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More than you want to know about standards Janifer Gatenby, Strategic Research, OCLCPICA More than you want to know about standards Janifer Gatenby, Strategic Research, OCLCPICA

Agenda • Changing environment • Types of standards • Standards process • Some recent Agenda • Changing environment • Types of standards • Standards process • Some recent examples • Role of OCLC in standards 2 Agenda

Changing Environment • Users coming to the library indirectly – Via University portals, e-learning Changing Environment • Users coming to the library indirectly – Via University portals, e-learning systems – Via web pages, search engines, worldcat. org • Library not first port of call for information – Google & Yahoo • Custodial role – Institutional repository • Increasing inter-dependence of dissimilar systems – Discovery widespread; delivery not so 3 Changing Environment

Authors Contribution Institution Repository Authentication G Reading lists Virtual Learning Environment ? ILMS Portal Authors Contribution Institution Repository Authentication G Reading lists Virtual Learning Environment ? ILMS Portal ‚ 4 Changing Environment

Industry Standards as the Base CCC DD • http & ldap protocol • URL Industry Standards as the Base CCC DD • http & ldap protocol • URL (http GET) • Web services (http POST) • XML data format with customised schemas • Protocols with their own TCP/IP port • Stateful protocols • EDIFACT & BER encoding, ISO 2709 5 Changing Environment

Levels of Inter-operability • Full system inter-operability – Inter-operability of a whole process • Levels of Inter-operability • Full system inter-operability – Inter-operability of a whole process • e. g. Self checking loans (NCIP) – Process can extend over > one session • e. g. ILL ( ISO 10161), acquisitions (EDIFACT) – Maintenance of state – Symbiosis 6 Changing Environment

Levels of Inter-operability • Medium level – Z 39. 50 – session based – Levels of Inter-operability • Medium level – Z 39. 50 – session based – multiple tasks – Maintenance of state – Like systems Bibliographic system to Bibliographic system – Emergence of multi-protocol portals 7 Changing Environment

Levels of Inter-operability • Partial inter-operability – Single task only rather than session • Levels of Inter-operability • Partial inter-operability – Single task only rather than session • One message; one response – SRW/SRU for enquiry – NCIP or LDAP for authentication • Referral, linking to another system – open. URL 8 Changing Environment

Types of standards • Models • Data structures – Schemas • Data elements • Types of standards • Models • Data structures – Schemas • Data elements • Mandatory / optional, repeatable / not repeatable, data type, values – Syntaxes • ISO 2709, XML, ANSI/BER, EDIFACT, Key/Value pairs • Messages – Data elements – Referenced Schemas – Syntaxes • Profiles – Agreed subsets = interoperability 9 Types of Standards

Models • Purpose – for database development – For development of other standards • Models • Purpose – for database development – For development of other standards • Examples – CRM (ISO 21127) – FRBR (IFLA) – Data elements (ISO 8459) – Library Registries (ISO 2146) – Open Archives Model 10 Types of Standards

Data Structures • Examples – MARC 21, UNIMARC, xx. MARC (ISO 2709 or XML) Data Structures • Examples – MARC 21, UNIMARC, xx. MARC (ISO 2709 or XML) – ONIX (XML) – Dublin Core (XML) – EDIFACT EDIt. EUR (EDI, XML) • For exchanging data 11 Types of Standards

Messages • Enquiry – Z 39. 50 (search, response, scan, ++) – SRU – Messages • Enquiry – Z 39. 50 (search, response, scan, ++) – SRU – Open. Search • Circulation – NCIP – SIP 2 • Acquisitions – EDIt. EUR • Update – Z 39. 50 UCP – SRU update – OAI PMH • Delivery request – ISO ILL – Open. URL to resolver – Open. URL Request Transfer Message • Authentication – LDAP, Shibboleth 12 Types of Standards

Process • ISO – [WD], CD (3), DIS (5), [FDIS], IS – Voting & Process • ISO – [WD], CD (3), DIS (5), [FDIS], IS – Voting & observer members – Working group – Maintenance agencies • Easy & fast way to implement add ons • Register schemas, code lists, etc. 13 Standards Process

Incentives? • Inter-operability – Permits mix and match • Easier development – Checklist – Incentives? • Inter-operability – Permits mix and match • Easier development – Checklist – Avoids starting from scratch – Takes risk out of development • Differentiation reduced • Opens playing field to competitors • Interoperability testing • Means of comparison of systems 14 Standards Process

Standards bodies International • ISO /IEC • IFLA • W 3 C • IETF Standards bodies International • ISO /IEC • IFLA • W 3 C • IETF • OASIS National & Other • NISO • ALA – MARBI • Digital Library Federation (DLF) • Ad Hoc 15 Standards Process

Bringing Standards up to Date • Don’t throw the baby out with the bath Bringing Standards up to Date • Don’t throw the baby out with the bath water • Examples: – SRW / SRU – Update 16 Some Recent Examples

