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Module IV – Development Processes Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Module IV – Development Processes Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Developing Business/IT Solutions Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -1

Learning Objectives Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End Learning Objectives Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END 1. Use the systems development process outlined in this chapter, and the model of IS components from Chapter 1 as problem-solving frameworks to help you propose information systems solutions to simple business problems. 2. Describe and give examples to illustrate how you might use each of the steps of the information systems development cycle to develop and implement an ebusiness system. 3. Explain how prototyping improves the process of systems development for end users and IS specialists. 4. Identify the activities involved in the implementation of new information systems. 5. Describe several evaluation factors that should be considered in evaluating the acquisition of hardware, software, and IS services. 6. Identify several change management solutions for end user resistance to the implementation of new information systems. Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -2

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT Developing Business/IT Solutions • The Systems Approach • Information Systems Development or Application Development • Real World Case 1 - Blue Cross, AT&T Wireless, and Citi. Street Click to go to Case 1 END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -3

The Systems Approach Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design The Systems Approach Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END • Recognize and Define Problem Using Systems Thinking • Develop and Evaluate Alternatives • Select a Solution • Design the System Solution • Implement and Evaluate the Success of the Designed System Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -4

The Systems Approach Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design The Systems Approach Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT • Using Systems Thinking – The Fifth Discipline • Seeing Relationships Among Systems • Seeing Processes of Change Among Systems • Systems Context • An Example of Systems Thinking… END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -5

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT The Systems Approach An Example of Systems Thinking Control Feedback Poor Sales Management ? Incorrect Sales Information? Inadequate Selling Effort ? Out-of-Date Sales Procedures ? Poor Sales Performance ? Input Processing Output END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -6

The Systems Approach Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design The Systems Approach Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases IS Development Cycle Understand the Business Problem or Opportunity Develop an Information System Solution Product Feasibility Study Systems Analysis Product Functional Requirements Systems Design Product System Specifications Implement the Information System Solution Systems Implementation Product Operational Systems Maintenance KEY TERMS BACK NEXT Systems Investigation Product Improved System END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -7

Systems Development Cycle Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design Systems Development Cycle Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases Systems Development Life Cycle The Prototyping Process Identify an End User’s Business Requirements Maintenance Cycle KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. Develop Business System Prototypes • Analysis/Design Revise the Prototypes to Better Meet End User Requirements • Design/ Implementation Use and Maintain the Accepted Business System Prototyping Cycle • Investigation/Analysis • Implementation/ Maintenance 10 -8

Systems Development Cycle Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design Systems Development Cycle Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Agile Systems Development Typical Prototyping-Based Systems Development Process Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -9

Systems Development Cycle Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design Systems Development Cycle Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Frito-Lay Inc. : Failure and Success in Systems Development • National Sales Team Collaboration Difficult • Development of Web-Based Enterprise Knowledge Management Portal • Support for Collaboration • Omitted Features Had to be Added • Resulted in Better Collaboration and Improved Access to Knowledge Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -10

Systems Development Process Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design Systems Development Process Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Starting the Process • Feasibility Studies • Organizational Feasibility • Economic Feasible • Technical Feasibility • Cost/Benefit Analysis • Intangible Costs • Intangible Benefits Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -11

Systems Development Process Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design Systems Development Process Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Starting the Process Key Objectives IT Proposals for Addressing Strategic Business Priorities Action Planning for Application Development and Implementation Business Case for Investing in e -Business Projects Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT Feedback END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -12

Systems Development Process Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design Systems Development Process Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Starting the Process Feasibility Factors Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -13

Systems Development Process Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design Systems Development Process Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Starting the Process How a Feasibility Study Might Measure a Proposal Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -14

Systems Development Process Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design Systems Development Process Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Starting the Process Possible Benefits of New System Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -15

Systems Analysis Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End Systems Analysis Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT • Organizational Analysis • Analysis of the Present System • Hardware • Software • Network • People Resources • Document Activities of Input, Processing, Output, Storage, and Control Systems END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -16

