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Mobile Applications: Wireless Application Protocol Sridhar Iyer IIT Bombay http: //www. it. iitb. ac. Mobile Applications: Wireless Application Protocol Sridhar Iyer IIT Bombay http: //www. it. iitb. ac. in/~sri IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP

Outline • • Limitations of mobile environment Mobile applications WWW and mobility Wireless application Outline • • Limitations of mobile environment Mobile applications WWW and mobility Wireless application protocol WAP protocol stack WAP application environment Summary IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 2

Limitations of Mobile Environments · Limitations of the Wireless Network · heterogeneity of fragmented Limitations of Mobile Environments · Limitations of the Wireless Network · heterogeneity of fragmented networks · frequent disconnections · limited communication bandwidth IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 3

Limitations of Mobile Environments (contd) · Limitations Imposed by Mobility · lack of mobility Limitations of Mobile Environments (contd) · Limitations Imposed by Mobility · lack of mobility awareness by systems, applications · route breakages · Limitations of the Mobile Computer · short battery lifetime · limited capacities IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 4

Mobile Applications • Vehicles – transmission of news, road condition etc – ad-hoc network Mobile Applications • Vehicles – transmission of news, road condition etc – ad-hoc network with near vehicles to prevent accidents • Emergencies – early transmission of patient data to hospital – ad-hoc network in case of earthquakes… Applications: WAP IIT Bombay Mobile 5

Mobile Applications • Traveling salesmen – direct access to central customer files – consistent Mobile Applications • Traveling salesmen – direct access to central customer files – consistent databases for all agents – mobile office • Web access – outdoor Internet access – intelligent travel guide with up-to-date location dependent information IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 6

Mobile Applications • Location aware services – find services in the local environment, e. Mobile Applications • Location aware services – find services in the local environment, e. g. printer • Information services – push: e. g. , stock quotes – pull: e. g. , nearest cash ATM • Disconnected operations – mobile agents, e. g. , shopping • Entertainment – ad-hoc networks for multi user games IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 7

Mobile applications in the Industry • Wireless access: (phone. com) openwave • Alerting services: Mobile applications in the Industry • Wireless access: (phone. com) openwave • Alerting services: myalert. com • Location services: (airflash) webraska. com • Intranet applications: (imedeon) viryanet. com • Banking services: macalla. com • IIT Bombay agents: tryllian. com Mobile Applications: WAP 8

Bandwidth and applications UMTS EDGE GPRS, CDMA 2000 CDMA 2. 5 G 2 G Bandwidth and applications UMTS EDGE GPRS, CDMA 2000 CDMA 2. 5 G 2 G Speed, kbps 9. 6 14. 4 28 64 144 384 2000 Transaction Processing Messaging/Text Apps Voice/SMS Location Services Still Image Transfers Internet/VPN Access Database Access Document Transfer Low Quality Video High Quality Video IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 9

World Wide Web and Mobility • HTTP characteristics – designed for large bandwidth, low World Wide Web and Mobility • HTTP characteristics – designed for large bandwidth, low delay – stateless, client/server, request/response communication – connection oriented, one connection per request – TCP 3 -way handshake, DNS lookup overheads IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 10

WWW and Mobility • HTML characteristics – designed for computers with “high” performance, color WWW and Mobility • HTML characteristics – designed for computers with “high” performance, color high-resolution display, mouse, hard disk – typically, web pages optimized for design, not for communication; ignore end-system characteristics IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 11

System Support for Mobile WWW • Enhanced browsers – client-aware support for mobility • System Support for Mobile WWW • Enhanced browsers – client-aware support for mobility • Proxies – Client proxy: pre-fetching, caching, off -line use – Network proxy: adaptive content transformation for connections – Client and network proxy IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 12

System Support for Mobile WWW • Enhanced servers – server-aware support for mobility – System Support for Mobile WWW • Enhanced servers – server-aware support for mobility – serve the content in multiple ways, depending on client capabilities • New protocols/languages – WAP/WML IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 13

Wireless Application Protocol • Goals – deliver Internet services to mobile devices – independence Wireless Application Protocol • Goals – deliver Internet services to mobile devices – independence from wireless network standards – GSM, CDMA IS-95, TDMA IS-136, 3 G systems (UMTS, W-CDMA) IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 14

