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Moral & Social Consequences of Growth & How Taxation Affects Them By Dr T. Moral & Social Consequences of Growth & How Taxation Affects Them By Dr T. H. CHOWDARY Director: Center for Telecom Management and Studies Chairman: Pragna Bharati (intellect India ) Former: Chairman & Managing Director Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited & Information Technology Advisor, Government of Andhra Pradesh T: +91(40) 6667 -1191/ 2784 -6137(O) 2784 -3121® F: +91 (40) 6667 -1111, 2789 -6103 hanuman. [email protected] com [email protected] com Talk @ Staff College, Osmania University , Hyderabad : 4 July 2008 THC_CTMS S 387_July'08

Growth & Development • Development includes growth; the reverse need not be true. • Growth & Development • Development includes growth; the reverse need not be true. • Development –Economic Human • Humans can be happy w/o prosperity – a condition of mind. • Prosperous can live in pain with comfort! [Nurses, ICUs, Dialysis, transplants, steroids] • Human Development Index Happiness Index THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 2

Direct Tax Collections A healthy 35% rise in tax collection in Fisc. 2008 THC_CTMS Direct Tax Collections A healthy 35% rise in tax collection in Fisc. 2008 THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 3

Budget Allocation in 2003 -04 Budget allocation in 2008 -09 Agriculture 3, 262 10, Budget Allocation in 2003 -04 Budget allocation in 2008 -09 Agriculture 3, 262 10, 075 Education 7, 024 34, 400 Health 6, 983 16, 534 Rural Development and Land resources 11, 320 18, 972 Road Transport and High Ways 7, 236 14, 066 Sarva Siksha Abhiyan 1, 951 13, 100 Midday Meal Scheme 1, 175 8, 000 Integrated Child Development Scheme 2, 356 6, 300 Rural Employment Scheme 4, 986 16, 000 Sector THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 4

Development • Economic: – Family Income – Old Age Pensions – Insurance • Life, Development • Economic: – Family Income – Old Age Pensions – Insurance • Life, Health, Work • Human: – – – THC_CTMS Health Longevity Education Quality of Life ( air, water, leisure, communion…) Stable Family Stress S 387_July'08 5

Objectives of any Humane Society • Alleviation of poverty/Deprivation • Reduction (or optimisation of Objectives of any Humane Society • Alleviation of poverty/Deprivation • Reduction (or optimisation of inequality. • Care of the aged and sick (family incomes; Regional Prosperity) • Achieving the Objectives • Without growth in wealth, poverty cannot be alleviated • Equality can be achieved in poverty for all THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 6

Wealth accumulates …. Men decay…. Ill fares the land to hastening ills a prey, Wealth accumulates …. Men decay…. Ill fares the land to hastening ills a prey, Where wealth accumulates and men decay, Prices and lords may flourish or fade, A breath can make them as a breath has made, But a bold peasantry, their country’s pride When once destroyed can never be supplied - Goldsmith in Deserted village. ‘I want an India where the peasants are not beguiled or intimidated into giving up their lands for Mr. Nehru to build castles in thin air through co-operative farming…” --Rajaji THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 7

With Growth of the economy (GDP) • Country’s wealth increases • International trade increases With Growth of the economy (GDP) • Country’s wealth increases • International trade increases • India imports outstrip exports [in 2007 -08 they were $239 bln & $ 155. 5 bln respectively] • The gap [%89 bln =Rs. 3, 60, 000 cr] is covered by – Remittances – FDI • Equity into new plants • Share market – NRI deposits THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 8

Unequal Benefits • The entrepreneurial The educated The skilled gain the most • The Unequal Benefits • The entrepreneurial The educated The skilled gain the most • The illiterate Inadequately educated Rural pop dependent on agriculture will gain the least THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 9

Inequality tends to increase • Educated / Enterprising / Business / Trade / Industry Inequality tends to increase • Educated / Enterprising / Business / Trade / Industry i. e knowledge workers / people become millionaires • Rest gain due to wage increases • Coastal, urban, industrial areas prosper faster than the rest • In India Urban PCI is 7 times the rural & • Is increasing [like in China] THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 10