Systems Analysis Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End Systems Analysis Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Buyer Zone and Office. Max: Evaluating Customer Website Experiences Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -17

Systems Analysis Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End Systems Analysis Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Buyer Zone and Office. Max: Evaluating Customer Website Experiences • Websites Failed to Support the Purchase-or-Lease Decision Process • Should Support Decision Processes Before Pushing Product • Provide the Right Tools at the Right Time • Integrate Related Tasks Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -18

Systems Analysis Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End Systems Analysis Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Functional Requirements for a Proposed e-Commerce System What Should be Done – Not How… Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -19

Systems Design Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End Systems Design Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Systems Analysis Describes What is to be Done… Systems Design Specifies How Systems Design User Interface Design • Screen, Form, Report, and Dialog Design Data Design Process Design • Data Element Structure Design • Program and Procedure Design Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -20

Systems Design Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End Systems Design Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change User Interface Design Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -21

Systems Design Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End Systems Design Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change User Interface Design Examples… Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -22

Systems Design Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End Systems Design Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT Priceline. com: Designing a User Interface • Simplifying the Web Interface • Simpler and More Compelling Site Brought 50% Increase in Visitors • Less Decision Making by User is a Good Thing • Much More Successful Design END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -23

Systems Design Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End Systems Design Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Examples of Systems Specifications for a New e-Commerce System Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -24

End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Focus on Processing Activity Components Control What controls are needed to protect against accidental loss or damage? Is there a need to control access to data used by the application? Input What data are available, in what form? Processing What operations on the inputs are needed to produce the desired output? What software can most effectively support those operations? Output What information is needed by end users and in what form should the output be presented? Storage Does the application use previously stored data? Does it create data that must be stored for future use by this or other applications? Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -25

End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Focus on Processing Activity Components • Inputs • Outputs • Processing • Storage • Control • Doing End User Development Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -26

End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change MS Front. Page Development Tool Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -27

End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Encouraging Intranet Website Development Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -28

End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Providence Health System: End User Web Development • Had Outdated and Incorrect Website Content • IT Gave Up Control to Encourage Group Content to be Added to Internet and Intranet Sites Using Development Tools • MS Front. Page Used to Empower Other Departments at Little Cost Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -29

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT Implementing Business Systems • System Design • Implementation • Maintenance • Challenges and Strategies Real World Case 2 Intercontinental Hotels, Del Taco, and Cardinal Health Click to go to Case 2 END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -30

Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases Overview of the Implementation Process Implementation Activities Acquisition of Hardware, Software, and Services Software Development or Modification Data Conversion End User Training Conversion • Parallel • Pilot • Phased • Plunge KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -31

Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Zurich North America: IT Project Management • Desire for Full Project Transparency Through Intranets • 10 -20% of Incomes Based Upon Company Success • Wanted Project Management Agreements in Writing • No Projects Without a Paying Customer Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -32

Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -33

Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Examples from IBM of Hardware, Software, and IS Services Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -34

Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Ten Major Hardware Evaluation Factors Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -35

Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Select Software Evaluation Factors Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -36

Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Evaluating IS Service Factors Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -37

Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Osh. Kosh B’Gosh, Inc. : Evaluating IT Vendors and Products • Used System to Connect Vendors • Work to Design Requirements First – Then Seek Solutions • Check References on Vendor Applications • Involve End-User in the System Selection Process Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -38

Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Other Implementation Activities • Testing • Data Conversion • Documentation –Computer-Aided Systems Engineering (CASE) • Training Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -39

Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Clarke American Checks: Web -Based ERP Training • Use of Website For Collaborative Training on New ERP Software • Watching or Performing Simulated Transactions • Self-Paced Training Well Liked and Costs Less • 75% Savings Over Instructor-Led Training Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -40

Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Example Implementation Plan Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -41

Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT Conversion Methods • Parallel Conversion • Phased Conversion • Pilot Conversion • Plunge or Direct Cutover –Graphically… END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -42

Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Conversion Methods Old System New System Parallel Old System New System Pilot Old System New System Phased Old System New System Plunge Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -43

Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change IS Maintenance Systems Maintenance Post-Implementation Review Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -44

Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design Implementing New Systems Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END GM Locomotive Group: Failure in System Implementation • Builder of Diesel-Electric Locomotives • Failure in Launch of ERP Application in 2001 • Parts Business Virtually Stopped • Undertook Emergency 6 Month Turnaround • SAP System Reconfigured, Flushed and Replaced Data • Legacy Mainframe Couldn’t Handle New System • System Didn’t Perform • Some Outsourcing Occurring Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -45

Managing Organizational Change Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design Managing Organizational Change Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Resistance to Change • End-User Resistance • End-User Involvement Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -46

Managing Organizational Change Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design Managing Organizational Change Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Resistance to Change Obstacles to Knowledge Management 3% 9% User Resistance to Sharing Knowledge Immaturity of Technology 53% 15% Immaturity of Knowledge Management Industry Cost Lack of Need 20% Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -47

Change Management Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End Change Management Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Crane Engineering: Overcoming User Resistance to CRM • Difficulty in Changing Habits of Sales Persons • Fear of Windows and CRM • Sell Advantages to Sales Staff to Win Acceptance • Move From Product to a Customer Centered Approach • Requires Structural Changes Throughout All Aspects of the Firm Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -48

Change Management Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End Change Management Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Focus is on People • Change Action Plan • Change Sponsors • Change Teams • Encouraging Open Communications • Receiving Feedback • Work Within the Company Culture Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -49

Change Management Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End Change Management Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Duke Energy: A Guerilla Approach to Business Change • e-Team of Advocates Went Throughout Company Launching Internet Initiatives • In 18 Months Team Had Saved $52 Million • Search for Other Activities for the Internet • New Team Launched Initiatives • Used Mantra “Invest Little-Save Big” • Launched Many Projects Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -50

Summary Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Summary Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END 1. The Systems Development Cycle 2. Prototyping 3. End-User Development 4. Implementing IS 5. Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services 6. Implementing Business Change Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -51

KEY TERMS Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End KEY TERMS Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Change Management Conversion Methods Cost/benefit Analysis Data conversion Documentation Economic Feasibility End User Involvement End User Resistance End User Development a. Hardware b. IS Services c. Software Feasibility Study Functional Requirements Implementation Process Intangible a. Benefits b. Costs Operational Feasibility Organizational Analysis Organizational Feasibility Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. Postimplementation Review Project Management Prototype Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Approach Systems Design Systems Development Life Cycle Systems Implementation Systems Investigation Systems Maintenance System Specifications System Testing Systems Thinking Tangible a. Benefits b. Costs Technical Feasibility User Interface Design 10 -52

Optional Case Studies Real World Case 1 Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Optional Case Studies Real World Case 1 Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Blue Cross, AT&T Wireless, and Citi. Street: Development Challenges of Self-Service Web Systems Click to go to Case 1 Real World Case 2 Intercontinental Hotels, Del Taco, and Cardinal Health: Implementation Strategies for Upgrading Core Business Systems Real World Case 3 Du. Pont and Southwire: Implementing Successful Enterprise Information Portals Click to go to Case 2 Click to go to Case 3 Real World Case 4 Wyndham International and Amazon. com: Cost-Effective IT Resource Acquisition Strategies Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. Click to go to Case 4 10 -53

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases Module V – Management Challenges Security and Ethical Challenges Chapter 11 KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -54

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases Blue Cross - AT&T Wireless and Citi. Street: Development Challenges of Self. Service Web Systems 1 - Why do more than a third of all Web self-service customers get frustrated and end up calling a help center? Use the experiences of Blue Cross. Blue Shield and AT&T Wireless to help you answer. Return to Chapter 10 KEY TERMS BACK NEXT Return to Cases Page END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -55

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Blue Cross - AT&T Wireless and Citi. Street: Development Challenges of Self. Service Web Systems Discussion Points Would Include: • Poorly Designed Web Interface – Confuses Users with Options – Asks Questions Users Can’t Answer • Using Cumbersome Drop-down Boxes • Wording is Hard to Understand • Requires Customers to Indicate Network Type Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -56

