this short-term congestion – Use LSP reoptimization to handle the long-term congestion NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 106

Layer 1/2 and Layer 3 • Backup Tunnel should not use – the protected Layer 1/2 and Layer 3 • Backup Tunnel should not use – the protected L 3 link – the protected L 1/L 2 links!!! • Use WANDL (loaded with both L 3 and L 1/2 topologies) to compute the best paths for backup tunnels – Download this as static backup tunnels to the routers NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 107

Fast Re. Route Node Protection © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 108 Fast Re. Route Node Protection © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 108

Overview R 9 R 8 R 4 R 3 R 2 R 5 R Overview R 9 R 8 R 4 R 3 R 2 R 5 R 1 R 6 R 7 Backup Tunnel to the next-hop of the LSP’s next-hop NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 109

A few More details • Assume – R 2 is configured with resilience for A few More details • Assume – R 2 is configured with resilience for R 3 – R 2 receives a path message for a new LSP whose ERO is {R 3, R 4, …}, whose Session is (R 9, 1, R 1), whose sender is (R 1, 1) and whose session attribute is (0 x 01 ON, 0 x 02 OFF) • 0 x 01: may use local fast-reroute if available • 0 x 02: merge capable NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 110

A few More details • Then – R 2 checks if it already has A few More details • Then – R 2 checks if it already has a tunnel to R 4 – If not, R 2 builds a backup tunnel to R 4 (currently just like in link protection - manual explicit setup). – R 2 sends a Path onto the tunnel with Session (R 9, 1, R 1), Sender (R 2, 1), Session Attribute (0 x 01 OFF, 0 x 02 ON) and PHOP R 2 NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 111

A few More details • When R 4 receives this Path message, – it A few More details • When R 4 receives this Path message, – it matches the session with the LSP’s one – merge (and thus stop) this path message – sends a RESV back to R 2 (unicast) and allocate the appropriate label L NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 112

A few More details • When R 2 detects R 3’s failure, – For A few More details • When R 2 detects R 3’s failure, – For the TFIB entry for the LSP, R 2 changes the existing ‘swap’ by a ‘swap to L’ and a ‘push of the backup tunnel label’ • R 4’s states are refreshed by the secondary path messages (over the backup tunnels) • ERO of the original path is adjusted at R 2 • NHOP is modified in R 2 (from R 3 to R 4) • PHOP is modified in R 4 (from R 3 to R 2) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 113

A few More Details • RESV is being sent back from R 4 to A few More Details • RESV is being sent back from R 4 to R 2 directly • If R 3 is still active and just the R 2 -R 3 link failed R 4 needs to ignore & drop any Tear-Down msg R 3 would be sending after the termination of reception of path refreshes from R 2. NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 114

How to detect R 3’s failure? • A node may fail while the link How to detect R 3’s failure? • A node may fail while the link is still up • A node’s linecard processes might survive, a main process failure (freeze of the RP process) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 115

A possible solution RP LC . . . LC • Keepalives between LC’s • A possible solution RP LC . . . LC • Keepalives between LC’s • Keepalives between a LC and its master RP NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 116

Assigning traffic to Paths (aka autoroute) © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 117 Assigning traffic to Paths (aka autoroute) © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 117

Enhancement to SPF • During SPF each new node found is moved from a Enhancement to SPF • During SPF each new node found is moved from a TENTative list to PATHS list. Now the first-hop is being determined via: A. Check if there is any TE tunnel terminating at this node from the current router and if so do the metric check B. If there is no TE tunnel and the node is directly connected use the first-hop from adj database C. In non of the above applies the first-hop is copied from the parent of this new node. NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 118

Enhancement to SPF - metric check Tunnel metric: A. Relative +/- X B. Absolute Enhancement to SPF - metric check Tunnel metric: A. Relative +/- X B. Absolute Y The default is relative metric of 0. Example: Metric of native IP path to the found node = 50 1. Tunnel with relative metric of -10 => 40 2. Tunnel with relative metric of +10 => 60 3. Tunnel with absolute metric of 10 => 10 NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 119

