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MINING TITLES REGISTRATION AMENDMENT BILL AN INDEPENDENT VIEW Fred Cawood Wits University MINING TITLES REGISTRATION AMENDMENT BILL AN INDEPENDENT VIEW Fred Cawood Wits University

ISSUES TO CONSIDER EVOLUTION OF MINERAL TITLE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT q q q Pre-colonial: Customary ISSUES TO CONSIDER EVOLUTION OF MINERAL TITLE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT q q q Pre-colonial: Customary Law – Communal property Cape of Good Hope – Roman Dutch Law – Land mineral rights British annexure – English Law – Reservation of certain minerals Discovery of diamonds onwards – Severance of land mineral rights Registration of title, leases and permissions at Deeds Offices and RMT NEW ORDER IN TERMS OF 1998 MINERAL POLICY q q q Right to minerals revert to state without loss of security of tenure Constitutional constraint to be considered in phasing out private MR MPRDA allows for new system of rights in line with new order MPRDA allows for conversion and deregistration of old-order rights MPRDA allows for registration of new-order and converted rights at MTO MTRAB provides for registration of new-order rights and any transfer, cession, letting, subletting, alienation and encumbrance by mortgage over mineral and petroleum properties.

ISSUES TO CONSIDER MINING TITLES REGISTRATION AMENDMENT BILL THE BILL DOES NOT STAND IN ISSUES TO CONSIDER MINING TITLES REGISTRATION AMENDMENT BILL THE BILL DOES NOT STAND IN ISOLATION q q q Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act Regulations to MPRDA Deeds Registry Act Land Survey Act Royalty Bill REGISTRATION OF RIGHTS IS NOT A NEW CONCEPT q q Requirement for security of tenure Mineral rights, mineral and prospecting leases have always been registered at the Deeds Offices pursuant to 1937 Deeds Registries Act Deeds Offices have shortcomings in respect to mineral rights and registered mineral interests. However, the system of land registration is commendable, especially in the old Transvaal Registrar of Mining Titles registered ‘old-forms’ of mining title pursuant to 1967 Mining Titles Registration Act

HISTORICAL ISSUES 1937 DEEDS REGISTRIES ACT DEFINITION: IMMOVABLE PROPERTY (REPEALED) q q Any registered HISTORICAL ISSUES 1937 DEEDS REGISTRIES ACT DEFINITION: IMMOVABLE PROPERTY (REPEALED) q q Any registered lease of rights to minerals; and Any registered lease of land; and A registered right of leasehold; and A registered right of initial ownership… DEFINITION: OWNER, IN RELATION TO IMMOVABLE PROPERTY q The person registered as the owner of immovable property DEFINITION: REAL RIGHT q Any right that becomes a real right upon registration DEFINITION: REGISTERED q Means registered in the Deeds Registry

HISTORICAL ISSUES 1937 DEEDS REGISTRIES ACT (Repealed Sections) SECTION 70: RIGHTS TO MINERALS q HISTORICAL ISSUES 1937 DEEDS REGISTRIES ACT (Repealed Sections) SECTION 70: RIGHTS TO MINERALS q Separate registration of mineral rights from the land q Separate registration of rights to different minerals q Provision for certificates of mineral rights showing ownership SECTION 71: MINERAL RIGHTS CERTIFICATES q Detailed description of mineral rights (with diagram) q Registered against title deeds of the land above SECTION 74: UNDIVIDED SHARES IN MINERALS q Persons may jointly hold certificate of mineral rights

THE BIG (NEW) PICTURE Constitution Supreme Law Mineral Policy Vision PRINCIPLES INTENT Acts (MPRDA THE BIG (NEW) PICTURE Constitution Supreme Law Mineral Policy Vision PRINCIPLES INTENT Acts (MPRDA etc) Guides (Regulations) INSTRUMENTS People/Equality Equal opportunity Equal access Environment Sustainable dev EMP/MH&S/SP/LP/CP Property Change system Convert rights Information Optimal use Disclose/Registration

1996 CONSTITUTION SECTION 25: PROPERTY q No one may be deprived of property q 1996 CONSTITUTION SECTION 25: PROPERTY q No one may be deprived of property q No law may permit arbitrary deprivation of property q Property may be expropriated when in the public interest, which includes the commitment to bring about equitable access to natural resources q Expropriation may only occur upon fair compensation reflecting an equitable balance between the public interest and those affected