– Started in 2001; Version 1. 1 November 2003 – Simplified, modernized protocol, grown – Started in 2001; Version 1. 1 November 2003 – Simplified, modernized protocol, grown up Z 39. 50 • Generic platform – http: //lcweb. loc. gov/z 3950/agency/ zing/srw/specifications. html 17 Some Recent Examples

– Evolution of Z 39. 50; Inherits best bits – More extensible than Z – Evolution of Z 39. 50; Inherits best bits – More extensible than Z 39. 50 • Access points, data schemas, extra data • Extendable operations – Industry standard platform – HTTP; web services • • Easier fit with other developments Easier to find developers Less to maintain and optimize Fewer firewall problems – Simplicity • People don’t need a diploma to start – Performance • SRU re-uses data in cache – less load on server – Cross Domain interoperability • Easier to promote 18 Some Recent Examples

Keeps best bits of Z 39. 50 • Abstract indexes – DC – Bath Keeps best bits of Z 39. 50 • Abstract indexes – DC – Bath profile mapped • Precise searching • Result set concept • Improves Explain – machine configurable – really • Extensibility – better: other info at message & record level 19 Some Recent Examples

Zed’s best bits continued CCC • Multi-target searching – One user interface; one search Zed’s best bits continued CCC • Multi-target searching – One user interface; one search – different platforms (UNIX, NT, IBM etc. ) – different database systems (relational, network) – different database models • Searching based on abstract concepts – “Title”, i. e. not database columns • Can combine results from diverse dbases – Common record syntax (XML; in Z 39. 50 is ISO 2709) • Reuse of results • Facilitates follow on delivery – electronic & physical 20 Some Recent Examples

Main Differences from Z 39. 50 • “Stateless” and “connection-less”, with • • continuity Main Differences from Z 39. 50 • “Stateless” and “connection-less”, with • • continuity maintained by: – result set (server named) – Authentication token Only one database Only one record syntax & encoding – XML (not ASN. 1) CQL (CCL inspired) not RPN Explain – XML document (eye & machine readable) 21 Some Recent Examples

More Differences • Search & present use same request mechanism • Services: – Search More Differences • Search & present use same request mechanism • Services: – Search – Sort (part of search request) – Scan (v. 1. 1) – Explain 22 Some Recent Examples

When to stay with Zed • No problems with firewall • System needs zero When to stay with Zed • No problems with firewall • System needs zero maintenance / enhancements / optimization • System needs no new targets or clients • System needs no external interoperation with dissimilar systems and portals 23 Some Recent Examples

 • SRW WEB service – – HTTP POST, SOAP wrapper, XML encoding, WSDL • SRW WEB service – – HTTP POST, SOAP wrapper, XML encoding, WSDL Client / server (machine to machine) For long query strings, complex queries For protected servers • SRU – HTTP GET (URL) with XSLT – thin client – (browser to machine) - Stylesheets – Full function but simplementation & take up Simple – URLs for documents, browser bookmarks • Mozilla: saved URL, multiple search, tab presentations from multiple servers 24 Some Recent Examples

SRU Update E UU R T DA P S NCC PUSH L O G SRU Update E UU R T DA P S NCC PUSH L O G GGC SRU UPDATE M 21 World. Cat Record & work identifiers World. Cat Discovery – SRU update 25 Some Recent Examples

ISO Holdings Schema ISO 20775 Holdings Resource Holding Physical Location Institution Identifier Physical Location ISO Holdings Schema ISO 20775 Holdings Resource Holding Physical Location Institution Identifier Physical Location Electronic Address Holding Simple Holding Structured Summary Policy Summary History Policy either / or * Combines stable & dynamic info * Principally for Queries Physical Address * Possible Supplier Component in Open. URL Request Transfer Message 26 Some Recent Examples

Discovery Universe Portals OPACs Union Catalogues +++ Request Transfer Msg Open. URL Union Catalogue Discovery Universe Portals OPACs Union Catalogues +++ Request Transfer Msg Open. URL Union Catalogue RDS RDS RDS Delivery Universe World. Cat RS nuc national / regional services nuc ……… Subito BLDSC CISTI Doc Del 27 Some Recent Examples

Open. URL Requester Resource User Metadata Format Referent Request Transfer Community Profile Referrer Identifiers Open. URL Requester Resource User Metadata Format Referent Request Transfer Community Profile Referrer Identifiers Service Type Identifiers Resource Delivery Service Metadata Formats ISO Holdings Schema Wanted Resource 28 Some Recent Examples

Role of OCLC • Leader – – – – – Dublin Core – Stu Role of OCLC • Leader – – – – – Dublin Core – Stu Weibel Open. URL maintenance agency NISO Board – Lorcan Dempsey & Robin Murray SRU – Ralph Le. Van SRU update - Janifer Gatenby ISO 8459, Bath Profile, Z 39. 50 ISO holdings, Request Transfer NCIP – John Bodfish, Tony O’Brien, Pat Stevens DLF +++ • Test Bed • Promotional role 29 Role of OCLC

Thank you. 30 Thank you. 30