Why is HTTP/HTML not enough? Big pipe - small pipe syndrome Internet HTTP/HTML <HTML> Why is HTTP/HTML not enough? Big pipe - small pipe syndrome Internet HTTP/HTML NNN Interactive

IIT Bombay NNN Intera ctive< /TITLE > <META HTTPEQUIV= "Refre sh" CONTEN T="180 0, URL=/i ndex. h tml"> Wireless network WAP <WML> <CARD> <DO TYPE="ACCEPT"> <GO URL="/submit? Name=$N"/> </DO> Enter name: <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" KEY="N"/> </CARD> </WML> Content encoding 010011 110110 010011 011101 010010 011010 Mobile Applications: WAP 15 Source: WAP Forum </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WHY WAP? • Wireless networks and phones – have specific needs and requirements –" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-16.jpg" alt="WHY WAP? • Wireless networks and phones – have specific needs and requirements –" /> WHY WAP? • Wireless networks and phones – have specific needs and requirements – not addressed by existing Internet technologies • WAP – Enables any data transport » TCP/IP, UDP/IP, GUTS (IS-135/6), SMS, or USSD. – Optimizes the content and air-link protocols – Utilizes plain Web HTTP 1. 1 servers IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 16 » utilizes standard Internet markup </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WAP: main features • Browser – “Micro browser”, similar to existing web browsers •" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-17.jpg" alt="WAP: main features • Browser – “Micro browser”, similar to existing web browsers •" /> WAP: main features • Browser – “Micro browser”, similar to existing web browsers • Markup/Script language – Similar to HTML/Javascript, adapted to mobile devices • Gateway – Transition from wireless to wired world • Server – “Wap/Origin server”, similar to existing web servers • Protocol layers – Transport layer, security layer, session layer etc. • IIT Bombay Telephony application interface Mobile Applications: WAP – Access to telephony functions 17 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="Internet model HTML HTTP TLS/SSL TCP/IP IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 18 " src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-18.jpg" alt="Internet model HTML HTTP TLS/SSL TCP/IP IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 18 " /> Internet model HTML HTTP TLS/SSL TCP/IP IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 18 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WAP architecture WAP Gateway WMLScript WTAI Etc. IIT Bombay Web Server WML Encoder WSP/WTP" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-19.jpg" alt="WAP architecture WAP Gateway WMLScript WTAI Etc. IIT Bombay Web Server WML Encoder WSP/WTP" /> WAP architecture WAP Gateway WMLScript WTAI Etc. IIT Bombay Web Server WML Encoder WSP/WTP WMLScript Compiler HTTP Protocol Adapters Mobile Applications: WAP CGI Scripts etc. Content WML Decks with WML-Script Client 19 Source: WAP Forum </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WAP application server Client WMLScript WTAI WML Encoder WSP/WTP WMLScript Compiler Protocol Adapters Application" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-20.jpg" alt="WAP application server Client WMLScript WTAI WML Encoder WSP/WTP WMLScript Compiler Protocol Adapters Application" /> WAP application server Client WMLScript WTAI WML Encoder WSP/WTP WMLScript Compiler Protocol Adapters Application Logic Content WML Decks with WML-Script WAP Application Server Etc. IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 20 Source: WAP Forum </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WAP specifies • Wireless Application Environment – WML Microbrowser – WMLScript Virtual Machine –" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-21.jpg" alt="WAP specifies • Wireless Application Environment – WML Microbrowser – WMLScript Virtual Machine –" /> WAP specifies • Wireless Application Environment – WML Microbrowser – WMLScript Virtual Machine – WMLScript Standard Library – Wireless Telephony Application Interface (WTAI) – WAP content types • Wireless Protocol Stack – Wireless Session Protocol (WSP) – Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) – Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP) – Wireless Datagram Protocol (WDP) IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP – Wireless network interface definitions 21 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WAP: reference model Internet HTML, Java A-SAP WAP Application Layer (WAE) S-SAP additional services" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-22.jpg" alt="WAP: reference model Internet HTML, Java A-SAP WAP Application Layer (WAE) S-SAP additional services" /> WAP: reference model Internet HTML, Java A-SAP WAP Application Layer (WAE) S-SAP additional services and applications Session Layer (WSP) HTTP TR-SAP Transaction Layer (WTP) SEC-SAP SSL/TLS Security Layer (WTLS) T-SAP TCP/IP, UDP/IP, media Transport Layer (WDP) WCMP Bearers (GSM, CDPD, . . . ) WAE comprises WML (Wireless Markup Language), WML Script, WTAI etc. IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 22 Source: Schiller </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WAP stack • WAE (Wireless Application Environment): – Architecture: application model, browser, gateway, server" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-23.jpg" alt="WAP stack • WAE (Wireless Application Environment): – Architecture: application model, browser, gateway, server" /> WAP stack • WAE (Wireless Application Environment): – Architecture: application model, browser, gateway, server – WML: XML-Syntax, based on card stacks, variables, . . . – WTA: telephone services, such as call control, phone book etc. • WSP (Wireless Session Protocol): – Provides HTTP 1. 