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MINISTRY OF HIGHER AND SECONDARY SPECIALIZED EDUCATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN BUKHARA STATE UNIVERSITY Philology faculty The English language and literature department GRADUATE QUALIFICATION WORK of the fourth year student – Abdullayeva Nilufar Islomovna on theme: The depiction of real life in English and Uzbek stories (In comparison with Katherine Mansfield and Abdulla Kahhor’s stories) Supervisor: Yusupova H. U. Bukhara-2016
C O N T E N TS INTRODUCTION CHAPTER I. The development of the genre of stories in Uzbek and English literature 1. 1. The genre of story in Uzbek language and its representatives 1. 2. English short story writers CHAPTER II. The features of realism in Uzbek and English stories 2. 1. The reality of period in Abdulla Kahhor and Katherine Mansfield’s stories 2. 2. The expression of real life in characters’ depiction in Abdulla Kahhor’s and Katherine Mansfield’s stories CONCLUSION The list of used literature
The actuality of the work According to the decree signed by President of the Republic of Uzbekistan on December 10, 2012 “On measures to further improve foreign language learning system”, foreign languages, mainly English, gradually throughout the country are taught from the first year of schooling. University modules especially in technical and international areas are offered in English as well and other foreign languages at higher education institutions.
The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan I. A. Karimov proclaimed a decree on January 8, 2007 “For the respect of Abdulla Kahhor’s anniversary” According to this decree Abdulla Kahhor’s “Tanlangan asarlari“ and Kibriyo Kahhorova’s “Chorak asr hamnafas” books are printed by Gafur Gulom publishing house. In “Tanlangan asarlari” by Abdulla Kahhor his stories, memories, publisistic and literary, critical articles are gathered. In Kibriyo Kahhorova’s book is consist of the life of Abdulla Kahhor, his characteristic features.
The object and the subject of Graduate Qualification Work The object is─ the short stories by Abdulla Kahhor and Kathrine Mansfield. The subject is─ the depiction of real life in the stories of A. Kahhor and K. Mansfield
The aim and tasks of the work Aim of this GQW is to analyze the reflection of reality in the short stories by Abdulla Kahhor and Katherine Mansfield and establish clear points. This aim puts the following tasks: To find the characteristic features in the stories of Abdulla Kahhor and Katherine Mansfield; To study the use of images and time and place in short story writing; To find the point of difficulties and the importance the stories in the reputation of writers ; To expose the characters and their participation in the short stories.
The degree of studiedness of the GQP The life and literary activity of Abdulla Kahhor were investigated by many influential critics, including Erkin Vohidov, Shukur Xolmirzayev, Ozod Sharafiddinov, Utkir Hoshimov, Tursunoy Karimova, Said Ahmad, Konstantin Simonov, Toshpolat Ahmedov, Jalol Ikromiy, Mirtemir, Omon Muxtorov, Pirimqul Kodirov, Shuxrat, Matyoqub Koshjonov, Ulmas Umarbekov and in many critical essays and book reports. The life and literary activity of Katherine Mansfield were investigated by many influential critics, including Костина С. Г. , Хлебникова И. Н. А. Гутиев, Sue Asscher, and David Widger and in many critical essays and book reports.
The novelty of the GQW The stories of Abdulla Kahhor and Katherine Mansfield has been discussed by many critics throughout the world. And our approach is to clarify the following points thoroughly: - the feelings and interpretations of social event, situations, and issues advanced by stories are not necessarily those the author is advocating. Narrator’s opinion from author’s differs. - the topics that described in the work as reality, hypocrisy, illiteracy and ordinary people’s opinion of the world problems are studied as the social problems which depicted in the stories. The content of the Graduate Qualification Paper Final Qualification Paper consists of introduction, two parts, four chapters, conclusion and the list of used literature.
The methodological basis of the work The GQP includes theoretical views of the President of Uzbekistan, I. A. Karimov concerning to literature national ideology and national ideas, national value, culture, morality and science; Internet sources, books and critical analysis of scholars Izzat Sulton “Adabiyot nazariyasi”, Vladimirova N. , Sultonova M. “Uzbekskiy rasskaz”, Erkin Xudoyberdiyev “Adabiyotshunoslikka kirish”. Костина С. Г. , Хлебникова И. Н. А. Гутиев and others that present valuable theoretical material for our research on this theme.
