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Motion Planning: A Journey of Robots, Digital Actors, Molecules and Other Artifacts Jean-Claude Latombe Motion Planning: A Journey of Robots, Digital Actors, Molecules and Other Artifacts Jean-Claude Latombe Computer Science Department Stanford University

My Research Interests u u u Autonomous agents that sense, plan, and act in My Research Interests u u u Autonomous agents that sense, plan, and act in real and/or virtual worlds Algorithms and systems for representing, capturing, planning, controlling, and rendering motions of physical objects Applications: – – – Manufacturing Mobile robots Computational biology Computer-assisted surgery Digital actors

Goal of Motion Planning u Compute motion strategies, e. g. : – – – Goal of Motion Planning u Compute motion strategies, e. g. : – – – u geometric paths time-parameterized trajectories sequence of sensor-based motion commands To achieve high-level goals, e. g. : – – go to A without colliding with obstacles assemble product P build map of environment E find object O

Goal of Motion Planning u Compute motion strategies, e. g. : – – – Goal of Motion Planning u Compute motion strategies, e. g. : – – – u geometric paths time-parameterized trajectories sequence of sensor-based motion commands To achieve high-level goals, e. g. : – – go to A without colliding with obstacles assemble product P build map of environment E find object O

Goal of Motion Planning u Compute motion strategies, e. g. : – – – Goal of Motion Planning u Compute motion strategies, e. g. : – – – u geometric paths time-parameterized trajectories sequence of sensor-based motion commands To achieve high-level goals, e. g. : – – go to A without colliding with obstacles assemble product P build map of environment E find object O

Examples Examples

Is It Easy? Is It Easy?

Basic Problem u u Statement: Compute a collision-free path for a rigid or articulated Basic Problem u u Statement: Compute a collision-free path for a rigid or articulated object (the robot) among static obstacles Inputs: – – – u Geometry of robot and obstacles Kinematics of robot (degrees of freedom) Initial and goal robot configurations (placements) Outputs: – Continuous sequence of collision-free robot configurations connecting the initial and goal configurations

Example with Rigid Object Example with Rigid Object

Example with Articulated Object Example with Articulated Object

Extensions to the Basic Problem u Moving obstacles u Nonholonomic constraints u Multiple robots Extensions to the Basic Problem u Moving obstacles u Nonholonomic constraints u Multiple robots u Dynamic constraints u Movable objects u Optimal planning u Deformable objects u u Goal is to gather data by sensing Uncertainty in control and sensing

Application: Design for Manufacturing General Electric General Motors Application: Design for Manufacturing General Electric General Motors

Application: Robot Programming and Placement David Hsu’s Ph. D Application: Robot Programming and Placement David Hsu’s Ph. D

Application: Checking Building Code Charles Han’s Ph. D Application: Checking Building Code Charles Han’s Ph. D

Application: Generation of Instruction Sheets Application: Generation of Instruction Sheets

Application: Model Construction by Mobile Robot Hector Gonzalez’s Ph. D Application: Model Construction by Mobile Robot Hector Gonzalez’s Ph. D

Application: Graphic Animation of Digital Actors James Kuffner’s Ph. D Application: Graphic Animation of Digital Actors James Kuffner’s Ph. D

Application: Computer-Assisted Surgical Planning Joel Brown’s Ph. D Rhea Tombropoulos’s Ph. D Application: Computer-Assisted Surgical Planning Joel Brown’s Ph. D Rhea Tombropoulos’s Ph. D

Application: Prediction of Molecular Motions Amit Singh’s Ph. D Application: Prediction of Molecular Motions Amit Singh’s Ph. D

Motion in Configuration Space q 0 q 1 q 2 qn Q(t) q 4 Motion in Configuration Space q 0 q 1 q 2 qn Q(t) q 4 q 3 Parts DOF L 19 68 H 51 118

Disc Robot in 2 -D Workspace Disc Robot in 2 -D Workspace

Rigid Robot Translating in 2 -D CB = B A = {b - a Rigid Robot Translating in 2 -D CB = B A = {b - a | a in A, b in B}

Rigid Robot Translating and Rotating in 2 -D Rigid Robot Translating and Rotating in 2 -D

C-Obstacle for Articulated Robot C-Obstacle for Articulated Robot

Other Representation Concepts u State space (configuration x velocity) u Configuration/state x time space Other Representation Concepts u State space (configuration x velocity) u Configuration/state x time space u Composite configuration/state spaces u Stability regions in configuration/state spaces u Visibility regions in configuration/state spaces u Etc …

Motion Planning as a Computational Problem u u u Goal: Compute the connectivity of Motion Planning as a Computational Problem u u u Goal: Compute the connectivity of a space (e. g. , the collision-free subset of configuration space) High computational complexity: Typically requires time exponential in an input parameter, e. g. , the number of degrees of freedom, the number of moving obstacles, … Two main algorithmic approaches: – Planning by random sampling – Planning by computing criticalities

Motion Planning as a Computational Problem u u u Goal: Characterize the connectivity of Motion Planning as a Computational Problem u u u Goal: Characterize the connectivity of a space (e. g. , the collision-free subset of configuration space) High computational complexity: Requires time exponential in number of degrees of freedom, or number of moving obstacles, or etc… Two main algorithmic approaches: – Planning by random sampling – Planning by extracting criticalities

Motion Planning as a Computational Problem u u u Goal: Characterize the connectivity of Motion Planning as a Computational Problem u u u Goal: Characterize the connectivity of a space (e. g. , the collision-free subset of configuration space) High computational complexity: Requires time exponential in number of degrees of freedom, or number of moving obstacles, or etc… Two main algorithmic approaches: – Planning by random sampling – Planning by extracting criticalities