1 functionality IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP – Supports session management, 23 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WAP stack (contd. ) • WTP (Wireless Transaction Protocol): – Provides reliable message transfer" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-24.jpg" alt="WAP stack (contd. ) • WTP (Wireless Transaction Protocol): – Provides reliable message transfer" /> WAP stack (contd. ) • WTP (Wireless Transaction Protocol): – Provides reliable message transfer mechanisms – Based on ideas from TCP/RPC • WTLS (Wireless Transport Layer Security): – Provides data integrity, privacy, authentication functions – Based on ideas from TLS/SSL • WDP (Wireless Datagram Protocol): IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP – Provides transport layer functions 24 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WDP: Wireless Datagram Protocol – Transport layer protocol within the WAP architecture – uses" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-25.jpg" alt="WDP: Wireless Datagram Protocol – Transport layer protocol within the WAP architecture – uses" /> WDP: Wireless Datagram Protocol – Transport layer protocol within the WAP architecture – uses the Service Primitive » T-Unit. Data. req. ind – uses transport mechanisms of different bearer technologies – offers a common interface for higher layer protocols – allows for transparent communication despite different technologies IIT – addressing uses Applications: WAP Bombay Mobile port numbers 25 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WDP: service primitives T-SAP T-DUnitdata. req (DA, DP, SA, SP, UD) T-SAP T-DUnitdata. ind" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-26.jpg" alt="WDP: service primitives T-SAP T-DUnitdata. req (DA, DP, SA, SP, UD) T-SAP T-DUnitdata. ind" /> WDP: service primitives T-SAP T-DUnitdata. req (DA, DP, SA, SP, UD) T-SAP T-DUnitdata. ind (SA, SP, UD) T-DUnitdata. req (DA, DP, SA, SP, UD) T-DError. ind (EC) SAP: Service Access Point DA: Destination Address DP: Destination Port SA: Source Address SP: Source Port UD: User Data EC: Error Code IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 26 Source: Schiller </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WTLS: Wireless Transport Layer Security – is based on the TLS/SSL (Transport Layer Security)" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-27.jpg" alt="WTLS: Wireless Transport Layer Security – is based on the TLS/SSL (Transport Layer Security)" /> WTLS: Wireless Transport Layer Security – is based on the TLS/SSL (Transport Layer Security) protocol – optimized for low-bandwidth communication channels – provides » privacy (encryption) » data integrity (MACs) » authentication (public-key and symmetric) – Employs special adapted mechanisms for wireless usage » Long lived secure sessions IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: 27 » Optimised handshake WAP procedures </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WTLS: secure session, full handshake originator SEC-SAP SEC-Create. req (SA, SP, DA, DP, KES," src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-28.jpg" alt="WTLS: secure session, full handshake originator SEC-SAP SEC-Create. req (SA, SP, DA, DP, KES," /> WTLS: secure session, full handshake originator SEC-SAP SEC-Create. req (SA, SP, DA, DP, KES, CM) peer SEC-SAP SEC-Create. ind (SA, SP, DA, DP, KES, CM) SEC-Create. res (SNM, KR, SID, KES‘, CM‘) SEC-Create. cnf (SNM, KR, SID, KES‘, CM‘) SEC-Exchange. ind SEC-Exchange. res (CC) SEC-Commit. req SEC-Exchange. req KES: Key Exchange Suite CS: Cipher Suite CM: Compression Mode SNM: Sequence Number Mode SEC-Exchange. cnf (CC) SEC-Commit. ind KR: Key Refresh Cycle SEC-Commit. cnf SID: Session Identifier CC: Client Certificate IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 28 Source: Schiller </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WTP: Wireless Transaction Protocol – different transaction services that enable applications to select reliability," src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-29.jpg" alt="WTP: Wireless Transaction Protocol – different transaction services that enable applications to select reliability," /> WTP: Wireless Transaction Protocol – different transaction services that enable applications to select reliability, efficiency levels – low memory requirements, suited to simple devices – efficiency for wireless transmission – supports peer-to-peer, client/server and multicast applications IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 29 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WTP transactions • class 0: unreliable message transfer • class 1: reliable message transfer" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-30.jpg" alt="WTP transactions • class 0: unreliable message transfer • class 1: reliable message transfer" /> WTP transactions • class 0: unreliable message transfer • class 1: reliable message transfer without result message • class 2: reliable message transfer with exactly one reliable result message IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 30 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WTP Class 0 Transaction initiator TR-SAP TR-Invoke. req (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD," src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-31.jpg" alt="WTP Class 0 Transaction initiator TR-SAP TR-Invoke. req (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD," /> WTP Class 0 Transaction initiator TR-SAP TR-Invoke. req (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=0, H) Invoke responder TR-SAP PDU TR-Invoke. ind (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=0, H‘) A: Acknowledgement Type (WTP/User) C: Class (0, 1, 2) H: Handle (socket alias) IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 31 Source: Schiller </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WTP Class 1 Transaction, no user ack & user ack initiator TR-SAP TR-Invoke. req" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-32.jpg" alt="WTP Class 1 Transaction, no user ack & user ack initiator TR-SAP TR-Invoke. req" /> WTP Class 1 Transaction, no user ack & user ack initiator TR-SAP TR-Invoke. req (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=1, H) responder TR-SAP Invoke TR-Invoke. cnf (H) U Ack PD initiator TR-SAP TR-Invoke. req (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=1, H) TR-Invoke. cnf (H) IIT Bombay PDU TR-Invoke. ind (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=1, H‘) responder TR-SAP Invoke PDU U Ack PD TR-Invoke. ind (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=1, H‘) TR-Invoke. res (H‘) Mobile Applications: WAP 32 Source: Schiller </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WTP Class 2 Transaction initiator TR-SAP TR-Invoke. req (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD," src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-33.jpg" alt="WTP Class 2 Transaction initiator TR-SAP TR-Invoke. req (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD," /> WTP Class 2 Transaction initiator TR-SAP TR-Invoke. req (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=2, H) Invoke responder TR-SAP PDU TR-Invoke. cnf (H) Ack PD TR-Result. ind (UD*, H) PDU Result TR-Result. res (H) IIT Bombay U Ack PD U TR-Invoke. ind (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=2, H‘) TR-Invoke. res (H‘) TR-Result. req (UD*, H‘) TR-Result. cnf (H‘) Mobile Applications: WAP 33 Source: Schiller </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WSP - Wireless Session Protocol – provides shared state between client and server, optimizes" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-34.jpg" alt="WSP - Wireless Session Protocol – provides shared state between client and server, optimizes" /> WSP - Wireless Session Protocol – provides shared state between client and server, optimizes content transfer – session management (establish, release, suspend, resume) – efficient capability negotiation – key management, authentication, Internet security services – content encoding – push IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 34 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WSP/B session establishment client S-SAP S-Connect. req (SA, CH, RC) S-Connect. cnf (SH, NC)" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-35.jpg" alt="WSP/B session establishment client S-SAP S-Connect. req (SA, CH, RC) S-Connect. cnf (SH, NC)" /> WSP/B session establishment client S-SAP S-Connect. req (SA, CH, RC) S-Connect. cnf (SH, NC) server S-SAP Conne ct PDU ly PDU nn. Rep Co S-Connect. ind (SA, CH, RC) S-Connect. res (SH, NC) WTP Class 2 transaction CH: Client Header RC: Requested Capabilities SH: Server Header NC: Negotiated Capabilities IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 35 Source: Schiller </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WSP/B session suspend/resume client S-SAP S-Suspend. req Suspen d PDU S-Suspend. ind (R) S-Resume." src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-36.jpg" alt="WSP/B session suspend/resume client S-SAP S-Suspend. req Suspen d PDU S-Suspend. ind (R) S-Resume." /> WSP/B session suspend/resume client S-SAP S-Suspend. req Suspen d PDU S-Suspend. ind (R) S-Resume. req (SA, CA) S-Resume. cnf server S-SAP S-Suspend. ind (R) WTP Class 0 transaction ~ Resum e PDU DU Reply P ~ R: Reason for disconnection S-Resume. ind (SA, CA) S-Resume. res WTP Class 2 transaction IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 36 Source: Schiller </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WSP/B session termination client S-SAP S-Disconnect. req (R) S-Disconnect. ind (R) IIT Bombay Discon" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-37.jpg" alt="WSP/B session termination client S-SAP S-Disconnect. req (R) S-Disconnect. ind (R) IIT Bombay Discon" /> WSP/B session termination client S-SAP S-Disconnect. req (R) S-Disconnect. ind (R) IIT Bombay Discon server S-SAP S-Disconnect. ind U (R) nect PD WTP Class 0 transaction Mobile Applications: WAP 37 Source: Schiller </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WAP stack summary • WDP – functionality similar to UDP in IP networks •" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-38.jpg" alt="WAP stack summary • WDP – functionality similar to UDP in IP networks •" /> WAP stack summary • WDP – functionality similar to UDP in IP networks • WTLS – functionality similar to SSL/TLS (opt. for wireless) • WTP – Class 0: analogous to UDP – Class 1: analogous to TCP (without connection setup overheads) – Class 2: analogous to RPC (optimized for wireless) • WSP – features of suspend/resume IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 38 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WAE components • Architecture – Application model, Microbrowser, Gateway, Server • User Agents –" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-39.jpg" alt="WAE components • Architecture – Application model, Microbrowser, Gateway, Server • User Agents –" /> WAE components • Architecture – Application model, Microbrowser, Gateway, Server • User Agents – WML/WTA/Others – content formats: v. Card, WML. . • WML/Script – XML-Syntax, based on card stacks, variables, . . . • WTA – telephone services, such as call control, text Mobile Applications: WAP 39 messages, phone book, IIT Bombay </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WAE: logical model Origin Servers web server other content server response with content Method" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-40.jpg" alt="WAE: logical model Origin Servers web server other content server response with content Method" /> WAE: logical model Origin Servers web server other content server response with content Method proxy encoded response with content Push proxy push content request IIT Bombay Client Gateway encoders & decoders Mobile Applications: WAP encoded push content encoded request WTA user agent WML user agent other WAE user agents 40 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WAP microbrowser IIT Bombay • Optimized for wireless devices • Minimal RAM, ROM, Display," src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-41.jpg" alt="WAP microbrowser IIT Bombay • Optimized for wireless devices • Minimal RAM, ROM, Display," /> WAP microbrowser IIT Bombay • Optimized for wireless devices • Minimal RAM, ROM, Display, CPU and keys • Provides consistent service UI across devices • Provides Internet compatibility • Enables wide array of available content and Mobile Applications: 41 applications. WAP </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WML: Wireless Markup Language • Tag-based browsing language: – Screen management (text, images) –" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-42.jpg" alt="WML: Wireless Markup Language • Tag-based browsing language: – Screen management (text, images) –" /> WML: Wireless Markup Language • Tag-based browsing language: – Screen management (text, images) – Data input (text, selection lists, etc. ) – Hyperlinks & navigation support Content (XML) XSL Processor WML Stylesheet WML Browsers • Takes into account limited display, navigation capabilities of devices IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP HTML Style. Sheet HTTP Browser 42 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WML • XML-based language – describes only intent of interaction in an abstract manner" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-43.jpg" alt="WML • XML-based language – describes only intent of interaction in an abstract manner" /> WML • XML-based language – describes only intent of interaction in an abstract manner – presentation depends upon device capabilities • Cards and Decks – document consists of many cards – User interactions are split into cards – Explicit navigation between cards – cards are grouped to decks (unit of content) • Events, variables and state mgmt IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 43 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WML • All decks must contain – Document prologue » XML & document type" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-44.jpg" alt="WML • All decks must contain – Document prologue » XML & document type" /> WML • All decks must contain – Document prologue » XML & document type declaration – <WML> element » Must contain one or more cards WML File Structure <? xml version="1. 0"? > <!DOCTYPE WML PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD WML 1. 