The theoretical and practical value of the research work Theoretical value of the work can be observed in the fact that it makes specific contribution to the analysis of the text, determines concept of realism, and widens the reflection of understanding the of social life and equality in the stories of Abdulla Kahhor and Katherine Mansfield; The practical value of the work: the new information and materials about the reflection of reality of life in the short stories presented in the paper could be useful in course of teaching English along with practical classes. Teachers can use this material during their classes as the additional information about theory of short stories.
Realism in Uzbek and English short stories In Uzbek literature the genre of realistic story writing developed in XX century. Chulpon “Kurboni jaholat”, Abdulla Kodiriy “Uloqda” and other realist story writers. Later in 20 -years Gafur Gulom, Abdulla Kahhor, Oydin made their great contribution. Said Ahmad, Utkir Hoshimov, Shukur Xolmirzayev are later generations of story writers. The XX century is the century of realism and its development. English short story writing began in XVII century in oral literature. First realistic stories Homer’s “Illiad and Odyssey”. First real short story is written in english literature by Richard Cumberland’s the story of “The Prisoner of Montremos”.
Abdulla Kodiriy Chulpon Said Ahmad Uzbek story writers Ulmas Umarbekov Abdulda Kahhor Shukur Xolmirzayev Mirkarim Osim
Abdulda Kahhor is the best-known, to many people, one of the greatest Uzbek writer of the 19 th century. The great short story writer Abdulda Kahhor was born in 1907, 17 -th September in Ko’kon. His first book is «Qishloq hukm ostida» . His short stories: «Hikoyalar» , «Kampirlar sim qoqdi» , «Xotinlar» , «O’g‘ri» , «Bemor» , «Anor» , «Sinchalak» , “Dahshat” Qo‘shchinor chiroqlari» “Xotinlar”, “Asror bobo”, “Ming bir jon”, “Mahalla”, “Kartina”, “Tobutdan tovush” and many others.
Arthur Conan Doyle Somerset Maugham Alfred Coppard Mark Twain English story writers Katherine Mansfield
Katherine Mansfield is the pseudonym of Kathleen Beauchamp, a well-known short-story writer, who enjoys the reputation of being an English Chekov. She was born in New Zealand in the family of a prominent Wellington businessman. Katherine Mansfield's first stories and sketches were published in the periodical "The New Age", to which she became a regular contributors. Her first book of short-stories, "In a German Pension", appeared in 1911. In 1912 she began to write for "Rhythm", a literary periodical edited by John Middleton Murry, a well-known critic. Her second book, "Bliss and Other Stories", appeared in 1920 and her third, "The Garden Party", in 1922. It was the last of her writings to be published in her life time.
Woman’s depiction in Abdulla Kahhor’s and Katherine Mansfield’s stories from real life. Unsin─is a 7 th wife of Olimxon Dodxoh. She doesn’t agree with her fate and battles for her freedom. She tries to change her life and to return to her mother home. She is ready for everything to be of her captivity. Her dare is not only dangerous but also battle for freedom and disgrace. Rosemary─is fom a rich family. has a very vain character. She always wants to be in middle of attention. If she wants something to buy or to have she dose everything to rich it. She never imagines to live without money. She wants to be special than others. Rosemary is symbol of wealthy.
The depiction of real life in characters in Abdulla Kahhor’s and Katherine Mansfield’s stories Rosemary Fell “They were rich, really rich, not just comfortably well-off, so if Rosemary wanted to shop she would go to Paris as you and I would go to Bond Street. If she wanted to buy flowers, t h e car pulled up at t h a t perfect shop in Regent Street, 3 and Rosemary inside the shop just gazed in her dazzled, rather exotic way, and said: "I want those and those. Give me four bunches of those. And that jar of roses”. K. Mansfield, “A cup of tea”
Unsin We can see from the adventures of Uzbek people that the graveyard is the most terrible place. If one of men dares to go to the graveyard or to bring anything from there it would a grate bravery. The condition of the story is to go to graveyard and to boil tea there. Unsin agrees to this difficult condition. Anybody would not dare to do even easier than that but she is ready to do even more difficult condition nevertheless she is a girl. The reader can not imagine the sorrows of the girl. For that the writer does not express the main point of Unsin because it is definite of her dare already. And also we can see the reality of the story that ordinary worker feels the world directly though her pressing and oppression. To feel the world freely makes them to fight for their liberty and intention. If Unsin was from the rich family and got their upbringing who is a mad of money she would never agree even to step that place. , only she would wait the old man’s death and to reach his heritage. This reality we understand at the and of the story.
