Скачать презентацию Morphology How to describe what you see Basic Скачать презентацию Morphology How to describe what you see Basic

52825ae4b386bc06b26dc5c547afd8ee.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 74

Morphology: How to describe what you see Basic Dermatology Curriculum Last updated July 16 Morphology: How to describe what you see Basic Dermatology Curriculum Last updated July 16 th, 2013

Module Instructions § The following module contains a number of blue, underlined terms which Module Instructions § The following module contains a number of blue, underlined terms which are hyperlinked to the dermatology glossary, an illustrated interactive guide to clinical dermatology and dermatopathology. § We encourage the learner to read all the hyperlinked information. 2 2

Goals and Objectives § The purpose of this module is learn how to best Goals and Objectives § The purpose of this module is learn how to best describe skin lesions § After completing this module, the learner will be able to: • Develop a systematic approach to describing skin eruptions • Utilize the appropriate terms to describe morphology 3 3

Morphology § The word morphology is used by dermatologists to describe the form and Morphology § The word morphology is used by dermatologists to describe the form and structure of skin lesions § The morphologic characteristics of skin lesions are key elements in establishing the diagnosis and communicating skin findings § There are two steps in establishing the morphology of any given skin condition: 1. Careful visual and tactile inspection 2. Application of correct descriptors 4 4

Visual and Tactile Inspection § Accumulate detailed information about the visual and tactile aspects Visual and Tactile Inspection § Accumulate detailed information about the visual and tactile aspects of the skin findings § Be able to communicate an accurate description so someone on the other end of a phone can get a mental picture of what you see. § Question 1 • How would you fill in the description of the item depicted on the next slide? 5 5

Question 1 • How would you describe the object to the right? • Be Question 1 • How would you describe the object to the right? • Be as detailed as you can be!

Question 1 This is a red, circular, shiny object with a small invagination on Question 1 This is a red, circular, shiny object with a small invagination on top. It measures 8 cm. It is in a white background and casts a shadow. 7 The shadow tells us it is raised (palpable). 7

Question 1 • This is a red, circular, shiny object with a small invagination Question 1 • This is a red, circular, shiny object with a small invagination on top. It measures 8 cm. It is in a white background and casts a shadow. §The above description identifies: 1. Palpability (indicated by shadow) 2. Color 3. Shape 4. Texture 5. Size 6. Location 8 8

Application of the correct descriptors • We have just reviewed careful visual inspection • Application of the correct descriptors • We have just reviewed careful visual inspection • We will now define the terms dermatologists use to describe skin lesions • We will then have a series of cases for you to practice describing so you can use the correct descriptors. 9 9

Primary lesion: Macule § (L. macula, “spot”) § A macule is flat; if you Primary lesion: Macule § (L. macula, “spot”) § A macule is flat; if you can feel it, then it is not a macule. 10 10

Examples of Macules 11 11 Examples of Macules 11 11

Primary lesion: Patch § Patches are flat but larger than macules § If it’s Primary lesion: Patch § Patches are flat but larger than macules § If it’s flat and larger than 1 cm, it is a patch 12 12

Examples of Patches 13 13 Examples of Patches 13 13

Primary lesion: Papule § (L. papula, “pimple”) § Papules are raised lesions less than Primary lesion: Papule § (L. papula, “pimple”) § Papules are raised lesions less than 1 cm § It is caused by a proliferation of cells in epidermis or superficial dermis 14 14

Examples of Papules 15 15 Examples of Papules 15 15

Primary lesions: Plaque § Plaques > 1 cm • You can feel them • Primary lesions: Plaque § Plaques > 1 cm • You can feel them • They cast a shadow with side lighting § It is also caused by a proliferation of cells in epidermis or superficial dermis 16 16

Examples of Plaques 17 17 Examples of Plaques 17 17

Nodule § (L. nodulus, “small knot”) § It is caused by a proliferation of Nodule § (L. nodulus, “small knot”) § It is caused by a proliferation of cells into the mid-deep dermis 18 18

Examples of Nodules 19 19 Examples of Nodules 19 19

Primary lesion: Vesicle § (L. vesicula, “little bladder”; bulla, “bubble”) § Vesicles are fluidfilled Primary lesion: Vesicle § (L. vesicula, “little bladder”; bulla, “bubble”) § Vesicles are fluidfilled papules (small blisters) § A large (> 1 cm) blister is called a bulla 20 vesicle bulla 20

Examples of Vesicles 21 21 Examples of Vesicles 21 21

Pustule § Pus is made up of leukocytes and a thin fluid called liquor Pustule § Pus is made up of leukocytes and a thin fluid called liquor puris (L. “pus liquid”) § See also furuncle and abscess 22 22

