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Model Parliament BACKGROUND INFORMATION Canadian & World Politics www. Craig. Marlatt. com/school Model Parliament BACKGROUND INFORMATION Canadian & World Politics www. Craig. Marlatt. com/school

Model Parliament 1. 2. 3. 4. Why Study Parliament? The Parliamentary Day Who’s Who Model Parliament 1. 2. 3. 4. Why Study Parliament? The Parliamentary Day Who’s Who in Parliament? How a Bill Becomes Law

Why Study Parliament? • Before we learn about Parliament and have a model Parliament Why Study Parliament? • Before we learn about Parliament and have a model Parliament session, answer some diagnostic questions: – – Observe … Reflect … Think about … What if …

Why Study Parliament? Centre Block West Block East Block Langevin Block Why Study Parliament? Centre Block West Block East Block Langevin Block

Why Study Parliament? Centre Block Why Study Parliament? Centre Block

Why Study Parliament? Peace Tower Why Study Parliament? Peace Tower

Why Study Parliament? House of Commons Mace Why Study Parliament? House of Commons Mace

Why Study Parliament? House Chamber Why Study Parliament? House Chamber

Why Study Parliament? House Speaker’s Chair Why Study Parliament? House Speaker’s Chair

Why Study Parliament? Senate Chamber Why Study Parliament? Senate Chamber

Why Study Parliament? Sovereign’s Chair Senate Speaker’s Chair Why Study Parliament? Sovereign’s Chair Senate Speaker’s Chair

Why Study Parliament? Library of Parliament Why Study Parliament? Library of Parliament

The Parliamentary Day • Before a regular sitting of Parliament can occur… – Election The Parliamentary Day • Before a regular sitting of Parliament can occur… – Election of the Speaker of the House of Commons – Speech from the Throne

The Parliamentary Day • Election of the Speaker – The Deputy Governor General (who The Parliamentary Day • Election of the Speaker – The Deputy Governor General (who is the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court) convenes Parliament and calls in the Members of the House of Commons. – He or she informs the Members of the House that the Governor General does not see fit to open Parliament without a Speaker in place. – The Members return to the House and, under the direction of the Dean of the House, elects themselves a Speaker by secret ballot.

The Parliamentary Day • Election of the Speaker (con’d) – A Member with an The Parliamentary Day • Election of the Speaker (con’d) – A Member with an official Government or House role is ineligible to become Speaker. All remaining Members are candidates for Speaker unless he or she withdraws his or her name from the ballot. – Each candidate is entitled to make a short speech. – Voting is then done by secret ballot. To become Speaker, a Member must receive 50% + 1 of the votes cast. If no Member receives a majority of the votes cast, then the Member with the lowest vote count is dropped from the ballot and a subsequent vote is held. This continues until a Member receives a majority of the votes cast.

The Parliamentary Day • Election of the Speaker (con’d) – The winner is escorted The Parliamentary Day • Election of the Speaker (con’d) – The winner is escorted to the Speaker's chair by the Prime Minister and Leader of the Official Opposition. – The newly elected Speaker, by tradition, feigns reluctance as he is "dragged" to the chair in a practice dating from the days when British Speakers risked execution if the news they reported to the King was displeasing.

The Parliamentary Day • Speech from the Throne – The day following the election The Parliamentary Day • Speech from the Throne – The day following the election of the Speaker of the House, the Governor General will arrive on Parliament Hill, where he or she will receive a 21 gun salute and will inspect the Honour Guard. – The Governor General then proceeds to the Senate Chamber where the Senators, Supreme Court Justices, the Diplomatic Corps, former Prime Ministers, and invited guests of the Government await – The Governor General then summons the Members of the House to the bar of the Senate Chamber.

The Parliamentary Day • Speech from the Throne The Parliamentary Day • Speech from the Throne

The Parliamentary Day • In the House of Commons… – – – – Opening The Parliamentary Day • In the House of Commons… – – – – Opening Exercises Routine Proceedings Government Orders MP’s Statements Question Period Government Orders Private Members’ Business Adjournment Proceedings

The Parliamentary Day • Opening of Sitting – At the Opening of the Sitting, The Parliamentary Day • Opening of Sitting – At the Opening of the Sitting, the Speaker reads a prayer, after which he or she orders that the doors be opened to allow the public to enter the galleries. The daily business then commences. • Routine Proceedings: Tabling of Documents – At this point, a Minister in the House of Commons has the opportunity to table a report or document for the House of Commons to consider. This makes the item a public document.

The Parliamentary Day • Routine Proceedings: Introduction of Government Bills – When a bill The Parliamentary Day • Routine Proceedings: Introduction of Government Bills – When a bill is introduced, it becomes part of Parliament's agenda for that session. The text of the bill is printed and distributed, and serves as the focus for the detailed discussions that will follow during second reading and later stages in the legislative process.

The Parliamentary Day • Members' Statements – Members' Statements allow MPs to raise issues The Parliamentary Day • Members' Statements – Members' Statements allow MPs to raise issues important to them and/or their specific regions. This procedure enables them to be heard and to draw the Government's attention to a problem of local, national or international interest.