Levels of GDP Per Capita (in 1990 PPP Dollars) Asian Countries 1950 -99* 1950 Levels of GDP Per Capita (in 1990 PPP Dollars) Asian Countries 1950 -99* 1950 1960 1970 1980 1999 1, 926 3, 988 9, 715 13, 429 18, 789 20, 431 Korea S 770 1, 105 1, 954 4, 114 8, 704 13, 317 Thailand 817 1, 078 1, 694 2, 554 4, 645 6, 398 439 (4. 39) 619 673 (5. 93) 753 783 (12. 40) 878 1, 067 (12. 59) 938 1, 858 (10. 11) 1, 309 3, 259 (6. 27) 1, 818 4. 1: 1 5. 9: 1 12. 4: 1 14. 3: 1 14. 4: 1 11. 2: 1 Japan China India Ratio of richest to poorest Note: * Adopted from Basu, Kaushi, 2005, Globalisation, Poverty and inequality. What is the Relationship? What can Be Done, Wider, Pager No. 2005/32 THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 11

Per Capita Income (PCI) Developing Countries Country PCI Korea* 17, 930 Mauritius * 11, Per Capita Income (PCI) Developing Countries Country PCI Korea* 17, 930 Mauritius * 11, 260 Developed Countries Country PCI USA 37, 500 Ireland 30, 450 Malaysia * Brazil Thailand China * Sri Lanka * Indonesia * India Japan Netherlands UK Germany France Singapore Israel 8, 940 7, 480 7, 450 4, 900 3, 730 3, 210 2, 880 28, 620 28, 600 27, 650 27, 460 24, 180 19, 200 * Countries which achieved Independence after India) THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 12

Poverty/Inequality (1/2) * Growth/Development & Inequality • Who profits/gains or losses • There can Poverty/Inequality (1/2) * Growth/Development & Inequality • Who profits/gains or losses • There can be no alleviation of poverty without growth; but Growth can create inequalities; • True; Inequality can grow with growth but… THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 13

Poverty/Inequality (2/2) • “Deng Tsiao Ping’s dictums - It is glorious to be rich Poverty/Inequality (2/2) • “Deng Tsiao Ping’s dictums - It is glorious to be rich • It matters little whether the cat is black or white as long as it can catch the rats • Some people will have to become rich before the poor can be helped to get out of poverty • Hu Jintao: Prez of China “Harmonious Society” “From party-building to nation-building” “Socialism” with Chinese characteristics • One Child norm since 1978; debate now for a second Child. THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 14

Growth of GDP; Population; Per Capita Income (PCI) & Years for doubling PCI Period Growth of GDP; Population; Per Capita Income (PCI) & Years for doubling PCI Period GDP 1951 to 3. 5 2000 20049. 0 07 POP 2. 8 PCI 0. 7 YRS 70 1. 8 7. 2 10 • Lesson from China: Control population during period of growth [JRD’s advice to Nehru in 1950 s dismissed. ] • BPL ratio is the index: in India it came down from 70% in the 1950 s to about 30% now [BPL ratio in A P is 85% according to white ration THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 cards & increasing. ] 15

South & West India Vs North & East India • • a. b. c. South & West India Vs North & East India • • a. b. c. d. Privatisation of Higher Education: Result: Difference in Rate of population growth Literacy/Education Casteist parties in UP/Bihar Empowerment before enlightenment THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 16

Containing Inequality • Education • Re-skilling [Agriculture & traditional professional labour] • Population Stabilisation Containing Inequality • Education • Re-skilling [Agriculture & traditional professional labour] • Population Stabilisation [No negatives; simply withdraw welfare/subsidies] • Population Migration [Internal and overseas] THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 17

Social consequences (1) • Social cohesion undermined • Nation-hood in jeopardy • Increasing claims Social consequences (1) • Social cohesion undermined • Nation-hood in jeopardy • Increasing claims for extreme backwardness (In A P: Madiga X Mala; Kapu X OBC; RJ: Gujjars X Meenas Dalit Xtians; Dalit Moslems • Violence, insurgency, separation, terrorism, lawlessness increase THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 18

Social consequences (2) Competition to be listed as backward Castes 1950 1970 2006 Kaka Social consequences (2) Competition to be listed as backward Castes 1950 1970 2006 Kaka Kalelkar Mandal Arjun Singh 3500 4500 6300 • Castes in Andhra Pradesh • Forward • B Cs (Recognised) • B Cs (pending) • S Cs • Moslems backward? 284 5 105 120 54 * Poor, voting multitudes demand welfare/ reservations/ proportional representation *Backwardness as weapon for entitlement and empowermtn. THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 19

