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Moon. LITE and Lunar. EX Rob Gowen and Alan Smith Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Moon. LITE and Lunar. EX Rob Gowen and Alan Smith Mullard Space Science Laboratory, UCL PI Penetrator consortium space for science, enterprise and environment

Mullard Space Science Laboratory • • • A department of University College London Established Mullard Space Science Laboratory • • • A department of University College London Established in 1967 >200 sounding rockets and >35 satellite missions 150 Staff and research students Provided hardware or calibration facilities for 16 instruments on 14 spacecraft currently operating including NASA Swift, Cassini, Soho • In-house mechanical and electrical engineering design, manufacture and test • Provided stereo cameras for Beagle-2 • Leading Pan. Cam development for EXOMARS Hinode Launch 22 -9 -06 space for science, enterprise and environment

Consortium • Birkbeck College London – Lunar Science (Ian Crawford) • Open University – Consortium • Birkbeck College London – Lunar Science (Ian Crawford) • Open University – Large academic planetary group (Cassini Huygens Probe) – Science and instrumentation (Ion trap spectrometer, etc) • Imperial College London – Micro-Seismometers • Surrey Space Science Centre and SSTL – Platform technologies, delivery system technologies – Payload technologies (drill) space for science, enterprise and environment

Consortium • Southampton University – Optical fibres • University of Leicester – XRS (beagle Consortium • Southampton University – Optical fibres • University of Leicester – XRS (beagle 2/Mars 96) • Aberystwyth – Science (Chandrayaan-1) • Qineti. Q – Impact technologies – Platform & delivery systems technologies • Astrium (in discussion) – Platform & delivery systems technologies space for science, enterprise and environment

What are Penetrators ? • • • Instrumented projectiles Survive high speed impact ~ What are Penetrators ? • • • Instrumented projectiles Survive high speed impact ~ 300 m/s Penetrate surface ~ few metres An alternative to soft landing Lower cost and low mass => multi-site deployment space for science, enterprise and environment

Penetrator Heritage • Lunar-A – tested but not yet flown • DS-2 – tested Penetrator Heritage • Lunar-A – tested but not yet flown • DS-2 – tested but failed at Mars • Mars-96 – lower speed impact, tested but failed to leave Earth Orbit • Innumerable ground trials of instrumented shells • Validated impact modelling tools When asked to describe the condition of a probe that had impacted 2 m of concrete at 300 m/s a UK expert described the device as ‘a bit scratched’! Courtesy Qineti. Q space for science, enterprise and environment

Penetrator Design Concept Payload DETACHABLE PROPULSION STAGE • IMPACT ACCELEROMETER Platform • S/C SUPPORT Penetrator Design Concept Payload DETACHABLE PROPULSION STAGE • IMPACT ACCELEROMETER Platform • S/C SUPPORT • SEISMOMETERS/TILTMETER • AOCS • WATER/VOLATILES (ISRU DETECTION) • STRUCTURE • POWER/THERMAL • GEOCHEMISTRY • COMMS POINT OF SEPARATION • HEAT FLOW • CONTROL & DATA • DESCENT CAMERA HANDLING PAYLOAD INSTRUMENTS OR T RA ET N PE TM LE DU O DE N SCE ESTIMATED PENETRATOR SIZE • LENGTH: ~50 cm • DIAMETER: ~15 cm • MASS: ~10 -13 Kg space for science, enterprise and environment

Moon. LITE/Lunar. EX - Mission Description • Delivery and Communications Spacecraft (Orbiter). Deliver penetrators Moon. LITE/Lunar. EX - Mission Description • Delivery and Communications Spacecraft (Orbiter). Deliver penetrators to ejection orbit, provide pre-ejection health status, and relay communications. • Orbiter Payload: 4 Descent Probes (each containing 10 -15 kg penetrator + 20 -25 kg de-orbit and attitude control). • Landing sites: Globally spaced Far side, Polar region(s), One near an Apollo landing site for calibration. • Duration: >1 year for seismic network. Other science does not require so long (perhaps a few Lunar cycles for heat flow and volatiles much less). • Penetrator Design: Single Body for simplicity and risk avoid. Ance. Battery powered with comprehensive power saving techniques. space for science, enterprise and environment

Moon. LITE/Lunar. EX – Mission Sequence • Launch & cruise phase • Deployment – Moon. LITE/Lunar. EX – Mission Sequence • Launch & cruise phase • Deployment – Deploy descent probes from lunar orbit, using a de-orbit motor to achieve near vertical impact. – Attitude control to achieve orientation of penetrator to be aligned with velocity vector. – Penetration ~3 metres – Camera to be used during descent to characterize landing site – Telemetry transmission during descent for health status – Impact accelerometer (to determine penetration depth & regolith mechanical properties) • Landed Phase – Telemeter final descent images and accelerometer data – Perform and telemeter science for ~1 year. space for science, enterprise and environment

Moon. LITE/Lunar. EX – Mission Sequence • Launch & cruise phase • Deployment & Moon. LITE/Lunar. EX – Mission Sequence • Launch & cruise phase • Deployment & descent • Landed phase space for science, enterprise and environment

