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MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNERS’ TASK ENGAGEMENT: A SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE SUZANA ISMAIL University MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNERS’ TASK ENGAGEMENT: A SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE SUZANA ISMAIL University of Malaya, Malaysia Ph. D Candidate, Monash University, Australia CALL ANTWERP 20 AUGUST 2010

OVERVIEW • Motivation – personalization of learning and the learning environment • The Study OVERVIEW • Motivation – personalization of learning and the learning environment • The Study – background + framework • Procedure – data collection + NVivo 8 • Discussions – some data sample • Conclusion – summary and implications for classroom practice

BACKGROUND • JFL learners (major) , multilingual setting - need authentic TL resources • BACKGROUND • JFL learners (major) , multilingual setting - need authentic TL resources • Diverse learner background – need personalization of learning • ICT (resources) made this more accessible • Oral presentation tasks (OP) tasks induce resource use

BACKGROUND Resources: • People • Things • Environment Resources used as: 1) Source for BACKGROUND Resources: • People • Things • Environment Resources used as: 1) Source for information 2) Tool

FRAMEWORK Sociocultural Theory • Learning is socially mediated • Purpose of learning is problem FRAMEWORK Sociocultural Theory • Learning is socially mediated • Purpose of learning is problem solving • Awareness of the means to solve problems Holistic investigation of learners’ OP task engagement – across level, across courses • Ecology of task (van Lier 2000) Activity Theory • “same task different activity” (Coughlan & Duff, 1994)

Activity System Model (Engeström, 1987) Activity System Model (Engeström, 1987)

PROCEDURE • • • Questionnaires Interviews Observations Learner diaries Documents Data imported to NVivo PROCEDURE • • • Questionnaires Interviews Observations Learner diaries Documents Data imported to NVivo 8 • AV data transcribed • Coding - A priori (Activity Theory) - From literature - Emerging themes • Analysis using Activity Theory

NODES NODES

AUTONOMY & MOTIVATION • “Autonomous learners are by definition motivated” (Ushioda, 1996: 2) • AUTONOMY & MOTIVATION • “Autonomous learners are by definition motivated” (Ushioda, 1996: 2) • Motivation from within (intrinsic motivation) key to sustainable motivation • Motivation is socially mediated (interdependence) (Ushioda, 2003, 2007) • Motivation from within can be fostered through collaborative tasks e. g. OP (Ushioda, 2008)

TASK MOTIVATION • Dynamic and complex • Combination of generalized and situation-specific motives (Dörnyei, TASK MOTIVATION • Dynamic and complex • Combination of generalized and situation-specific motives (Dörnyei, 2005)

TASK MOTIVATION Questionnaire - question 35: “What would motivate you to prepare and perform TASK MOTIVATION Questionnaire - question 35: “What would motivate you to prepare and perform well in a presentation? ” Process Model of L 2 Motivation – preactional stage

TASK MOTIVATION Intrinsic Extrinsic Social Topic of interest Good marks Audience response Appropriate marks TASK MOTIVATION Intrinsic Extrinsic Social Topic of interest Good marks Audience response Appropriate marks Peers & lecturer’s support/ encouragement Improve skills Improve speech fluency High benchmark Self-satisfaction if done well Fear of being scolded Excel in Japanese Stress of having to present

YEAR ONE Q. 35 Mia (kanji) Matt (nonkanji) Kay (nonkanji) “What the presentation would YEAR ONE Q. 35 Mia (kanji) Matt (nonkanji) Kay (nonkanji) “What the presentation would focus on, as well as encouragement and positive ideas from lecturers or classmates” “Getting appropriate marks”, self satisfaction when I did well “To score well and able to speak fluently” Topic Anime voice actors My hobby Resources Websites, DVD, laptop, magazines, mobile phone Mobile phone, magazines, word list (on whiteboard) Paper dictionary, textbook, digital camera A trip to Singapore Power. Point (picture slides) My pet ((My dog)) Digital camera, textbook, paper dictionary, Japanese language teacher, earlier essay Power. Point (picture slides)

