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Motivation Extrinsic refers to the performance of an activity in order to attain an outcome, which then contradicts intrinsic motivation Intrinsic refers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on any external pressure.
Intrinsic Motivation is based on taking pleasure in an activity rather working towards an external reward Students who are intrinsically motivated are more likely to engage in the task willingly as well as work to improve their skills, which will increase their capabilities.
Students are likely to be intrinsically motivated if they: • attribute their educational results to factors under their own control, also known as autonomy, • believe they have the skill that will allow them to be effective agents in reaching desired goals (i. e. the results are not determined by luck), • are interested in mastering a topic, rather than just rote-learning to achieve good grades.
Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the individual. Common extrinsic motivations are rewards like money and grades, threat of punishment. Competition is in general extrinsic because it encourages the performer to win and beat others, not to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity. A crowd cheering on the individual and trophies are also extrinsic incentives.
For those who received no extrinsic reward, Self-determination theory proposes that extrinsic motivation can be internalised by the individual if the task fits with their values and beliefs and therefore helps to fulfill their basic psychological needs.
At lower levels of Maslow's hierarchy of needs money is a motivator, however it tends to have a motivating effect on staff that lasts only for a short period At higher levels of the hierarchy, praise, respect, recognition are far more powerful motivators than money (Abraham Maslow's theory of motivation and Douglas Mc. Gregor's theory X and theory Y )
Mc. Gregor places money in his Theory X category and feels it is a poor motivator. Praise and recognition are placed in the Theory Y category and are considered stronger motivators than money. • Motivated employees always look for better ways to do a job. • Motivated employees are more quality oriented. • Motivated workers are more productive.
The average workplace is about midway between the extremes of high threat and high opportunity. Motivation by threat is a dead-end strategy, and naturally staff are more attracted to the opportunity side of the motivation curve than the threat side.
Three common character types of subordinates (Steinmetz): ambivalent indifferent ascendant
In Essentials of Organizational Behavior, Robbins and Judge examine recognition programs as motivators, and identify five principles that contribute to the success of an employee incentive program: • Recognition of employees' individual differences, and clear identification of behavior deemed worthy of recognition • Allowing employees to participate • Linking rewards to performance • Rewarding of nominators • Visibility of the recognition process