The Parliamentary Day • Routine Proceedings: Presentation of Reports from Committees – Committees are The Parliamentary Day • Routine Proceedings: Presentation of Reports from Committees – Committees are assigned to look into specific issues. They also study bills that are referred to them, normally after second reading, and at this point they present their reports. These reports summarize the opinion of the majority of each committee's members. MPs who are not in agreement may also get the opportunity to voice their opinion.

The Parliamentary Day • Private Members' Business – This part of the day is The Parliamentary Day • Private Members' Business – This part of the day is reserved for the consideration of business sponsored by an MP, that is, by any parliamentarian who is not part of the Cabinet. • Routine Proceedings: Presentation of Petitions – Petitions are one way Canadians can make themselves heard in Parliament. Petitions are taken seriously when large numbers of people support issues and can result in major changes.

The Parliamentary Day • Government Orders: Second Reading, Report Stage or Third Reading of The Parliamentary Day • Government Orders: Second Reading, Report Stage or Third Reading of a Government Bill – During second reading, the bill is subjected to a thorough debate for the first time. The Opposition is able to criticize both the underlying policy that the bill expresses, and its specific purpose. The Government defends it. Speeches alternate between those in favour and those opposed.

The Parliamentary Day • Question Period – Question Period allows the Opposition and Government The Parliamentary Day • Question Period – Question Period allows the Opposition and Government backbenchers to ask for information and to question the Government on any matter within federal responsibility that they feel is in the public interest. The importance of Question Period is the fact that any MP, without advance notice, can ask any Minister any question relating to his or her portfolio. It is a means of holding the Government of the day accountable.

The Parliamentary Day • Committee Meetings – Committee consideration of a bill allows parliamentarians The Parliamentary Day • Committee Meetings – Committee consideration of a bill allows parliamentarians to consider opinions from experts on the subject of the bill. They may also hear from those groups and individuals who will be affected by its provisions. Parliamentarians of both chambers can then propose amendments to the bill that reflect the viewpoints they hear from witnesses, as well as their own conclusions.

The Parliamentary Day • Adjournment Proceedings – After a motion to adjourn the Commons The Parliamentary Day • Adjournment Proceedings – After a motion to adjourn the Commons has been moved, an MP who is not satisfied with the answer he or she received during Question Period can raise the matter during the adjournment debate.

Who’s Who in Parliament? • There are many “key players” in Parliament who are Who’s Who in Parliament? • There are many “key players” in Parliament who are essential for the government to operate. • Read the descriptions of some of the key players on the following slides and identify their job title. • They may be elected politicians or official employees of Parliament.

Who’s Who in Parliament? • I am the head of a group that carefully Who’s Who in Parliament? • I am the head of a group that carefully examines bills and other matters. During our meetings, I must ensure fairness, keep parliamentarians on track and keep order. I must also report back to the House on the work of the group. • Who am I? • Committee Chair

Who’s Who in Parliament? • I am an MP who has been chosen by Who’s Who in Parliament? • I am an MP who has been chosen by the Prime Minister to be part of his Cabinet. Therefore, in addition to the regular duties of an MP, I have the added responsibility of heading a government department. My busy schedule includes attending Cabinet meetings where we make key government decisions. We also talk about starting up bills we would like to see made into law. • Who am I? • Minister

Who’s Who in Parliament? • I am the elected leader of the Canadian people. Who’s Who in Parliament? • I am the elected leader of the Canadian people. I select Cabinet Ministers from among my party MPs to head the various government departments. I meet with the leaders of other countries to discuss international matters. • Who am I? • Prime Minister The Right Honourable Stephen Harper

Who’s Who in Parliament? • I am an advisor to the Speaker of the Who’s Who in Parliament? • I am an advisor to the Speaker of the Senate and the Senators, keeper of all Senate documents and supervisor of all Senate staff. I wear a traditional black gown. • Who am I? • Clerk of the Senate Gary O’Brien

Who’s Who in Parliament? • I am guardian of the Mace. I play a Who’s Who in Parliament? • I am guardian of the Mace. I play a ceremonial role in the Commons and my duties are centred on the security of parliamentarians and visitors while they are within the parliamentary precincts. • Who am I? • Sergeant-at-Arms Kevin Vickers

Who’s Who in Parliament? • I preside over the sittings of the Senate, read Who’s Who in Parliament? • I preside over the sittings of the Senate, read the motions and put forward the questions to which the Senate must respond with a vote. It is important that I enforce all of the Senate rules. I represent the Senate in Canada and abroad. • Who am I? • Speaker of the Senate The Honourable Noël Kinsella

Who’s Who in Parliament? • I am responsible for presiding over the sittings of Who’s Who in Parliament? • I am responsible for presiding over the sittings of the Commons. I must be fair and impartial and maintain order at all times. I also hear points of order and questions of privilege, make rulings based on precedent and practice, and represent the House of Commons in Canada and abroad. • Who am I? • Speaker of the House of Commons The Honourable Andrew Scheer