Enhancement to SPF - metric check • If the metric of the found TE Enhancement to SPF - metric check • If the metric of the found TE tunnel at this node is higher then the metric for other tunnels or native IGP path this tunnel is not installed as next hop • If the metric of the found TE tunnel is equal to other TE tunnels the tunnel is added to the existing nexthops • If the metric of the found TE tunnel is lower then the metric of other TE tunnels or native IGP the tunnel replaces them as the only next-hop. NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 120

Other TE New Features © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 121 Other TE New Features © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 121

Auto-Bandwidth Global command: • Monitor marked tunnels’ 5 -min average counters every X minutes Auto-Bandwidth Global command: • Monitor marked tunnels’ 5 -min average counters every X minutes – default: X = 300 (seconds) – (config)# mpls traffic-eng auto-bw timers frequency NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 122

Auto-Bandwidth Per tunnel command: • Every Y minutes, update the BW constraint of the Auto-Bandwidth Per tunnel command: • Every Y minutes, update the BW constraint of the tunnel with the maximum of: – the largest 5 -min values sampled during the last Y minutes (Def Y = 24 * 3600 sec) - 24 h – a configured maximum value – (config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng auto-bw {frequency } {max-bw } – if the new Bw is not available, the old one is maintained (the new BW is signalled via a 2 nd tunnel to follow make before break model) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 123

Example NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 124 Example NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 124

Verbatim • Applies to explicitly routed LSP’s • Disable any check against TE/IGP database Verbatim • Applies to explicitly routed LSP’s • Disable any check against TE/IGP database of the head end • RSVP still check BW (and policy when this will be in Path) hop by hop • Application: manual TE through multi-area IGP CLI: tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option verbatim NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 125

In-Progress • Allows an end-head to account for bw consumed by tunnels that it In-Progress • Allows an end-head to account for bw consumed by tunnels that it has just signalled and for whom the IGP LSA/LSP update has not reflected the available bandwdith NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 126

Example In-Prog Bw: 55 10 Avail Bw: 100 All tunnels require 45 units of Example In-Prog Bw: 55 10 Avail Bw: 100 All tunnels require 45 units of BW • In-progress counters reset upon new LSA/LSP reception • In-progress counter decremented upon receipt of path-error NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 127

Benefits • Speed-up the installation of tunnels as it avoids spending time trying not Benefits • Speed-up the installation of tunnels as it avoids spending time trying not working solutions • Allows for better load-balancing – igp metric then max(min(path-bw)! NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 128

Under/Overbook • ML: Maximum link bandwidth: –This sub-TLV contains the maximum bandwidth that can Under/Overbook • ML: Maximum link bandwidth: –This sub-TLV contains the maximum bandwidth that can be used on this link in this direction (from the system originating the LSP to its neighbors). This is useful for traffic engineering. • MR: Maximum reservable link bandwidth: – This sub-TLV contains the maximum amount of bandwidth that can be reserved in this direction on this link. Note that for oversubscription purposes, this can be greater than the bandwidth of the link. • UR(I): Unreserved bandwidth at Priority i: – This sub-TLV contains the amount of bandwidth reservable on this direction on this link, at a certain priority. Note that for oversubscription purposes, this can be greater than the bandwidth of the link. NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 129

Under/Overbook A’s config: int s 0 bandwidth <B 1> ip rsvp bandwdith <B 2> Under/Overbook A’s config: int s 0 bandwidth ip rsvp bandwdith ( eg 1500 kbps) (eg 4000 kbps) eg ( kbps) . . . A Physical T 1 s 0 B . . . • ML is set to B 1 (eg 1500) • MR is set to B 2 (eg 4000) • At t=0, for all i 0 to 7, UB(i) = M = (eg 4000) • router. A's LCAC will not accept an LSP tunnel asking more than ML even if there is available bandwdith at the requested priority. • However, LCAC would allow for example 5 trunks each asking 700 kbps (thus each asking less than ML) while the aggregate is smaller than MR: because { 700 < ML=1500 } and { 3500 < MR=4000 } NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 130