0//EN" "http: //www. wapforum. org/DTD/wml. xml"> <WML>. . . </WML> IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 44 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WML cards Navigation Variables Input Elements IIT Bombay <WML> <CARD> <DO TYPE=“ACCEPT”> <GO URL=“#e." src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-45.jpg" alt="WML cards Navigation Variables Input Elements IIT Bombay <WML> <CARD> <DO TYPE=“ACCEPT”> <GO URL=“#e." /> WML cards Navigation Variables Input Elements IIT Bombay <WML> <CARD> <DO TYPE=“ACCEPT”> <GO URL=“#e. Card”/> </DO Welcome! </CARD> <CARD NAME=“e. Card”> <DO TYPE=“ACCEPT”> <GO URL=“/submit? N=$(N)&S=$(S)”/> </DO> Enter name: <INPUT KEY=“N”/> Choose speed: <SELECT KEY=“S”> <OPTION VALUE=“ 0”>Fast</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE=“ 1”>Slow</OPTION> <SELECT> </CARD> </WML> Mobile Applications: WAP Card Deck 45 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="Wireless Telephony Application • Collection of telephony specific extensions – designed primarily for network" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-46.jpg" alt="Wireless Telephony Application • Collection of telephony specific extensions – designed primarily for network" /> Wireless Telephony Application • Collection of telephony specific extensions – designed primarily for network operators • Example – calling a number (WML) wtai: //wp/mc; 07216086415 – calling a number (WMLScript) WTAPublic. make. Call("07216086415"); IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 46 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WTA features • Extension of basic WAE application model – network model for interaction" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-47.jpg" alt="WTA features • Extension of basic WAE application model – network model for interaction" /> WTA features • Extension of basic WAE application model – network model for interaction » client requests to server » event signaling: server can push content to the client – event handling » table indicating how to react on certain events from the network » client may now be able to handle IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 47 unknown events </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WTA Interface • WTA API includes – Call control – Network text messaging –" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-48.jpg" alt="WTA Interface • WTA API includes – Call control – Network text messaging –" /> WTA Interface • WTA API includes – Call control – Network text messaging – Phone book interface – Event processing • Security model: segregation – Separate WTA browser – Separate WTA port IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 48 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WTA Example (WML) Placing an outgoing call with WTAI: WTAI Call Input Element IIT" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-49.jpg" alt="WTA Example (WML) Placing an outgoing call with WTAI: WTAI Call Input Element IIT" /> WTA Example (WML) Placing an outgoing call with WTAI: WTAI Call Input Element IIT Bombay <WML> <CARD> <DO TYPE=“ACCEPT”> <GO URL=“wtai: cc/mc; $(N)”/> </DO> Enter phone number: <INPUT TYPE=“TEXT” KEY=“N”/> </CARD> </WML> Mobile Applications: WAP 49 Source: WAP Forum </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WTA: logical architecture other telephone networks WTA Origin Server Client WML Scripts mobile network" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-50.jpg" alt="WTA: logical architecture other telephone networks WTA Origin Server Client WML Scripts mobile network" /> WTA: logical architecture other telephone networks WTA Origin Server Client WML Scripts mobile network WML decks WTA services network operator trusted domain third party origin servers IIT Bombay WTA user agent WAP Gateway WTA & WML server WAE services encoders & decoders other WTA servers firewall Mobile Applications: WAP 50 Source: Schiller </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WTA: framework components IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 51 Source: Heijden " src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-51.jpg" alt="WTA: framework components IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 51 Source: Heijden " /> WTA: framework components IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 51 Source: Heijden </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WTA: user agent • WTA User Agent – WML User agent with extended functionality" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-52.jpg" alt="WTA: user agent • WTA User Agent – WML User agent with extended functionality" /> WTA: user agent • WTA User Agent – WML User agent with extended functionality – can access mobile device’s telephony functions through WTAI – can store WTA service content persistently in a repository – handles events originating in the mobile network IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 52 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WTA user agent context • Abstraction of execution space • Holds current parameters, navigation" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-53.jpg" alt="WTA user agent context • Abstraction of execution space • Holds current parameters, navigation" /> WTA user agent context • Abstraction of execution space • Holds current parameters, navigation history, state of user agent • Similar to activation record