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Motivation and Emotion Chapter 10 Fixed Action Patterns? – look 1 Motivation and Emotion Chapter 10 Fixed Action Patterns? – look 1

I. Motivational Theories and Concepts n A. Motive – a reason or purpose for I. Motivational Theories and Concepts n A. Motive – a reason or purpose for behaving , lead to goal-directed behavior (*influenced by needs, wants, desires) – Sources (factors) of Motivation • • 2 Biological Cognitive Social Emotional Table of Contents

STOP and THINK!!! Instincts – automated, involuntary and unlearned behavior patters (a. k. a STOP and THINK!!! Instincts – automated, involuntary and unlearned behavior patters (a. k. a fixed action patterns – Konrad Lorenz) that are consistently released in response to certain stimuli Do instincts provide motivation? Instincts may provide a “biological preparedness”, but many cannot accommodate for learning Modal Action patterns – biological behavior patters that occur among most members of the species 3 Vacuum behavior – when an instinctive behavior occurs in absence of appropriate cues Table of Contents

Overview con’t n B. Theory Classifications – Drive theories – seeking homeostasis • Hunger Overview con’t n B. Theory Classifications – Drive theories – seeking homeostasis • Hunger • Hull’s drive reduction theory • Cognitive consistency theory – Incentive theories – regulation by external stimuli • Affiliation • Achievement • Aggression – Evolutionary theories – maximizing reproductive success • sociobiology 4 Table of Contents

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II. Motivational Theories A. Hunger and Eating 1. Biological Factors n Brain regulation – II. Motivational Theories A. Hunger and Eating 1. Biological Factors n Brain regulation – Lateral hypothalamus – hunger center – Ventromedial hypothalamus – satiety center • Research indicated that this was an oversimplified picture, the LH and VMH are part of the hunger circuit, they are not the key elements. – Paraventricular nucleus – modulates hunger, can be influenced by neurotransmitters • Ex: norepinephrine, GABA and neuropeptide Y increase carbohydrate consumption…. serotonin inhibits it 6 Table of Contents

Biological Factors con’t n Glucose and digestive regulation – Glucostatic theory - proposed that Biological Factors con’t n Glucose and digestive regulation – Glucostatic theory - proposed that fluctuations in blood glucose level are monitored in the brain by glucostats – neurons sensitive to glucose in the surrounding fluid n Hormonal regulation – Insulin - increases in insulin increase hunger – Leptin – believed to signal the hypothalamus about fat stores in the body, causing decreases in hunger when fat stores are high. 7 Table of Contents

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2. Environmental Factors n Learned preferences and habits – Exposure – When, as well 2. Environmental Factors n Learned preferences and habits – Exposure – When, as well as what n Food-related cues – Short-term cues – stimuli such as color and taste which may determine meal size or frequency – Long-term cues - cues such as body fat which regulate overall body weight • Set point n 9 Stress – Link between heightened arousal/negative emotion and overeating Table of Contents

3. Eating and Weight: The Roots of Obesity n Evolutionary explanations – food is 3. Eating and Weight: The Roots of Obesity n Evolutionary explanations – food is abundant, and we have abandoned survival eating for pleasure eating n Genetic predisposition – Accounts for more than 61% of BMI (men), 73% (women) – Body Mass Index and adoption study n The concept of set point/settling point – natural point of stability in body weight n 10 Dietary restraint Table of Contents

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B. Affiliation n Affiliation motive = need for social bonds – People high in B. Affiliation n Affiliation motive = need for social bonds – People high in affiliation motive: • Devote more time to interpersonal activities • Worry more about acceptance – Evolutionary view states affiliations helps foster survival and reproductive benefits (Baumeister and Leary) 12 Table of Contents

C. Achievement Motivation n Achievement motive = need to master challenges, outperform others and C. Achievement Motivation n Achievement motive = need to master challenges, outperform others and meet high standards – Can be measured w/ the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) – High achievers: • • Work harder and more persistently Delay gratification Pursue competitive careers In laboratory studies, will pick an intermediate task over a difficult or easy one – Influential Situational factors: • 1. motivation to achieve (stable characteristic) • 2. probability of success ( situational) • 3. incentive value of success (situational) 13 – intrinsic and extrinsic rewards Table of Contents

D. Aggression n The act of delivering an aversive stimulus to an unwilling victim D. Aggression n The act of delivering an aversive stimulus to an unwilling victim n Types: – Hostile aggression • results from frustration or discomfort, but is not necessary intended to produce benefits for the aggressor – Instrumental aggression • Aggression with the intent of gaining something n 14 Influential factors – – Neural activity in the amygdala and hypothalamus Crowding Media violence and/or violent role models Lack of empathy Table of Contents