Standby Current solution Tu 1: bw 1 A B Tu 2: bw 2 Tu Standby Current solution Tu 1: bw 1 A B Tu 2: bw 2 Tu 3: bw 3 Tu 4: bw 4 • Solution: – 4 tunnels from A to B: – Tu 1’s relative metric: -3 – Tu 2 and tu 3’s relative metric: -2 – Tu 4’s relative metric: -1 NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 131

Last hop label • IETF draft-ietf-mpls-label-encaps-07. txt – A value of 0 represents the Last hop label • IETF draft-ietf-mpls-label-encaps-07. txt – A value of 0 represents the "IPv 4 Explicit NULL Label” – A value of 1 represents the "Router Alert Label” – A value of 2 represents the "IPv 6 Explicit NULL Label" – A value of 3 represents the "Implicit NULL Label” New cli forces tailend to send implicit-null (3) instead of explicit null (0) - default. # [no] mpls traffic-eng signalling advertise implicit-null [] On receipt (n-1) node we must map 0, 1 or 3 to internal Implicit Null [1 only for historical reasons] NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 132

Qo. S and RRR © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 133 Qo. S and RRR © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 133

Qo. S and RRR • MPLS TE can operate simultaneously (and orthogonally) with MPLS Qo. S and RRR • MPLS TE can operate simultaneously (and orthogonally) with MPLS Diff-Serv • All Precedence/DSCP packets follow the same TE tunnels • Diff-Serv provides selective discard (via WRED), and selective scheduling (via WFQ) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 134

Qo. S and RRR • Future: – Scalable per-tunnel scheduling and policing • Guaranteed Qo. S and RRR • Future: – Scalable per-tunnel scheduling and policing • Guaranteed PIPE in MPLS-VPN Co. S – per-DSCP/per-FEC traffic engineering • diffserv backbone capacity management NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 135

Diff. Serv and fast-reroute/TE • In order to optimize the bandwdith usage, backup tunnels Diff. Serv and fast-reroute/TE • In order to optimize the bandwdith usage, backup tunnels might be configured with 0 kbps – no ‘non-working’ bandwdith as in SDH! • Although usually the backbone is though as being congestion-free, during rerouting some local congestion might occur – Use diffserv to handle this short-term congestion – Use LSP reoptimization to handle the long-term congestion NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 136

RSVP LSP Signalling Protocol for Traffic Engineering © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 137 RSVP LSP Signalling Protocol for Traffic Engineering © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 137

MPLS-TE Signalling Protocol • Two proposed signaling mechanisms for MPLS traffic engineering are being MPLS-TE Signalling Protocol • Two proposed signaling mechanisms for MPLS traffic engineering are being considered by the IETF’s MPLS work group – RSVP (Cisco and a number of Gigabit router startups (Avici, Argon, Ironbridge, Juniper, and Torrent)) – CR-LDP (Ericsson, Ennovate, GDC, Nortel) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 138

Why RSVP ? • What is needed: An IP signalling Protocol! – ability to Why RSVP ? • What is needed: An IP signalling Protocol! – ability to establish and maintain Label Switched Path along an explicit route – ability to reserve resources when establishing a path • Interdependent, not independent tasks – benefit from consolidation NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 139

Do I need RSVP only for TE ? NO ! Other uses of RSVP Do I need RSVP only for TE ? NO ! Other uses of RSVP in today’s networks: • Voice over IP call setup, Video (IPTV) • Hybrid deployments (only where needed) • Qo. S Diff. Serv Engineering (Cops) • Qualitative Service for Diff. Serv with RSVP (as opposed to Quantitative RSVP Int. Serv model) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 140