MIA • “I got this idea of doing it (anime voice actors) coz it’s MIA • “I got this idea of doing it (anime voice actors) coz it’s interesting and I REALLY like it, …it’s a free topic and I was thinking that no one would do it because it’s not THAT popular in Malaysia…so, it would be nice if I gave them (audience), I introduce to them something new… (interview) • “. . and then since M sensei says that you could bring magazines and pictures [instructor allows some form of freedom]…and I CONVENIENTLY ((laughs)) have one of them (magazine on anime voice actors) so I brought them along ((laughs))” (interview)

NINA – YEAR THREE • Q. 35: “to choose my favorite topic” • “Favorite NINA – YEAR THREE • Q. 35: “to choose my favorite topic” • “Favorite topic…because, we have the eagerness to know more about the topic rather than no interest at all“. (interview) • “When I am not able to choose, I have to go for it lah” (interview)

Course Topic The Daimonji Festival (1 st) Japanese The Tale of History Genji (2 Course Topic The Daimonji Festival (1 st) Japanese The Tale of History Genji (2 nd) Resources Notes E-dictionary, websites, PC, MSN chat with friend in Japan Although it was supposed to be just a simple explanation, instructor demanded more during presentation – Nina was confused. This led her to do a lot more than required for subsequent OPs. E-dictionary, peer help, manga (comic) Tale of Genji in Malay, websites (pictures) Power. Point, handout Prince Shotoku (6 th) E-dictionary, textbook, websites (pictures) Power. Point (picture slides) Power. Point and handouts were influenced by high benchmark set by previous week’s presenter, who did a full-blown presentation even though they were instructed to do a brief explanation on the topic. Praised by instructor

Course Japanese Literature Japanese for Specific Purposes Japanese Dialects Topic Japanese Idioms (3 rd) Course Japanese Literature Japanese for Specific Purposes Japanese Dialects Topic Japanese Idioms (3 rd) Japanese Slang (4 th) Chugoku Region (5 th) Resources Electronic dictionary, websites, PC, own drawing, scanner, partner Power. Point, handout (explanation of idioms & word list) MSN chat with friend in Japan, websites, You. Tube Power. Point, handout (summary of points & word list) Paper dictionary, textbook, encyclopedia, websites, children’s book. Discussed with classmates during preparation Power. Point (summary of points, word list) Notes Nina and partner divided workload between them on composing of example sentences and drawing as visual support for the examples. Seek friend in Japan’s advice on current trend in slang (tameko). But instructor disagree with her method and choice – ask for reliable source. Nina was disappointed with the reaction. Children’s book introduced by Alex at the Japan Foundation library. The instruction stated that “no frills” allowed – Nina misinterpreted it as not allowed to use colorful design s including use of media. In her diary she wrote that she felt horrible because everyone did good but hers was boring.

 • “N sensei had prepared the geography specifically for everyone so we cannot • “N sensei had prepared the geography specifically for everyone so we cannot choose which dialect we prefer. So it is much more harder because we have to do dialects that we don’t really like or we don’t even know. As for myself I wanted to do Kansai dialect more cause I was influenced by this anime called “Lovely Complex a. k. a. rabu-kon. ” (diary)

ISSUES • Availability and accessibility of resources inhibit task engagement • Mismatch between learner ISSUES • Availability and accessibility of resources inhibit task engagement • Mismatch between learner perception and teacher expectation • Feedback sessions – not available or not conducive • Post-presentation reflection sessions – not available

SUMMARY • OP tasks enhance learners’ awareness of resource use (resource literacy) through peer SUMMARY • OP tasks enhance learners’ awareness of resource use (resource literacy) through peer modeling, sharing and collaborative work (socially mediated) • Successful resource use leads to subsequent use (value realization) • Successful resource use appears to help sustain task motivation

IMPLICATIONS FOR CLASSROOM PRACTICE To sustain learners’ task motivation: • Structure “personalizable” OP tasks IMPLICATIONS FOR CLASSROOM PRACTICE To sustain learners’ task motivation: • Structure “personalizable” OP tasks for more efficient resource use • Structure instructional rules that allows for “personalization” to occur • Structure environment for resource awareness and resource literacy • Invoke resource use at early stage e. g. through OP • Foster non-intimidating, collaborative dialogic interactions at different stages of OP tasks - teachers and peers to set shared learning goals

THANK YOU sism 5@student. monash. edu suzana@um. edu. my THANK YOU sism [email protected] monash. edu [email protected] edu. my