Social consequences (3) • Illiteracy, poverty & large families are a vicious circle • Social consequences (3) • Illiteracy, poverty & large families are a vicious circle • Child labour: [A Municipal Employee (minority) in Kadapa has >40 children. Paalamuru: Child labour sustains families] • China froze population increase with only one child norm since 1978 • Remedy: Education; Obligatory one/two child norm on pain of welfare termination. THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 20

Social consequences (4) • • Populism, Politics – for –Power “Minority” promoted on basis Social consequences (4) • • Populism, Politics – for –Power “Minority” promoted on basis of religion State Funding (Buying) of Elections (votes) NREG Loan waivers Free everything Example: Communal Budget Minister fo Minority Affairs budget increased from Rs. 500 cr to Rs. 1, 000 cr Multi-sectoral development for 90 Moslem districts Rs. 3, 780 cr Prematric scholarship Rs. 80 cr. A P Budget for Moslem Scholarships: 2003 -04 05 06 07 09 Rs. 4 Cr Rs. 30 Cr Rs. 90 Cr Rs. 1207 Cr THC_CTMS Rs. 10 Cr S 387_July'08 21

Social consequences (5) • Modernising madrassas Rs. 45 cr • Maulana Azad education Funding: Social consequences (5) • Modernising madrassas Rs. 45 cr • Maulana Azad education Funding: Rs. 200 cr in 2007 -’ 08 + Rs. 60 cr in 2008 -’ 09 • 544 public sector bank branches for Moslems upto March 2008; many more in 2008 -09 • “Minority” special recruitment to Central Para military forces • National Minority Development & Finance Corporation (Rs. 50 cr in 2004 -’ 05 plus-- (Source: Para 47 of F. M’s Budget Speech) THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 22

Whose Development Needs to be First? Why Moslem First? Why not Scheduled Tribes, Scheduled Whose Development Needs to be First? Why Moslem First? Why not Scheduled Tribes, Scheduled Castes? Stock of SC & ST Engineers & Doctors in Andhra Pradesh : Census 2001 Total in the State Of which SC ST Engineers 3, 27, 032 19, 590 (6%) 3, 559 (1. 08%) Doctors 63, 325 3, 943 (6. 2%) 861 (1. 35%) SMZs (Special Moslem Zones) THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 23

Moslems (Backward? ) Representation in A P Government Service A P Govt Servants Muslims Moslems (Backward? ) Representation in A P Government Service A P Govt Servants Muslims 9, 48, 980 77, 919 Moslems Representation 9. 26% Moslem population (2001) 9. 2% THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 24

How Caste Can Wither Away • Profession – Education – Access • Opportunity to How Caste Can Wither Away • Profession – Education – Access • Opportunity to change profession [A washerman’s son, a barber’s som. A bhangi’s son, a farmer’s son, …. when educated, quits the father’s profession and village too] • Urbanisation & Emigration “Breaths there a student so dull Who to himself doth not say I want to go to America … “ “Educate our masters” - Disraeli “…above all things do not do harm…. ” - Hippocrates THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 25

Migrations of People • Latinos, Asians into USA • Africans, Arabs, Turks, Pakis & Migrations of People • Latinos, Asians into USA • Africans, Arabs, Turks, Pakis & Bangladeshis into Europe • Han Chinese into Tibet, Xingjiang • Bangladeshis into Assam, Bengal, Bihar, and Mumbai and Palamuru [A P] • “Bihari” workers into Assam, Mumbai, Punjab • Racial, religious linguistic, regional ( eg: Telengana) conflicts THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 26

Environment & Natural Resources • Increasing energy consumption: Coal, oil, bio-fuels [food shortage] Measure: Environment & Natural Resources • Increasing energy consumption: Coal, oil, bio-fuels [food shortage] Measure: KWHrs/$ GDP • Pollution; CO 2, emissions; Ozone layer holes; Sea levels rising; rivers, Lakes and seas unhabitable for fish…. • Many species disappearing • Water shortage; shrinking ground water • Planet unlivable for humans THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 27

Moral Questions (1) • Can poverty be eliminated (like caste being annihilated); but both Moral Questions (1) • Can poverty be eliminated (like caste being annihilated); but both castes & poverty growing according to government figures (white rations cards, housing for the • Can inequality be eliminated? (in N. Korea, Cuba, former USSR & pre 1978 China except the New Class, all were equal in poverty) THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 28

Moral Questions (2) Conspicuous consumptions • Shopping Malls • Marriage & birth-day bashes • Moral Questions (2) Conspicuous consumptions • Shopping Malls • Marriage & birth-day bashes • Party Congresses (even CPM & CPI’s in Hindu in 2008] • Mansions / Palaces for the rich ( Jubilee Hills, Banjara Hills etc…) • Air-conditioned pre-; Py & High Schools, children bussed in a/c vehicles • How can there be common “national, fraternal, citizenship” THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 29