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Blue Cross - AT&T Wireless and Citi. Street: Development Challenges of Self. Service Web Systems 2 - What are some solutions to the problems users may have with Web self-service? Use the experiences of the companies in this case to propose several solutions. Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -57

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Blue Cross - AT&T Wireless and Citi. Street: Development Challenges of Self. Service Web Systems Discussion Points Would Include: • Use Focus Group End Users to Ensure System Logic • Redesign Web site to Send Customers to Correct Network Site • Budget Money/Time to Maintain Site • Design Flexibility for Change as Needed Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -58

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT Blue Cross - AT&T Wireless and Citi. Street: Development Challenges of Self. Service Web Systems 3 - Visit the websites of Blue Cross. Blue Shield and AT&T Wireless. Investigate the details of obtaining an individual health plan or a new cell phone plan. What is your appraisal of the self -service features of these websites? Explain your evaluations. Return to Chapter 10 Return to Cases Page END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -59

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Blue Cross - AT&T Wireless and Citi. Street: Development Challenges of Self. Service Web Systems Considerations Would Include: • Responses Will Vary • Apply Chapter Concepts in Discussions Return to Chapter 10 Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT Return to Cases Page END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -60

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Blue Cross - AT&T Wireless and Citi. Street: Development Challenges of Self. Service Web Systems Considerations Would Include: • Responses Will Vary • Apply Chapter Concepts in Discussions • Give Pros and Cons of Sites Return to Chapter 10 Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT Return to Cases Page END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -61

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Inter. Continental Hotels Del Taco and Cardinal Health: Implementation Strategies for Upgrading Core Business Systems 1 - What are the benefits and limitations of the key implementation strategies that are being used by Inter. Continental Hotels? Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -62

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases Inter. Continental Hotels Del Taco and Cardinal Health: Implementation Strategies for Upgrading Core Business Systems Discussion Points Would Include: • Associated Risks • Partnering with End Users • Internal Staff Completes Application Programming • Effective Project Management KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -63

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Inter. Continental Hotels Del Taco and Cardinal Health: Implementation Strategies for Upgrading Core Business Systems 2 - Do you agree with how Del Taco is managing the implementation of its IT project? Why or why not? Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -64

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT Inter. Continental Hotels Del Taco and Cardinal Health: Implementation Strategies for Upgrading Core Business Systems Discussion Points Would Include: • Outsourcing Installation of Hardware • Use Microsoft Corp. to Design SQL Server Inventory Database • Mix of Internal/External Development Teams • Hire the Best Project Managers END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -65

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases Inter. Continental Hotels Del Taco and Cardinal Health: Implementation Strategies for Upgrading Core Business Systems 3 - What are several change management techniques that could help to ensure the successful implementation of CRM projects? Use Cardinal Health to illustrate your answer. Return to Chapter 10 KEY TERMS BACK NEXT Return to Cases Page END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -66

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases Inter. Continental Hotels Del Taco and Cardinal Health: Implementation Strategies for Upgrading Core Business Systems Discussion Points Would Include: • Use capital review/operating Committees • Use CRM Software Development Tools • Management and Executive Cooperation of CRM projects Return to Chapter 10 KEY TERMS BACK NEXT Return to Cases Page END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -67

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Inter. Continental Hotels Del Taco and Cardinal Health: Implementation Strategies for Upgrading Core Business Systems Discussion Points Would Include: • Use capital review/operating Committees • Use CRM Software Development Tools • Management and Executive Cooperation of CRM projects • Prepare for Disruption Return to Chapter 10 Return to Cases Page Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -68

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Du. Pont and Southwire: Implementing Successful Enterprise Information Portals 1 - Why do so many enterprise information portals fail to attract “adequate interest among targeted users? ” What can be done to improve the usage of portals in business? Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT Return to Cases Page END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -69

