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Modes of Discourse Disjunctive and block language Pennarola, Ch. 4 Modes of Discourse Disjunctive and block language Pennarola, Ch. 4

Mode of discourse Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • Spoken • Written • Mode of discourse Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • Spoken • Written • Scripted (written to be spoken) – Disjunctive (& block), abbreviated modes

Mode of discourse Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • Written mode = preservation Mode of discourse Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • Written mode = preservation through time • Oral mode = limited capacity of the linguistic memory • REPETITION • ALLITERATION • RHYME

Mode of discourse : Orality Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • Orality activates Mode of discourse : Orality Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • Orality activates Short Term Memory (STM) • In STM we store grammatical elements in sequence until the anticipations they create are solved. • We then may store such elements as If you agree. . ; The only… (incomplete structures) which need at least one further element to acquire grammatical sense

Oral mode of discourse Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • The text if Oral mode of discourse Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • The text if the only… is incomplete at three levels: – incomplete sentence – incomplete clause – incomplete nominal group. Expectations of if the only… may be satisfied with If the only train to London is the 2. 00 am, lets’ go by bus. 3 levels of satisfaction: 1) the noun train (complete nominal group), 2) the verb and complement is the 2. 00 am (completing the clause) 3) the independent clause let’s go by bus (completing the sentence).

Mode of discourse: scripted texts Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • Scripted mode Mode of discourse: scripted texts Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • Scripted mode = text in which the oral mode is reproduced in details. • This is not always true. See, for ex. , intonation – how can we reproduce it? What about hesitations, false starting? – – What are you looking for?

Disjunctive & abbreviated modes of discourse Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • The Disjunctive & abbreviated modes of discourse Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • The disjunctive and abbreviated modes are a subcategory of the scripted mode used to augment the illusion of spoken language • They are two restricted varieties of English which are heavily employed in advertising

Disjunctive & abbreviated modes Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • Disjunctive mode is Disjunctive & abbreviated modes Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • Disjunctive mode is used – Public notices, signs – Posters – Catalogues, inventories, tabulated materials – Postal address – Labels and trade-marks – Titles and headings

Disjunctive & abbreviated modes Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • Abbreviated mode is Disjunctive & abbreviated modes Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • Abbreviated mode is used in: – Telegrams – Newspaper headlines.

Disjunctive mode See Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • Disjunctive language offers many Disjunctive mode See Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • Disjunctive language offers many clues so as to have a correct interpretation of the message. Prof. Fodde No exit Staff only

Disjunctive mode See Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • In disjunctive grammar, the Disjunctive mode See Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • In disjunctive grammar, the only grammar we need is a knowledge of the structure of English proper names: one part of the nominal group.

Disjunctive mode See Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • The disjunctive grammar that Disjunctive mode See Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • The disjunctive grammar that uses proper names only is called BLOCK LANGUAGE. • Block language is characteristic of many types of public announcements, in posters.

Disjunctive grammar Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • See the ad on page Disjunctive grammar Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • See the ad on page 204 of our dispensa. • Cf it with the same ad found on the net some 40 years later available at • http: //abc. go. com/introad. html? goback=http: //abc. go. com/index. html? ad=true

Disjunctive grammar Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • Each NG = isolated unit Disjunctive grammar Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • Each NG = isolated unit • Relation between different parts of the message is inferred (not grammatically indicated). • In poster-like presentation the Z-reading path is waived for the sake of immediate visual impact

Disjunctive grammar Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • For you this summer … Disjunctive grammar Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • For you this summer … a golden tan • (A Z structure - INDEPENDENT) • The castle, at one time a royal residence, is now the property of the National Trust • (A Z structure - INDEPENDENT) You …if you are aged 16 -19 and are taking or have passed your G. C. E. … and your future • (A Z structure - INDEPENDENT)

Disjunctive grammar Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • Main difference between discursive and Disjunctive grammar Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • Main difference between discursive and disjunctive grammar: – in discursive grammar, minor and non-finite clauses are dependent; – in disjunctive grammar, minor and non-finite clauses are independent

Abbreviated grammar Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • Typical of newspapers headlines • Abbreviated grammar Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • Typical of newspapers headlines • Examples: – Brown fury at milburn roadshow – Grant to asylum group frozen in fake id furore – Customs accused of offering secret amnesty – WHERE TO BUY FOR 20£ (adv. Predicator compl) (The Sunday Times, Feb 27 th, 2005)

Abbreviated grammar • There a lot of pre-modifiers required to save space & to Abbreviated grammar • There a lot of pre-modifiers required to save space & to create ambiguity (which means to catch the interest of the reader) British left waffles on Falkland islands a) left Predicator + waffles Complement (waffle = a cake fried in butter) => P C b) left (British left) Head of S + waffles Predicator (to waffle = to ramble, to prattle) => S P.

Small AD • Small ad uses disjunctive grammar abbreviated grammar & block grammar: • Small AD • Small ad uses disjunctive grammar abbreviated grammar & block grammar: • LTD Company est 1981 for sale. No assets or liabilities. VAT registered. UK bank acc with chequebook. Avble now. Substantial offers over £ 15, 000. Internet bkg nominee service avble on both. Tel. 08000 152469 or 07845 495852. quote ref DPH (The Sunday Times, Feb 27 th, 2005)

Advertising grammar Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • Advertising is a variety of Advertising grammar Leech, English in Advertising, chapter 9 • Advertising is a variety of English in which discursive, disjunctive, abbreviated and block language are mingled together and sometimes in an inextricable way. • This happens because of the variety of display methods and type faces of printed advertising.

…phew* You can now buy the emergency contraceptive pill from the pharmacy. It’s called …phew* You can now buy the emergency contraceptive pill from the pharmacy. It’s called Levonelle and works best within 24 hours but can be used up to 72 hours after unprotected sex.