Erosion § Erosions are loss of part or all of the epidermis § They Erosion § Erosions are loss of part or all of the epidermis § They may occur after a vesicle forms and the top peels off § They weep and become crusted 23 23

Ulcer § (L. ulcus, “sore”) § Ulcers are complete loss of the epidermis in Ulcer § (L. ulcus, “sore”) § Ulcers are complete loss of the epidermis in addition to part of the dermis § They often heal with scarring; erosions usually do not heal with scars 24 24

 • Now you have the terms you need • Let’s practice your descriptions • Now you have the terms you need • Let’s practice your descriptions with cases • Do the best you can – like learning any new language it takes practice!

Case One Mr. F 26 26 Case One Mr. F 26 26

Case One: History § HPI: Mr. F is a 32 -year-old man who presents Case One: History § HPI: Mr. F is a 32 -year-old man who presents to his primary care provider with “blotches” on his upper back, chest, and arms for several years. They are more noticeable in the summertime. § PMH: shoulder pain from an old sports injury § Allergies: none § Medications: NSAID as needed § Family history: not contributory § Social history: auto mechanic § ROS: negative 27 27 10

Case One: Skin Exam 28 28 Case One: Skin Exam 28 28

Case One § How would you describe these skin findings? § What do you Case One § How would you describe these skin findings? § What do you see? Look carefully at all clues in the photographs. § There are many right ways to describe something. Be creative. 29 29 12

Case One, Question 1 • Are these lesions elevated, flat, or depressed? 30 30 Case One, Question 1 • Are these lesions elevated, flat, or depressed? 30 30

Case One, Question 1 • If you don’t feel an elevation or depression as Case One, Question 1 • If you don’t feel an elevation or depression as your finger runs across the skin, they are flat – Small, flat lesions are called macules 31 31

Case One, Question 2 • How else can you describe them? – – What Case One, Question 2 • How else can you describe them? – – What size are they? What shape are they? What color are they? How regular and distinct is the border? – How are they configured? – How are they distributed? 32 32

Case One, Question 2 • How else can you describe them? – 3 to Case One, Question 2 • How else can you describe them? – 3 to 10 mm 33 33

Case One, Question 3 • How else can you describe them? – – What Case One, Question 3 • How else can you describe them? – – What size are they? What shape are they? What color are they? How regular and distinct is the border? – How are they configured? – How are they distributed? 34 34

Case One, Question 3 • How else can you describe them? – 3 to Case One, Question 3 • How else can you describe them? – 3 to 10 mm – Round to oval 35 35

Case One, Question 4 • How else can you describe them? – – What Case One, Question 4 • How else can you describe them? – – What size are they? What shape are they? What color are they? How regular and distinct is the border? – How are they configured? – How are they distributed? 36 36

Case One, Question 4 • How else can you describe them? – 3 to Case One, Question 4 • How else can you describe them? – 3 to 10 mm – Round to oval – Pink to tan 37 37

Case One, Question 5 • How else can you describe them? – – What Case One, Question 5 • How else can you describe them? – – What size are they? What shape are they? What color are they? How regular and distinct is the border? – How are they configured? – How are they distributed? 38 38

Case One, Question 5 • How else can you describe them? – – 39 Case One, Question 5 • How else can you describe them? – – 39 3 to 10 mm Round to oval Pink to tan Sharp, irregular borders 39

Case One, Question 6 • How else can you describe them? – – – Case One, Question 6 • How else can you describe them? – – – 40 What size are they? What shape are they? What color are they? How distinct are they? How are they configured (how do the lesions relate to each other)? – How are they distributed (where are they on the body)? 40

Case One, Question 6 • How else can you describe them? – – – Case One, Question 6 • How else can you describe them? – – – 41 3 to 10 mm Round to oval Pink to tan Sharp, irregular borders Separate, in no particular pattern 41

Case One, Question 7 • How else can you describe them? – – – Case One, Question 7 • How else can you describe them? – – – 42 What size are they? What shape are they? What color are they? How distinct are they? How are they configured? How are they distributed? 42

Case One, Question 7 • How else can you describe them? – – – Case One, Question 7 • How else can you describe them? – – – 3 to 10 mm Round to oval Pink to tan Sharp, irregular borders Separate, in no particular pattern – On the upper chest, back, and flexures of arms 43 43