Principle of Randomized Planning (Probabilistic Roadmap) free space milestone qg qb [Kavraki, Svetska, Latombe, Principle of Randomized Planning (Probabilistic Roadmap) free space milestone qg qb [Kavraki, Svetska, Latombe, Overmars, 95]

Why Does it Work? [Kavraki, Latombe, Motwani, Raghavan, 95] Why Does it Work? [Kavraki, Latombe, Motwani, Raghavan, 95]

In Theory, a PRM Planner … u u Is probabilistically complete, i. e. , In Theory, a PRM Planner … u u Is probabilistically complete, i. e. , whenever a solution exists, the probability that it finds one tends toward 1 as the number N of milestones increases Under rather general hypotheses, the rate of convergence is exponential in the number N of milestones, i. e. : Prob[failure] ~ exp(-N)

In practice, PRM Planners … u Are fast u Deal effectively with many-dof robots In practice, PRM Planners … u Are fast u Deal effectively with many-dof robots u Are easy to implement u Have solved complex problems

Example 1: Planning of Manipulation Motions Transfer Reach Grab Return Release Example 1: Planning of Manipulation Motions Transfer Reach Grab Return Release

Example 1: Planning of Manipulation Motions Example 1: Planning of Manipulation Motions

Example 2: Air-Cushioned Robot robot obstacles air thrusters gaz tank air bearing (Aerospace Robotics Example 2: Air-Cushioned Robot robot obstacles air thrusters gaz tank air bearing (Aerospace Robotics Lab)

Total duration : 40 sec Total duration : 40 sec

Example 3: Radiosurgical Planning Cyberknife (Neurosurgery Dept. , Stanford, Accuray) Example 3: Radiosurgical Planning Cyberknife (Neurosurgery Dept. , Stanford, Accuray)

Surgeon Specifies Dose Constraints Tumor Dose to the Critical Region Critical Dose to the Surgeon Specifies Dose Constraints Tumor Dose to the Critical Region Critical Dose to the Tumor Region Fall-off of Dose Around the Tumor Fall-off of Dose in the Critical Region

Beam Selection Algorithm u u Place points uniformly at random on the surface of Beam Selection Algorithm u u Place points uniformly at random on the surface of the tumor Pick beam orientations at random at these points

Beam Selection Algorithm u u Place points uniformly at random on the surface of Beam Selection Algorithm u u Place points uniformly at random on the surface of the tumor Pick beam orientations at random at these points

Compute Beam Weights • 2000 < Tumor < 2200 T B 1 B 2 Compute Beam Weights • 2000 < Tumor < 2200 T B 1 B 2 C B 4 B 3 2000 < B 2 + B 4 < 2200 2000 < B 3 < 2200 2000 < B 1 + B 3 + B 4 < 2200 2000 < B 1 + B 2 < 2200 • 0 < Critical < 500 0 < B 2 < 500

Sample Case Linac plan 80% Isodose surface CARABEAMER’s plan 80% Isodose surface Sample Case Linac plan 80% Isodose surface CARABEAMER’s plan 80% Isodose surface

Sample Case 50% Isodose Surface 80% Isodose Surface Linac plan CARABEAMER’s plan Sample Case 50% Isodose Surface 80% Isodose Surface Linac plan CARABEAMER’s plan

Example 4: Indoor Map Building by Robot Example 4: Indoor Map Building by Robot

Next-Best View Strategy Next-Best View Strategy

Computing Next Sensing Position u u Sample the free edges of the visited region Computing Next Sensing Position u u Sample the free edges of the visited region at random. For each sample point, compute the subset of visited region from which this point is visible and sample this subset at random. >> Set of candidate positions q Select “best” candidate q based on following criteria: – – – overlap of visible environment edges (to ensure reliable alignment) amount of potential new space visible from q length of path to go to q

Map Construction Example 1 4 2 6 Map Construction Example 1 4 2 6

Robotics Lab Map 45 m Robotics Lab Map 45 m

Example 5: Digital Actor with Vision Sensing Example 5: Digital Actor with Vision Sensing

Example 5: Digital Actor with Vision Sensing Example 5: Digital Actor with Vision Sensing

Example 6: Predicting Molecule Docking Motions Example 6: Predicting Molecule Docking Motions

Future Work: Minimally Invasive Surgey Amidst Soft Tissue Structures Future Work: Minimally Invasive Surgey Amidst Soft Tissue Structures

Future Work: Autonomous Interactive Characters A Bug’s Life (Pixar/Disney) Tomb Raider 3 (Eidos Interactive) Future Work: Autonomous Interactive Characters A Bug’s Life (Pixar/Disney) Tomb Raider 3 (Eidos Interactive) Toy Story (Pixar/Disney) The Legend of Zelda (Nintendo) Antz (Dreamworks) Final Fantasy VIII (Square. One)

Future Work: Protein Folding Future Work: Protein Folding

Summary/Conclusion u u u Over the last decade there has been considerable progress in Summary/Conclusion u u u Over the last decade there has been considerable progress in motion planning techniques and their application While motion planning originated in robotics, the areas of application are now very diverse: product design, manufacturing, graphic animation, video games, biology, etc… There are orders of magnitude more processors embedded in physical devices (cars, planes, surgical instruments, etc) than desktop computers, and the gap is still growing. The interest in modeling and computing the motion of physical objects will continue to grow.