Moon. LITE – Science The Origin and Evolution of Planetary Bodies Water and its Moon. LITE – Science The Origin and Evolution of Planetary Bodies Water and its profound implications for life and exploration NASA Lunar Prospector space for science, enterprise and environment

Science – Polar Volatiles A suite of instruments will detect and characterise volatiles (including Science – Polar Volatiles A suite of instruments will detect and characterise volatiles (including water) within shaded craters at both poles • Astrobiologically important – possibly remnant of the orginal seeding of planets by comets – May provide evidence of important cosmic-ray mediated organic synsthesis • Vital to the future manned exploration of the Moon Prototype, ruggedized ion trap mass-spectrometer Open University NASA Lunar Prospector space for science, enterprise and environment

Science - Seismology A global network of seismometers will tell us: – – Size Science - Seismology A global network of seismometers will tell us: – – Size and physical state of the Lunar Core Structure of the Lunar Mantle Thickness of the far side crust The origin of the enigmatic shallow moonquakes – The seismic environment at potential manned landing sites space for science, enterprise and environment

Science - Geochemistry X-ray spectroscopy at multiple, diverse sites will address: – Lunar Geophysical Science - Geochemistry X-ray spectroscopy at multiple, diverse sites will address: – Lunar Geophysical diversity – Ground truth for remote sensing Leicester University XRS on Beagle-2 K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Rb, Sr, Zr space for science, enterprise and environment

Science – Heat Flow Heat flow measurements will be made at diverse sites, telling Science – Heat Flow Heat flow measurements will be made at diverse sites, telling us: – Information about the composition and thermal evolution of planetary interiors – Whether the Th concentration in the PKT is a surface or mantle phenomina NASA Lunar Prospector space for science, enterprise and environment

Payload • Core – Seismology – Water and volatile detection – Accelerometer • Desirable Payload • Core – Seismology – Water and volatile detection – Accelerometer • Desirable – – – Heat Flow Geochemistry/XRF Descent camera Mineralogy Radiation Monitor Ion trap spectrometer (200 g, 10 -100 amu) (Open University) space for science, enterprise and environment

Key Technologies • Batteries – Availability (Lunar-A) • Communications – A trailing antenna would Key Technologies • Batteries – Availability (Lunar-A) • Communications – A trailing antenna would require development • Structure material (Steel or Titanium, carbon composite under consideration) • Sample acquisition • Thermal control (RHUs probably needed for polar penetrators) • AOCS (attitude control and de-orbit motor) • Spacecraft attachment and ejection mechanism space for science, enterprise and environment

Penetrator Development Programme Phase 1: Modelling (until Jan 2008) – Key trade studies (Power, Penetrator Development Programme Phase 1: Modelling (until Jan 2008) – Key trade studies (Power, Descent, Structure material, Data flow, Thermal) – Interface & System definition – Penetrator structure modelling – Procurement strategy Phase 2: Trials (until Jan 2010) – – Generic Payload element robustness proofing Penetrator structure trials Payload selection and definition Baseline accommodation Phase 3: EM (until Jan 2012) – Design and Qualification Phase 4: FM (until Jan 2013) – Flight build and non-destructive testing Mission Specific space for science, enterprise and environment

Current activities Generic penetrator development – Funded (>£ 600 k) under MSSL rolling grant Current activities Generic penetrator development – Funded (>£ 600 k) under MSSL rolling grant – Started in earnest in April 07 – Full-scale trials March 2008 National Programme – Moon. LITE • Research Council commissioned a mission study by SSTL (delivered in Late 2006) • Proposed as national mission under current ‘Comprehensive Spending Review’. Indications expected in October/December 2007 – NASA/BNSC bi-lateral study ESA Cosmic Visions Programme – Lunar. EX (backed by industrial studies) – Jupiter-Europa – Titan-Enceladus space for science, enterprise and environment

Conclusions Moon. LITE - A focused mission with clear objectives based on a strong Conclusions Moon. LITE - A focused mission with clear objectives based on a strong technology background Penetrator website: http: //www. mssl. ucl. ac. uk/planetary/missions/Micro_Penetrators. php space for science, enterprise and environment

Moon. LITE / Lunar. EX – UK Rationale • Scientifically focussed • Precursor to Moon. LITE / Lunar. EX – UK Rationale • Scientifically focussed • Precursor to future penetrator programmes • High public interest • Impetus to industry • Affordable space for science, enterprise and environment

Examples of hi-gee electronic systems Designed and tested : – Communication systems • 36 Examples of hi-gee electronic systems Designed and tested : – Communication systems • 36 GHz antenna, receiver and electronic fuze tested to 45 kgee – Dataloggers • 8 channel, 1 MHz sampling rate tested to 60 kgee – MEMS devices (accelerometers, gyros) • Tested to 50 kgee – MMIC devices • Tested to 20 kgee – TRL 6 MMIC chip tested to 20 kgee Communication system and electronic fuze tested to 45 kgee space for science, enterprise and environment