in a OS process • Uses connection-mode and connectionless services offered by WSP • Specific, secure WDP ports on the WAP IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 53 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WTA: events • Network notifies device of event (such as incoming call) • WTA" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-54.jpg" alt="WTA: events • Network notifies device of event (such as incoming call) • WTA" /> WTA: events • Network notifies device of event (such as incoming call) • WTA events map to device’s native events • WTA services are aware of and able to act on these events • example: incoming call indication, call cleared, call connected IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 54 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WTA: Repository • local store for content related to WTA services (minimize network traffic)" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-55.jpg" alt="WTA: Repository • local store for content related to WTA services (minimize network traffic)" /> WTA: Repository • local store for content related to WTA services (minimize network traffic) • Channels: define the service – XML document specifying eventid, title, abstract, and resources that implement a service • Resources: execution scripts for a service – could be WML decks, WML Scripts, WBMP images. . – downloaded. Mobile Applications: WAP from WTA server and IIT Bombay 55 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WTA: Channels and Resources IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 56 Source: Heijden " src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-56.jpg" alt="WTA: Channels and Resources IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 56 Source: Heijden " /> WTA: Channels and Resources IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 56 Source: Heijden </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WTA: event handling • Event occurrence – WTA user agent could be executing and" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-57.jpg" alt="WTA: event handling • Event occurrence – WTA user agent could be executing and" /> WTA: event handling • Event occurrence – WTA user agent could be executing and expecting the event – WTA user agent could be executing and a different event occurs – No service is executing • Event handling – channel for each event defines the content to be processed upon reception of that event IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 57 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WTA: event binding • association of an event with the corresponding handler (channel) •" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-58.jpg" alt="WTA: event binding • association of an event with the corresponding handler (channel) •" /> WTA: event binding • association of an event with the corresponding handler (channel) • Global binding: – channel corresponding to the event is stored in the repository – example: voice mail service • Temporary binding: – resources to be executed are defined by the already executing service – example: yellow pages lookup and call establishment Mobile Applications: WAP IIT Bombay 58 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WTA: event handling IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 59 Source: Heijden " src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-59.jpg" alt="WTA: event handling IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 59 Source: Heijden " /> WTA: event handling IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 59 Source: Heijden </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WAP push services • Web push – Scheduled pull by client (browser) • Wireless" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-60.jpg" alt="WAP push services • Web push – Scheduled pull by client (browser) • Wireless" /> WAP push services • Web push – Scheduled pull by client (browser) • Wireless push – accomplished by using the network itself » example: SMS • WAP push – Network supported push of WML content » example: Alerts or service indications – Pre-caching of data (channels/resources) IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 60 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WAP push framework IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 61 Source: Heijden " src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-61.jpg" alt="WAP push framework IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 61 Source: Heijden " /> WAP push framework IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 61 Source: Heijden </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="Push Access Protocol • • Based on request/response model Push initiator is the client" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-62.jpg" alt="Push Access Protocol • • Based on request/response model Push initiator is the client" /> Push Access Protocol • • Based on request/response model Push initiator is the client Push proxy is the server Initiator uses HTTP POST to send push message to proxy • Initiator sends control information as an XML document, and