RSVP is a natural choice • RFC 2205: “provides a general facility for creating RSVP is a natural choice • RFC 2205: “provides a general facility for creating and maintaining distributed reservation state across a mesh of multicast and unicast delivery paths” • TE: use as a general facility for creating and maintaining distributed forwarding & reservation state across a mesh of delivery paths NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 141

RSVP is a natural choice • RFC 2205: “transfers and manipulates Qo. S control RSVP is a natural choice • RFC 2205: “transfers and manipulates Qo. S control parameters as opaque data, passing them to the appropriate traffic control module for interpretation” • TE: transfer and manipulate explicit route and label control parameters as opaque data pass explicit route parameter to the appropriate routing module, and label parameter to the MPLS module NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 142

RSVP is a natural choice • Leverage Standardized Protocols – PIM for Multicast MPLS RSVP is a natural choice • Leverage Standardized Protocols – PIM for Multicast MPLS – BGP for MPLS VPN’s – RSVP for MPLS Traffic Engineering – LDP (TDP) has been designed because it was easier than fixing all IGP’s (RIP, EIGRP, OSPF, ISIS) – fast deployments and engineering consistency • Leverage Deployed Experience – RSVP deployed since 1996 (IOS 11. 2) – ww. isi. edu/rsvp/DOCUMENTS/ietf_rsvp_qos_survey for a list of RSVP implementations NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 143

RSVP is a natural choice • RSVP easily supports – Dynamic resizing of tunnels RSVP is a natural choice • RSVP easily supports – Dynamic resizing of tunnels or paths through refresh messages –Supports strict as well as loose source routes –No double counting of bandwidth when rerouting sub-optimal routes • Extensible via definition of new objects NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 144

RSVP/TE and Scalability Very Different than Int. Serv context • State applies to a RSVP/TE and Scalability Very Different than Int. Serv context • State applies to a collection of flows (i. e. a traffic trunk), rather than to a single (micro) flow • RSVP sessions are used between routers, not hosts • Sessions are long-lived (up to a few weeks) • Paths are not bound by destination-based routing • Reference: ‘Applicability Statement for Extensions to RSVP for LSP-Tunnels’ (draft-awduche-mpls-rsvp-tunnelapplicability-01. txt) NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 145

RSVP/TE and Scalability Very Different than Int. Serv context • RFC 2208: “the resource RSVP/TE and Scalability Very Different than Int. Serv context • RFC 2208: “the resource requirements for running RSVP on a router increases proportionally with the number of separate sessions” • TE: that is why using traffic trunks to aggregate flows is essential • RFC 2208: “supporting numerous small reservations on a high-bandwidth link may easily overtax the routers and is inadvisable” • TE : n/a in the context of TE - traffic trunks aggregate multiple flows NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 146

TE/RSVP Scalability • With basic RSVP (RFC 2205), 10000 RRR LSP tunnels flowing through TE/RSVP Scalability • With basic RSVP (RFC 2205), 10000 RRR LSP tunnels flowing through a 75 x 0 or 12000 is not a problem • Already Deployed on a number of Tier-1 ISP backbones – http: //www. nanog. org/mtg-9905/hanna. html – Ship with 12. 0(5)S • Refresh Aggregation work will again enhance this scalability NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 147

Conclusion • Using RSVP as MPLS/TE signalling protocol is the natural and consistent choice Conclusion • Using RSVP as MPLS/TE signalling protocol is the natural and consistent choice • It is however only one part of a whole solution: – MPLS as forwarding engine – IGP (OSPF/ISIS) extensions – Constrained Base Routing (RRR) – RSVP as MPLS/TE Signalling Protocol – Installation of Tunnels in the FIB NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 148

Summary © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 149 Summary © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 149

Traffic Eng • Provides traffic engineering capabilities at Layer 3 – above and beyond Traffic Eng • Provides traffic engineering capabilities at Layer 3 – above and beyond of what is provided with ATM • Could be used for other applications as well • Shipping and deployed in production NANOG 18 - Robert Raszuk © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 150

Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 151 Presentation_ID © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 151