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Du. Pont and Southwire: Implementing Successful Enterprise Information Portals Discussion Points Would Include: • No strategy, Lifecycle, or Change Management • No Strategy beyond Technical Architecture • Company Problems Surrounding Portal Technology • Critical Usability Issues Get Shortchanged • Content Management • Integrate Order Site to Back-end System Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -70

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Du. Pont and Southwire: Implementing Successful Enterprise Information Portals 2 - What is the business value of their enterprise portal to Du. Pont’s Performance Coatings group? How could it be improved? Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -71

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT Du. Pont and Southwire: Implementing Successful Enterprise Information Portals Discussion Points Would Include: • Use Content Management to Eliminate Obsolete Literature • Body shops can Get Needs Via the Portal • Resume Service and Job Posting • Needed Improvements Added END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -72

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Du. Pont and Southwire: Implementing Successful Enterprise Information Portals 3 - What are the business benefits of Southwire’s enterprise portal? Describe several ways it might be improved. Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT Return to Cases Page END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -73

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT Du. Pont and Southwire: Implementing Successful Enterprise Information Portals Discussion Points Would Include: • Clean up Multiple Internal/Corporate Web Sites • Customer Orders up 33%, and 25% are Electronic • Managers Approve and Post Announcements • Single Sign-on, Multilevel Security Access, Customization and Personalization • Cutting Costs Associated with Return to Processing Cases Page END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -74

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Du. Pont and Southwire: Implementing Successful Enterprise Information Portals Discussion Points Would Include: • Clean up Multiple Internal/Corporate Web Sites • Customer Orders up 33%, and 25% are Electronic • Managers Approve and Post Announcements • Single Sign-on, Multilevel Security Access, Customization and Personalization • Cutting Costs Associated with Return to Processing Cases Page • Increasing Productivity Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -75

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Wyndham International and Amazon. com: Cost-Effective IT Resource Acquisition Strategies 1 - Are the resource acquisition challenges faced by CIOs any different than those faced by other business managers in times of tight budgets? Why or why not? Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT Return to Cases Page END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -76

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Wyndham International and Amazon. com: Cost-Effective IT Resource Acquisition Strategies Discussion Points Would Include: • Use of “Systems Thinking” • Embrace Change as Opensource Systems • Rethink Utilizing Your Relationships with Suppliers and Customers • Be Creative/View Problems as Opportunities Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -77

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Wyndham International and Amazon. com: Cost-Effective IT Resource Acquisition Strategies 2 - What are the business benefits and limitations of Rick Dalzell’s IT resource acquisition strategies for Amazon? Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -78

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Wyndham International and Amazon. com: Cost-Effective IT Resource Acquisition Strategies Benefits and Limitations Include: • Reduce Percent of Sales Generated that is Spent on IT costs • Hidden costs resulting from the use of open-source savings • Improve Your Relationships with Customers and Suppliers • Austerity Forces Company to Become Creative in Resolving IT Upgrade Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -79

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Wyndham International and Amazon. com: Cost-Effective IT Resource Acquisition Strategies 3 - Are Dalzell’s strategies applicable to small as well as large businesses? Explain your answer. Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT Return to Cases Page END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -80

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Wyndham International and Amazon. com: Cost-Effective IT Resource Acquisition Strategies Discussion Points Include: • IT Staffing Size Limits Smaller Business Alternatives • IT Budgets in Smaller Businesses Are Restrictive • Strategies are Applicable Regarding Size of Business Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT Return to Cases Page END Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -81

Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Developing Business Systems The Systems Approach Prototyping Systems Analysis Systems Design End User Development Section II Implementing Business Systems Implementing New Systems Managing Organizational Change Real World Cases KEY TERMS BACK NEXT END Wyndham International and Amazon. com: Cost-Effective IT Resource Acquisition Strategies Discussion Points Include: • IT Staffing Size Limits Smaller Business Alternatives • IT Budgets in Smaller Businesses Are Restrictive • Strategies are Applicable Regarding Size of Business • Smaller Business are More Creative than Larger Business in Finding IT Solutions Return to Cases Page Copyright 2005, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin, Inc. 10 -82