Essentials for Prosperity • • • Human Resource [education] Entrepreneurship, not entitlement & Employment Essentials for Prosperity • • • Human Resource [education] Entrepreneurship, not entitlement & Employment Duties, not rights ( Every right is in a duty fulfilled) Saving to form capital Proper use of resources to generate surpluses/profit Work Ethic First; Welfare must be related to work “He who does not work, neither shall he eat…” - V I Lenin Labour Productivity Lower Trade Barrier Private [domestic & foreign] capital, competition [eg. telecoms] Flight of capital, talent, easy under globalisation THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 30

Populism Destroys • Degenerate democracy, Ignoble leadership. [No Prajaswamyam but Nayakaswamyam] • State Funding Populism Destroys • Degenerate democracy, Ignoble leadership. [No Prajaswamyam but Nayakaswamyam] • State Funding (Buying) of Elections (Voters) • Give-aways – NREG; Rs. 60, 000 cr, loan – Rs. 2/Kg rice Vs Rs. 5/cup of Tea – Loan waivers farmers: Rs. 60, 000 cr SC & ST Rs. 1, 200 cr Moslems Rs. 600 cr • Unjustified foreign Pilgrimage subsidies [Rs. 280 cr in Fisc 2008 &gug] THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 31

Answer to Social & Moral dilemmas of Development & Growth * Indian concept of Answer to Social & Moral dilemmas of Development & Growth * Indian concept of : • Right Education and Culture • Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam • Isavaasyamidam sarvam • Parasparam bhaavantah sreyo- paramavaapsyatha • Aanoh bhadraah ritavo yaantu viswatah • Mutual, reciprocal, respect; value for pluralism • Harmonious Society THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 32

 • Om Sahanaavavatu, sahanu bhunaktu • Sahaveeryam Karavaavahaih • Tejasvinaavadheetamastu • Maa Vidvishaavahaih, • Om Sahanaavavatu, sahanu bhunaktu • Sahaveeryam Karavaavahaih • Tejasvinaavadheetamastu • Maa Vidvishaavahaih, • Om! Shantih, shantih! • May we protect ourselves together, experience/ enjoy together, perform valorous deed together, not quarrel among ourselves, may our learning be brilliant. • Peace, peace !!! ( for all, everywhere, all the time)) THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 33

Abraham Lincoln Said: • You cannot bring about prosperity by discouraging thrift • You Abraham Lincoln Said: • You cannot bring about prosperity by discouraging thrift • You cannot strengthen the weak by weakening the strong • You cannot help the poor by destroying the rich • You cannot establish sound security on borrowed money • You cannot keep out trouble by spending more than you earn • You cannot build character and courage • by taking away man’s initiative and Independence • you cannot help men permanently by doing for them • what they can do for themselves • THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 34

Socialism: Wise thoughts from Sri Nani Palkhiwala (1/4) • Socialism as practised in India Socialism: Wise thoughts from Sri Nani Palkhiwala (1/4) • Socialism as practised in India has been a fraud: Our brand of socialism did not result in transfer of wealth from the rich to the poor but only from the honest rich to the dishonest rich • The sleeping sickness of socialism is now universally acknowledged – but not officially in India… The public sector enterprises are the black holes, the money guzzlers and they have been extracting and exorbitant price for India’s doctrinaire socialism. • A law suite once started in India is the nearest thing to eternal life ever seen on this earth…. THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 35

Socialism: Wise thoughts from Sri Nani Palkhiwala (2/4) • History will record that the Socialism: Wise thoughts from Sri Nani Palkhiwala (2/4) • History will record that the greatest mistake of the India Republic in the first 50 years of its existence was to make less investment in human resources-education, family planning, nutrition and public health-than in brick and motor dams and factories. • Over taxation corrupted the national character overtly. The nation survived only because the tax system continued to breathe through loopholes and the economy used to breath through window of tax evasion. • We have too much Government and too little administration; too many laws and too little justice; too many public servants and too little public service, too many controls and too little welfare. THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 36