Skin Exam § Mr. F’s skin exam shows: • Multiple 3 to 10 mm Skin Exam § Mr. F’s skin exam shows: • Multiple 3 to 10 mm pink to tan-colored, round, flat lesions with sharp, irregular borders and varying sizes on his upper chest, back and flexures of the arms. § Small (< 1 cm) flat lesions are called macules § In this case, the primary lesion is a macule 44 44 29

Diagnosis § Dr. D performs a potassium hydroxide exam and based on the findings, Diagnosis § Dr. D performs a potassium hydroxide exam and based on the findings, diagnoses Mr. F with tinea versicolor. The primary lesion in tinea versicolor is a macule. 45 45 29

Case One, Question 8 § Which of the following answers are correct? (More than Case One, Question 8 § Which of the following answers are correct? (More than one may be correct. ) Macules can: a. Feel raised b. Feel flat c. Contain fluid d. Be any shape 46 46

Case One, Question 8 Answer: b & d § Macules can: a. Feel raised Case One, Question 8 Answer: b & d § Macules can: a. Feel raised (these are papules or plaques) b. Feel flat c. Contain fluid (these are vesicles or bullae) d. Be any shape 47 47

Review: Macule vs Patch MACULE (<1 cm) PATCH (>1 cm) 48 48 Review: Macule vs Patch MACULE (<1 cm) PATCH (>1 cm) 48 48

Case Two Mr. K 49 49 Case Two Mr. K 49 49

Case Two: History § HPI: Mr. K is a 36 -year-old man who presents Case Two: History § HPI: Mr. K is a 36 -year-old man who presents with four years of itchy, flaky spots on his elbows, knees, and lower back. They have not improved with moisturizers. § PMH: none § Allergies: none § Medications: none § Family history: father died from heart attack at age 68 § Social history: delivery truck driver § Health-related behaviors: drinks 2 -3 beers a week 50 § ROS: negative 50

Case Two: Skin Exam 51 51 Case Two: Skin Exam 51 51

Case Two § How would you describe these skin findings? § Be as detailed Case Two § How would you describe these skin findings? § Be as detailed as you can be! 52 52 42

Case Two, Question 1 • Are these lesions raised, flat, or depressed? 53 53 Case Two, Question 1 • Are these lesions raised, flat, or depressed? 53 53

Case Two, Question 1 • Imagine running your finger over them. – These are Case Two, Question 1 • Imagine running your finger over them. – These are raised – Large (>1 cm), plateaulike, raised lesions are called plaques 54 54

Case Two, Question 1 • How else can you describe them? – – – Case Two, Question 1 • How else can you describe them? – – – – 55 Size? Shape? Color? Sharp borders? Texture? Configuration? Distribution? 55

Case Two, Question 1 • How else can you describe them? 56 – 3 Case Two, Question 1 • How else can you describe them? 56 – 3 to 10 cm – Round to geographic (like outlines on a map) – Pink – Sharply circumscribed – Scaly – Symmetrical – Extensor surfaces (knees, elbows), back, gluteal 56 cleft

Diagnosis § Mr. K’s skin exam shows: • Several 3 -10 cm pink round Diagnosis § Mr. K’s skin exam shows: • Several 3 -10 cm pink round sharply circumscribed scaly plaques on his extensor elbows, knees, lower back, and gluteal cleft § Mr. K has psoriasis. The primary lesion in this case of psoriasis is a plaque because it is elevated and over 1 cm in diameter. 57 57 47

Review: Papule vs Plaque PAPULE (<1 cm) PLAQUE (>1 cm) 58 58 Review: Papule vs Plaque PAPULE (<1 cm) PLAQUE (>1 cm) 58 58

Case Three Mr. B 59 59 Case Three Mr. B 59 59

Case Three § HPI: Mr. B is a 28 -year-old man who presents with Case Three § HPI: Mr. B is a 28 -year-old man who presents with four days of pain and blisters on his left chest. § PMH: none § Allergies: none § Medications: none § Family history: noncontributory § Social history: single; works as a personal trainer § ROS: negative 60 60

Case Three 61 61 Case Three 61 61

Case Three, Questions • How would you describe these skin findings? • Are these Case Three, Questions • How would you describe these skin findings? • Are these lesions raised, flat, or depressed? • Do they have fluid in them? 62 62

Case Three, Questions • These are raised • They also have fluid in them Case Three, Questions • These are raised • They also have fluid in them – Remember - small, raised, fluid-filled lesions are called vesicles 63 63

Case Three • How else can you describe them? – – – 64 Size? Case Three • How else can you describe them? – – – 64 Size? Shape? Color? Texture? Configuration? Distribution? 64

