Chemical environmental pollution.pptx
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Moscow Health Department Medical College of S. P. Botkin Chemical environmental pollution Done by Alice Shegay Course 1 st Group 112 Specialization: Nursing Moscow 2013
Generally there are three main sources of pollution of the atmosphere: industry, household boiler rooms, transport.
Thermal power plants It is now conventional that most strongly pollutes air industrial production. Sources of pollution - thermal power plants which together with a smoke throw out sulphurous and carbon dioxide in air; the metallurgical enterprises, especially nonferrous metallurgy who throw out in air nitrogen oxides, hydrogen sulfide, chlorine, fluorine, ammonia, compounds of phosphorus, a particle and compound of mercury and arsenic; chemical and cement works.
Metallurgical enterprise Nonferrous metallurgy
Chemical works Cement works
Harmful gases get to air as a result of fuel burning for needs of the industry, heating of dwellings, work of transport, burning and processing of household and industrial wastes.
The main harmful impurity of a pirogenny origin is the following: Carbon oxide. It turns out at incomplete combustion of carbonaceous substances. It gets to air as a result of burning of solid waste, with exhaust gases and emissions of the industrial enterprises. Annually this gas not less than 1250 million t arrive in the atmosphere. Oxide of carbon is the connection which is actively reacting with components of the atmosphere and promotes temperature increase on a planet, and to creation of greenhouse effect.
Sulphurous anhydride. It is allocated in the course of combustion of sulfur-containing fuel or processing of sulfur ores (to 170 million t. in a year). The part of compounds of sulfur is allocated when burning fossils in mining dumps. Only in the USA the total of the sulphurous anhydride released into the atmosphere made 65% from universal emission.
Sulfuric anhydride. It is formed at oxidation of sulphurous anhydride. The final product of reaction is the aerosol or solution of sulfuric acid in rain water which acidifies the soil, aggravates diseases of respiratory ways of the person. Loss of an aerosol of sulfuric acid from smoke torches of the chemical companies is noted at low overcast and high humidity of air. Sheet plates of the plants growing at distance less than 11 km. from such enterprises, usually happen are densely covered with the small necrotic spots, formed in places of subsidence of drops of sulfuric acid. The pyrometallurgical enterprises of nonferrous and ferrous metallurgy, and also thermal power plant annually release tens of millions tons of sulfuric anhydride into the atmosphere.
Hydrogen sulfide and carbon sulfur. Arrive in the atmosphere separately or together in other compounds of sulfur. The main sources of emission are the enterprises for production of artificial fiber, sugar, coke-chemical, oil processing, and also oil fields. In the atmosphere at interaction with other pollutants are exposed to slow oxidation to sulfuric anhydride.
Oksila of nitrogen. The main sources of emission are the enterprises making nitric fertilizers, nitric acid and nitrates, aniline dyes, nitroconnections, viscose silk, celluloid. The quantity oksila the nitrogen, arriving in the atmosphere, makes 20 million t. in a year.
Compounds of fluorine. Sources of pollution are the enterprises for aluminum production, enamels, glass, ceramics, steel, phosphoric fertilizers. Ftorsoderzhashchiye substances arrive in the atmosphere in the form of gaseous connections - фтороводорода or a dust of fluoride of sodium and calcium. Connections are characterized by toxic effect. Derivatives of fluorine are strong insecticides.
Compounds of chlorine. Arrive in the atmosphere from the chemical companies making hydrochloric acid, chlorine-containing pesticides, organic dyes, hydrolytic alcohol, chloric lime, soda. In the atmosphere meet as impurity of a molecule of chlorine and vapors of hydrochloric acid. Toxicity of chlorine is defined by a type of connections and their concentration. In metallurgical industry when smelting cast iron and at its processing on steel there is an emission in the atmosphere of various heavy metals and poisonous gases. So, per 1 t. conversion iron it is allocated except 12, 7 kg. sulphurous gas and 14, 5 kg of the dust particles defining number of compounds of arsenic, phosphorus, antimony, lead, vapors of mercury and rare metals, pitch substances and cyanic hydrogen.
Chemical pollution of natural waters
Any reservoir or water source is connected with environment surrounding it. On it have impact of a condition of formation of a superficial or underground water drain, the various natural phenomena, the industry, industrial and municipal construction, transport, economic and household activity of the person. Consequence of these influences is introduction on water Wednesday of new substances unusual for it - the pollutants worsening quality of water. The pollution arriving on water Wednesday, classify differently, depending on approaches, criteria and tasks. So, usually allocate chemical, physical and biological pollution.
Chemical pollution represents change of natural chemical properties water at the expense of increase in the content in it harmful impurity as inorganic (mineral salts, acids, alkalis, clay particles), and the organic nature (oil and oil products, fossils, surfaceactive substances, pesticides).
The main inorganic (mineral) pollutants of fresh and sea waters are various chemical compounds, toxic for inhabitants of the water environment. It compounds of arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, chrome, copper, fluorine. The majority of them gets to water as a result of human activity. Heavy metals are absorbed by a phytoplankton, and then transferred on a food chain to more high-organized organisms.
Organic pollution. Among brought in the ocean from a land of soluble substances, great value for inhabitants of the water environment have not only mineral, biogene elements, but also fossils. Carrying out is estimated at the ocean of organic substance in 300 - 380 mln. t. / year. The sewage containing suspensions of an organic origin or dissolved organic substance, harmful influences a condition of reservoirs. Being besieged, suspensions fill in a bottom and detain development or completely stop activity of these microorganisms participating in process of self-cleaning of waters. When rotting this precipitation harmful connections and poison gases, such as hydrogen sulfide which lead to pollution of all water in the river can be formed. Availability of suspensions complicate also penetration of light into depth of water and slows down photosynthesis processes.
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