Socialism: Wise thoughts from Sri Nani Palkhiwala (3/4) • • • We keep on Socialism: Wise thoughts from Sri Nani Palkhiwala (3/4) • • • We keep on tackling 50 -year problem with 5 year plans, staffed by 2 -year officials, working with one year appropriations, fondly hoping that somehow the laws of economics will be suspended because we are Indians. India continues to remain the only significant country in the free world to hold aloft the tainted and tattered flag of socialism. “ We shut our eyes to the fact that socialism is to social justice, what ritual is to religion and dogma is to truth”. THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 37

Socialism: Wise thoughts from Sri Nani Palkhiwala (4/4) • Indian liberalisation encounters formidable opposition Socialism: Wise thoughts from Sri Nani Palkhiwala (4/4) • Indian liberalisation encounters formidable opposition from three quarters. a) The top heavy bureaucracy reluctant to shed its enormous powers b) Influential politicians who prefer to let socialism remain the opium of the people and of whom it can be truly said that if ignorance is bliss, they should be the happiest men alive. c) Quite a few Indian businessmen who are much interested in their own personal prosperity than in the future of the country and who preferred to flourish in the non competitive environment. THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 38

Who is a true leader: • Those who claim to lead the masses must Who is a true leader: • Those who claim to lead the masses must resolutely refuse to be led by them, if we want to avoid mob law and desire ordered progress for the country. I believe that mere protestation of one’s opinion and surrender to the mass opinion is not only not enough, but in matters of vital importance, leaders must act contrary to the mass of opinions if it does not commend itself to their reason. - M. K. Gandhi • Leaders should lead as far as they can and vanish. Their ashes should not choke the fire they have lit. (As we have about a Dynasty in India) THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 39

“People who are elected” “If the people who are elected are capable and men “People who are elected” “If the people who are elected are capable and men of character and integrity they would be able to make the best even of defective Constitution. If they are lacking in theses, the Constitution cannot help the country. …there is fissiparous tendency arising out of various elements in our life. We have communal differences, caste differences, language differences, provincial difference. It runs them of strong character men of vision, men who will not sacrifice the interest of the country at large for the sake of smaller goods and areas and who will rise over the prejudices which are born of these differences. We can only put an account will prove out such men in abundance. “… -Dr Rajendra Prasad - from the speech at the final adoption of the Constitution. THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 40

“…. . Our Independence maybe lost for ever…………!!!” (1/2) -Dr B R Ambedkar’s speech “…. . Our Independence maybe lost for ever…………!!!” (1/2) -Dr B R Ambedkar’s speech after writing the Constitution “Here I could have ended. But my mind is so full of the future of our country that I feel I ought to take this occasion to give expression to some of my reflections thereon. On 26 th January 1950, India will be an Independent country. (Cheers) What would happen to her Independence? Will she maintain her Independence or will she lose it again? This is the first thought that comes to my mind. It is not that India was never an Independent country. The point is that she once lost the Independence she had. Will she lose it a second time> it is thought which makes me most anxious for the future. What perturbs me greatly is the fact that not only India has once before lost her Independence, but she lost it by the infidelity and treachery of some of her own pr. In the invasion of Sindh by Mahommed-Bin-Kasim, the military commanders of King Dahar accepted bribes from the agents of Mohammed-Bin-Kasim and refused to fight on the side of their King. THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 41

(2/2) “…. . Our Independence maybe lost for ever…………!!!” -Dr B R Ambedkar’s speech (2/2) “…. . Our Independence maybe lost for ever…………!!!” -Dr B R Ambedkar’s speech after writing the Constitution • It was Jaichand who invited Mahommed Ghori to invade India and fight against Prithvi Raj and promised him the help of himself and the Solanki Kings. • When Shivaji was fighting for the liberation of Hindus, the other Maratha noblemen and the Rajput Kings were fighting the battle on the side of Mogul Emperors. When the British were trying to destroy the Sikh Rulers, Gulab Singh, their principal commander, sat silent and did not help to save the Sikh Kingdom. In 1857, when a large part of India had declared a war of Independence against the British, the Sikhs stood and watched the event as silent spectators. • Will history repeat itself? It is thought which fills me with anxiety. This anxiety is deepened by the realization of the fact that in addition to our old enemies in the form of castes and creeds we are going to have many political parties with diverse and opposing political creeds. Will Indians place creed above country? I do not know. But this much is certain that if the parties place creed above country, our Independence will be put in jeopardy a second time and probably be lost forever……. ” • Source: The Makers of Indian Constitution – Myth and Reality by Sheshrao Chavan, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan publication - THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 42

Dhanyawad: Thank You THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 43 Dhanyawad: Thank You THC_CTMS S 387_July'08 43