E. Sexual Motivation and Behavior 1. Determining Desire n Hormonal regulation – Estrogens – E. Sexual Motivation and Behavior 1. Determining Desire n Hormonal regulation – Estrogens – female gonadal hormone – Androgens – male gonadal hormone • Testosterone – key male androgen n Pheromones - chemical secreted by one animal that affects the behavior of another – Inconclusive link to sexual drive, but linked to synchronized menstrual cycles n Evolutionary factors - behavior is theorized to hinge on “parental investment”, with females being more discriminating. Gender differences in potential partners: 15 • males emphasize youthfulness and attractiveness • females emphasize status and financial prospects. Table of Contents

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I’m “Space Saver Guy”! 20 I’m “Space Saver Guy”! 20 "Clip art licensed from the Clip Art Gallery on Discovery. School. com" http: //school. discovery. com/clipart/copyright. html Table of Contents

I’m “Space Saver Guy”! 21 I’m “Space Saver Guy”! 21 "Clip art licensed from the Clip Art Gallery on Discovery. School. com" http: //school. discovery. com/clipart/copyright. html Table of Contents

I’m “Space Saver Guy”! 22 I’m “Space Saver Guy”! 22 "Clip art licensed from the Clip Art Gallery on Discovery. School. com" http: //school. discovery. com/clipart/copyright. html Table of Contents

I’m “Space Saver Guy”! 23 I’m “Space Saver Guy”! 23 "Clip art licensed from the Clip Art Gallery on Discovery. School. com" http: //school. discovery. com/clipart/copyright. html Table of Contents

F. Motives in Conflict n Approach–approach conflict – Conflict involving two equally attractive goals F. Motives in Conflict n Approach–approach conflict – Conflict involving two equally attractive goals – Ex: two equally attractive dates! n Approach-avoidance conflict – Conflict in which person is attracted and repelled by a single event – Ex: cute, but really dumb date! n Avoidance-avoidance – Conflict in which the person is caught between to equally unattractive alternatives – Ex: two dates, both ugly! n 24 Multiple approach-avoidance – Conflict resulting from having to chose from two or more events with equally attractive and unattractive features Table of Contents – Ex: cute, boring date OR an ugly, super fun date!

III. Emotion n Motivation and emotion are intertwined!!! (Motivation cause emotion , emotion can III. Emotion n Motivation and emotion are intertwined!!! (Motivation cause emotion , emotion can provide motivation) EX: you’re motivated to get a good grade and it causes anxiety! EX: you’re mad your friend cheated on the test, and you’re motivated to tell your teacher! 25 Table of Contents

A. The Elements of Emotional Experience n Cognitive component – Subjective conscious experience – A. The Elements of Emotional Experience n Cognitive component – Subjective conscious experience – Positive psychology n Physiological component – Bodily (autonomic) arousal n Behavioral component – Characteristic overt expressions 26 Table of Contents

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B. Theories of Emotion n James-Lange – Emotion originates from interpretation of our physical B. Theories of Emotion n James-Lange – Emotion originates from interpretation of our physical changes – Ex: Big guy with the knife = “My pulse is racing, therfore I must be afraid. ” n Cannon-Bard – Disagreed with James-Lange because… • We can have physical changes w/out emotion (ex: exercising) • Visceral changes are slower than cognitive interpretation • Many emotions have similar autonomic arousal patterns – Theory states - Thalamus sends signals simultaneously to the cortex and the autonomic nervous system – Ex: Big guy with knife = “My pulse races AND I feel afraid at the same time” 29 Table of Contents

Theories of Emotion con’t n Schacter’s Two-Factor Theory – States emotion depends on autonomic Theories of Emotion con’t n Schacter’s Two-Factor Theory – States emotion depends on autonomic arousal and cognitive interpretation or external cues – Ex: Big guy w/ knife = “My heart is racing, I know big guy is dangerous, therefore I feel afraid. ” n Evolutionary Theories – Innate reactions with little cognitive interpretation – state we have innate emotions, but disagree over which are the fundamental emotions (transparency) – Leading researchers: Tomkins, Izard, Plutchik 30 Table of Contents

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C. Happiness n Common sense notions incorrect – Income, age, parenthood, intelligence, and attractiveness C. Happiness n Common sense notions incorrect – Income, age, parenthood, intelligence, and attractiveness largely uncorrelated – Physical health, good social relationships, religious faith, and culture modestly correlated – Love, marriage, work satisfaction, and personality strongly correlated n 33 Subjective rather than objective reality important Table of Contents