Qo’rboshi. “Bu hovlining egasi ko’hnabisot boylardan. Hovlining o’rtasi- gulzor orasidagi supada par yostiqqa yonboshlab, oyog’ini marhamiga uqalata yotgan bir ko’zli, badburush qo’rboshi”. A. Kahhor “Ko’r ko’zning ochilishi” In this story Abdulla Kahhor depicted the rich people’s character, their attitude to life. He shows that the rich are in the upper state, however, they are not clever in life and experienced.
Faxriddin Abdulla Kahhor’s story “Boshsiz odam” is based on real life events that the writer himself was a witness of it, he saw all of them himself. Faxriddin has his prototype in life. He is Abdulla Kahhor’s cousin. And his father is Abdulla Kahhor’s uncle Abdurahmon. So the writer depicted all this characters though selecting, reproducing their attitudes carefully. That’s why he reflects people’s psychology as in real life. Abdulla Kahhor “Boshsiz odam”
Olimxon Dodxoh boshidan go’riston xayolini chiqarib tashlash uchun tasbehini qo’yib undan-bundan gapirgan bo’ldi, hech kim bu gaplarga gap ulamadi. Shamol bir xuruj qilganda nimanidir keltirib darchaga urdi. Dodxoh xotinlariga, ulardan ham ko’ra o’ziga taskin berish uchun o’rnidan turib darchaning bir tomonini ochdi. Dodxoh patga qaradi va suyunib ketganday: ─ Bo’yra, bo’yra ekan! ─ dedi va darchani zich yopib, joyiga o’tirdi.
Depiction of real life in “Bemor” Sotiboldi couldn’t help his wife from death. Even he makes hundreds of baskets in a day, he can not find 25 pounds. “Bularning hammasi albatta pul bilan bo’ladi. Bunday vaqtlarda yo’g’on cho’ziladi, ingichka uziladi”. Here the difficult position of real life of people of that period is depicted. The family is in the fatal condition. Even their little daughter prays for her mother’s recover. ─Xudoyo ayamdi daydiga davo beygin…. These words are given from real words of the girl. Kahhor tries to express
Sun and Moon There was nobody to look after Sun and Moon. Nurse was helping Annie alter Mother's dress and Mother was running all over the house and telephoning Father to be sure not to forget things. She only had time to say: "Out of my way, children!“ K. Mansfield, “Sun and Moon” Hamdam Er –xotin foyda ziyon to’g’risida tortishib, soatni sakkiz yarim qilishdi. Hamdam chiqdi. “ –Nima qilib o’tiribsizlar? Direktor juda tayinlagan edi, ertaga meni urushadi. Otasi: Kap- katta bo’lib, shunga ham vaj topolmaysanmi? Dadam ishdan kech keldi, oyim betob yotibdi degin! Hamdam dadasiga qaragancha uzoq turib qoldi. U ertaga xuddi shunday deydi. A. Kahhor, “Ayb kimda”
Parents’ depiction in the stories from real life in Abdulla Kahhor’s story “Ayb kimda” is also about family affairs. He wants to show parents are not responsible for their children. They only think about themselves. Hamdam’s father never blame himself or his wife. He thinks that only teacher’s are guilty for the upbringing of children. Even he teaches to lie to his sun. He never thinks about the future of the boy. It is the main problem of the families of the society which is taken from real life.
Parents’ depiction in the stories from real life in Mansfield’s story “Sun and moon” can be understood in two ways: the first is –it is a classical story, the second – it has a symbolic meaning that a precious things or people can be lost from careless attention. The main reality in this story is the space between children and parents. It is about the family problem that parents are careless for their children. Setting is also important in this story. All the events happened in the rich family’s house. The plot of the story is about the eve of the party with the presence with rich people.
CONCLUSION Having worked on theme The depiction of real life in English and Uzbek stories (In comparison with Katherine Mansfield and Abdulla Kahhor’s stories) we stories (In comparison with Katherine Mansfield and Abdulla Kahhor’s stories) come to the following conclusion: The graduate qualification paper is devoted to the study of lives and literary activities of Katherine Mansfield and Abdulla Kahhor. In English literature their names are highly connected with realism genre. In the works of Katherine Mansfield and Abdulla Kahhor realistic features are fully expressed. While analyzing the depiction of real life in Katherine Mansfield and Abdulla Kahhor’s stories we may see similarities and differences in their works: Katherine Mansfield mostly wrote about upper class of people, through this way she wants to depict the real hardship of ordinary people. And Abdulla Kahhor showed the events of that time pure and real as you see it through binocular. In short we may say that all the stories of Katherine Mansfield and Abdulla Kahhor are taken from real life.