Case Three • How else can you describe them? 65 – 2 – 5 Case Three • How else can you describe them? 65 – 2 – 5 mm – Round to oval – Clear, with a background erythematous patch – Fluid-filled – Grouped vesciles – Unilateral dermatomal distribution on the left chest 65

Distribution / Configuration § Part of describing lesions is noting distribution and configuration § Distribution / Configuration § Part of describing lesions is noting distribution and configuration § Distribution means location(s) on the body § Configuration means how the lesions are arranged or relate to each other • Lesions are grouped but also follow a linear pattern around the trunk • This is an example of a segmental or dermatomal distribution 66 66

Distribution / Configuration § To learn more about distributions, click here: • http: //bit. Distribution / Configuration § To learn more about distributions, click here: • http: //bit. ly/itkitk § To learn more about configurations, click here: • http: //bit. ly/kb. RI 9 Q • These links take you to Learn. Derm, a free resource for learning morphology terms 67 67

Diagnosis § Mr. B’s skin exam shows: • Grouped 2 -5 mm vesicles on Diagnosis § Mr. B’s skin exam shows: • Grouped 2 -5 mm vesicles on an erythematous base in a unilateral, dermatomal configuration on the left chest § Small, fluid-filled lesions are called vesicles § Mr. K has shingles. The primary lesion in shingles is a vesicle. 68 68 65

Review: Seeing the skin § To describe what you see on the skin, first Review: Seeing the skin § To describe what you see on the skin, first determine the primary lesion • Is it raised, flat, or depressed? • Is it small or large? • Is it fluid-filled? § The table in the next slide summarizes most of the terms used to describe the skin. We have already reviewed many of them. Click on the others to learn more. 69 69

Terms Raised Flat Depressed Fluid-filled Vascular Papule Macule Erosion Vesicle Telangiectasia Plaque Patch Ulcer Terms Raised Flat Depressed Fluid-filled Vascular Papule Macule Erosion Vesicle Telangiectasia Plaque Patch Ulcer Bulla Petechiae Nodule Atrophy Pustule Ecchymosis Tumor Sinus Furuncle Wheal Stria Abscess Burrow Scar 70 70

Review: Seeing the skin § In your descriptions, include adjectives that help describe the Review: Seeing the skin § In your descriptions, include adjectives that help describe the primary lesions. Make sure to consider: 71 § § § Size Shape Color Texture Configuration Distribution 71

Take Home Points § To describe the skin, first inspect closely § Second, determine Take Home Points § To describe the skin, first inspect closely § Second, determine if the lesion is raised, flat, or depressed and its size. § Then pick the term for the lesions that fits best! § Finally, use adjectives relating to the shape, color, texture, distribution, and configuration to further describe the lesion. § See the resources at the end for further reading. 72 72

Acknowledgements § This module was developed by the American Academy of Dermatology’s Medical Student Acknowledgements § This module was developed by the American Academy of Dermatology’s Medical Student Core Curriculum Workgroup from 2008 -2012. § Primary authors: Patrick Mc. Cleskey, MD, FAAD; Peter A. Lio, MD, FAAD; Jacqueline C. Dolev, MD, FAAD; Amit Garg, MD, FAAD. § Peer reviewers: Heather Woodworth Wickless, MD, MPH; Ron Birnbaum, MD; Timothy G. Berger, MD, FAAD. § Revisions: Sarah D. Cipriano, MD, MPH, Jessica Kaffenberger, MD, Joslyn Kirby, MD. Last revised July 2013. 73 73

Resources § Berger T, Hong J, Saeed S, Colaco S, Tsang M, Kasper R. Resources § Berger T, Hong J, Saeed S, Colaco S, Tsang M, Kasper R. The Web. Based Illustrated Clinical Dermatology Glossary. Med. Ed. PORTAL; 2007. Available from: www. mededportal. org/publication/462. § Morphology illustrations are from the Dermatology Lexicon Project, which is now maintained by the American Academy of Dermatology as Derm. Lex. § Dolev JC, Friedlaender JK, Braverman, IM. Use of fine art to enhance visual diagnostic skills. JAMA 2001; 286(9), 100 -2. § Habif TP. Clinical Dermatology: a color guide to diagnosis and therapy, 4 th ed. New York, NY: Mosby; 2004. § James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM. Andrews’ Diseases of the Skin, 11 th ed. Elsevier; 2011: 12 -17. § Marks Jr JG, Miller JJ. Lookingbill and Marks’ Principles of Dermatology, 4 th ed. Elsevier; 2006. § Review primary lesions and other morphologic terms at http: //www. logicalimages. com/educational. Tools/learn. Derm. htm. 74 74