content for mobile (as WML) • Proxy sends XML entity in response indicating submission status IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 62 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="WAE Summary • WML and WML Script – analogous to HTML and Java. Script" src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-63.jpg" alt="WAE Summary • WML and WML Script – analogous to HTML and Java. Script" /> WAE Summary • WML and WML Script – analogous to HTML and Java. Script (optimized for wireless) – microbrowser user agent; compiler in the network • WTA – WTAI: different access rights for different applications/agents – WTA User Agent (analogy with operating systems) » Context – Activation Record » Channel – Interrupt Handler » Resource – Shared routines invoked by interrupt handlers » Repository – Library of interrupt handlers – feature of dynamically pushing the interrupt handler before the event • Push – no analogy in Internet Applications: WAP Mobile IIT Bombay 63 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="References • J. Schiller, “Mobile Communications”, Addison Wesley, 2000 • M. v. d. Heijden," src="https://present5.com/presentation/6ce5a4fde647a8b5ce51f7b6a5d3add6/image-64.jpg" alt="References • J. Schiller, “Mobile Communications”, Addison Wesley, 2000 • M. v. d. Heijden," /> References • J. Schiller, “Mobile Communications”, Addison Wesley, 2000 • M. v. d. Heijden, M. Taylor. “Understanding WAP”, Artech House, 2000 • Websites: – www. palowireless. com – www. gsmworld. com; IIT Bombay Mobile Applications: WAP 64 </p> </div> <div style="width: auto;" class="description columns twelve"><p><img class="imgdescription" title="" src="" alt="" /> </p> </div> </div> <div id="inputform"> <script>$("#inputform").load("https://present5.com/wp-content/plugins/report-content/inc/report-form-aj.php"); </script> </div> </p> <!--end entry-content--> </div> </article><!-- .post --> </section><!-- #content --> <div class="three columns"> <div class="widget-entry"> <div id="sidebarrelated"> <div id="text-2" class="box_small box widget widget_text"><div id="crp_related"> </div></div></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <!-- #content-wrapper --> <footer id="footer" style="padding: 5px 0 5px;"> <div class="container"> <div class="columns twelve"> <!--noindex--> <!--LiveInternet counter--><script type="text/javascript"><!-- document.write("<img src='//counter.yadro.ru/hit?t26.10;r"+ escape(document.referrer)+((typeof(screen)=="undefined")?"": ";s"+screen.width+"*"+screen.height+"*"+(screen.colorDepth? screen.colorDepth:screen.pixelDepth))+";u"+escape(document.URL)+ ";"+Math.random()+ "' alt='' title='"+" ' "+ "border='0' width='1' height='1'><\/a>") //--></script><!--/LiveInternet--> <a href="https://slidetodoc.com/" alt="Наш международный проект SlideToDoc.com!" target="_blank"><img src="https://present5.com/SlideToDoc.png"></a> <script> $(window).load(function() { var owl = document.getElementsByClassName('owl-carousel owl-theme owl-loaded owl-drag')[0]; document.getElementById("owlheader").insertBefore(owl, null); $('#owlheader').css('display', 'inline-block'); }); </script> <script type="text/javascript"> var yaParams = {'typepage': '1000_top_300k', 'author': '1000_top_300k' }; </script> <!-- Yandex.Metrika counter --> <script type="text/javascript"> (function (d, w, c) { (w[c] = w[c] || []).push(function() { try { w.yaCounter32395810 = new Ya.Metrika({ id:32395810, clickmap:true, trackLinks:true, accurateTrackBounce:true, webvisor:true, params: yaParams }); } catch(e) { } }); var n = d.getElementsByTagName("script")[0], s = d.createElement("script"), f = function () { n.parentNode.insertBefore(s, n); }; s.type = "text/javascript"; s.async = true; s.src = "https://mc.yandex.ru/metrika/watch.js"; if (w.opera == "[object Opera]") { d.addEventListener("DOMContentLoaded", f, false); } else { f(); } })(document, window, "yandex_metrika_callbacks"); </script> <noscript><div><img src="https://mc.yandex.ru/watch/32395810" style="position:absolute; left:-9999px;" alt="" /></div></noscript> <!-- /Yandex.Metrika counter --> <!--/noindex--> <nav id="top-nav"> <ul id="menu-top" class="top-menu clearfix"> </ul> </nav> </div> </div><!--.container--> </footer> <script type='text/javascript'> /* <![CDATA[ */ var wpcf7 = {"apiSettings":{"root":"https:\/\/present5.com\/wp-json\/contact-form-7\/v1","namespace":"contact-form-7\/v1"}}; /* ]]> */ </script> <script type='text/javascript' src='https://present5.com/wp-content/plugins/contact-form-7/includes/js/scripts.js?ver=5.1.4'></script> <script type='text/javascript' src='https://present5.com/wp-content/themes/sampression-lite/lib/js/jquery.shuffle.js?ver=4.9.17'></script> <script type='text/javascript' src='https://present5.com/wp-content/themes/sampression-lite/lib/js/scripts.js?ver=1.1'></script> <script type='text/javascript' src='https://present5.com/wp-content/themes/sampression-lite/lib/js/shuffle.js?ver=4.9.17'></script> <!--[if lt IE 9]> <script type='text/javascript' src='https://present5.com/wp-content/themes/sampression-lite/lib/js/selectivizr.js?ver=1.0.2'></script> <![endif]--> </body> </html>