Who’s Who in Parliament? • I was elected by the people in my riding Who’s Who in Parliament? • I was elected by the people in my riding to hold a seat in the House of Commons. I spend much of my time on Parliament Hill. Also, much of my time is devoted to dealing with the concerns and problems of my constituents. Because of this I regularly return to my riding to keep in close contact. • Who am I? • Member of Parliament (MP)

Who’s Who in Parliament? • My party has the second largest number of seats Who’s Who in Parliament? • My party has the second largest number of seats in the House of Commons. As party leader, I meet with my caucus to discuss strategy and alternatives to government policies, speak daily in the House of Commons, and provide Canadians with an alternative to the present Government. • Who am I? • Leader of the Official Opposition The Honourable Thomas Mulcair

Who’s Who in Parliament? • I was chosen by the Prime Minister to serve Who’s Who in Parliament? • I was chosen by the Prime Minister to serve in the "Upper House" of Parliament. After bills have passed through the House of Commons, they must be sent to our House for approval. It can also work the other way around. Bills may be started in our House, but must later go to the House of Commons for approval. • Who am I? • Senator

Who’s Who in Parliament? • I am the chief procedural advisor to the Speaker Who’s Who in Parliament? • I am the chief procedural advisor to the Speaker and MPs. I also have extensive duties related to the overall management of the House of Commons. • Who am I? • Clerk of the House Audrey O’Brien

Who’s Who in Parliament? • I am the senior official to Canada’s Head of Who’s Who in Parliament? • I am the senior official to Canada’s Head of State and, in addition to having overall responsibility for all aspects of the management and operations of that office, act as the senior advisor to the Head of State. I am also responsible for all aspects of the vice-regal program. • Who am I? • Secretary to the Governor General and Herald Chancellor Stephen Wallace

Who’s Who in Parliament? • I am sign bills into law that have been Who’s Who in Parliament? • I am sign bills into law that have been passed by both Houses of Parliament. I also appoint Senators and other government officials on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. Finally, I am the Head of Canada’s military. • Who am I? • Governor General and Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Armed Forces His Excellency The Right Honourable David Johnston

Who’s Who in Parliament? • I fill in for Canada’s Head of State when Who’s Who in Parliament? • I fill in for Canada’s Head of State when he or she is unavailable to sign bills into law, make appointments, or dissolve Parliament. • Who am I? • Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada and Deputy Governor General The Right Honourable Beverly Mc. Lachlin

Who’s Who in Parliament? • I am a floor officer of the Senate and Who’s Who in Parliament? • I am a floor officer of the Senate and am responsible for security in the Senate Chamber. I also leads the daily Speaker's Parade to and from the Senate Chamber and am responsible for the Page program. • Who am I? • Usher of the Black Rod Kevin Mac. Leod

Who’s Who in Parliament? • I am the Member of Parliament who has the Who’s Who in Parliament? • I am the Member of Parliament who has the longest unbroken service in the House, and am not a member of the Cabinet. I preside over the election of the Speaker of the House of Commons. • Who am I? • Dean of the House M. Louis Plamondon

How a Bill Becomes Law • Fill in the chart at right that describes How a Bill Becomes Law • Fill in the chart at right that describes the steps that are taken for a bill to become law in Canada’s Parliament. First Reading P A R L I A M E N T Second Reading Committee Stage Report Stage Third Reading Passed to Senate Crown Royal Assent

How a Bill Becomes Law • First Reading – Introduction • Second Reading – How a Bill Becomes Law • First Reading – Introduction • Second Reading – Debate basic principle of the bill – Propose amendments • Committee Stage – Details of bill are debated and amended by committee members (there are several different committees) – Witnesses may be called to provide information

How a Bill Becomes Law • Report Stage – Any MP may propose amendments, How a Bill Becomes Law • Report Stage – Any MP may propose amendments, but must be in writing and in advance – Amendments must not alter the principle of the bill • Third Reading – Debate basic principle of the bill – Propose amendments or refer back to committee • Passed to the Senate – Where this entire process is repeated in the other chamber!

How a Bill Becomes Law • Royal Assent – Only once both Houses of How a Bill Becomes Law • Royal Assent – Only once both Houses of Parliament have approved the bill in the same form (if one house changes the bill, it must return to the other house for re-approval) – Signified by an official ceremony in the Senate OR by written declaration from Rideau Hall or the Supreme Court (the Chief Justice is the Deputy Governor General of Canada) • Proclamation – Act is published in the Canada Gazette – Comes into force on date published OR when proclaimed by the “Governor in Council” (the Cabinet)

How a Bill Becomes Law • The MPs are summoned to the Senate Chamber How a Bill Becomes Law • The MPs are summoned to the Senate Chamber by the Governor General • MPs enter only as far as the “bar” of the house

How a Bill Becomes Law • Governor General nods his or her approval of How a Bill Becomes Law • Governor General nods his or her approval of the bill as it is described to him or her. • Bill is now an “Act of Parliament” and is law!

How a Bill Becomes Law www. canadagazette. gc. ca Or for more information on How a Bill Becomes Law www. canadagazette. gc. ca Or for more information on Canada’s Parliament www. parl. gc. ca