Response to Mineral Policy (1990 – 2001) El M ec in tio ns er Response to Mineral Policy (1990 – 2001) El M ec in tio ns er al Po lic y Three years before release of Mineral Policy = 6581 contracts Three years after release of Mineral Policy = 11993 contracts

HISTORICAL ISSUES 1956 GENERAL LAW AMENDMENT ACT SECTION 1: UNLAWFUL USE OF ANOTHER’S PROPERTY HISTORICAL ISSUES 1956 GENERAL LAW AMENDMENT ACT SECTION 1: UNLAWFUL USE OF ANOTHER’S PROPERTY q. Any person who uses another’s property needs the consent of the owner SECTION 3: MINERAL LEASES q. Mineral leases and cessions only valid if registered against title deeds of land or the certificate of mineral rights

HISTORICAL ISSUES 1997 LAND SURVEY ACT DIAGRAMS q All survey diagrams prepared by professional HISTORICAL ISSUES 1997 LAND SURVEY ACT DIAGRAMS q All survey diagrams prepared by professional land surveyors and approved by the SG – linked to Farm, No and Portion No q Draft regulations do not refer to approved diagrams – only to WGS 84 system q However, MTARB defines a diagram as one prepared by professional land surveyor and approved by the SG q Competency requirements for sketch plans defining prospecting/mining areas? Likely to be professional land/mine surveyors

IMPACT OF SURVEY DIAGRAMS ON SECURITY OF TENURE SAFETY AND HEALTH q Accurate location IMPACT OF SURVEY DIAGRAMS ON SECURITY OF TENURE SAFETY AND HEALTH q Accurate location of boundary pillars SECURITY OF TENURE q Errors in transformation of old coordinates to WGS 84 – Inaccuracies result in insecurity of title – Especially important for conversion of old-order rights q Boundary disputes and overlapping areas q 1967 Mining Rights Act required diagram of lease area approved by SG, which is the ideal

2002 COMMUNAL LAND RIGHTS BILL INTENT (Affecting the new MPRDA) q To give legal 2002 COMMUNAL LAND RIGHTS BILL INTENT (Affecting the new MPRDA) q To give legal recognition to customary and other communal land tenure systems q To provide for leases of communal land for commercial developmental purposes SECTION 22: COMMUNAL LAND REGISTER q Registrar of Deeds must register Communal General Plan and open Communal Land Register SECTION 30: LEASES FOR DEVELOPMENT PURPOSES q For previously called ‘Trust Land’, Minister may only act on behalf of community with the community’s consent

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 2002 MINERAL AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT ACT State sovereignty over mineral resources FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 2002 MINERAL AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT ACT State sovereignty over mineral resources Empower HDSA Provide for security of tenure Administrative justice Lawfulness, reasonableness & fairness

FOR THE EXPLORATIONISTS Maximum duration 2 + 0 = 2 years May not be FOR THE EXPLORATIONISTS Maximum duration 2 + 0 = 2 years May not be transferred, ceded, let, sublet, alienated, disposed of or encumbered by mortgage No registration requirement E NC SA AI ION NN S IS CO M RE PER Applicant has… Financial ability Technical ability Work programme

PROSPECTING APPLICATIONS Minerals Act (1990) Applicant had… Ability Plan (Technical) EMP Permission from MR PROSPECTING APPLICATIONS Minerals Act (1990) Applicant had… Ability Plan (Technical) EMP Permission from MR IT M R E P duration Minimum 1 year M & P R D Act (2002) Applicant has… Ability Programme (Plus economic) EMP T H IG R Maximum duration 5 + 3 = 8 years

THE IN-BETWEENER Maximum duration 3 + 2 = 5 years No exclusion, unfair competition THE IN-BETWEENER Maximum duration 3 + 2 = 5 years No exclusion, unfair competition or hoarding of rights N IO NT T TE MI RE R PE Applicant has… Completed prospecting Completed feasibility study Not feasible EMP MAY NOT BE TRANSFERRED, CEDED, LEASED, SOLD, MORTGAGED OR ENCUMBERED IN ANY WAY!

MINING APPLICATIONS Minerals Act (1990) Applicant had… E C N E Ability Plan EMP MINING APPLICATIONS Minerals Act (1990) Applicant had… E C N E Ability Plan EMP Permission from MR IC duration L Minimum 2 years M & P R D Act (2002) Applicant has… Successfully prospected Ability Mining, Finance, Social EMP Complied with Charter T H IG Maximum duration R 30 + 30… years

SMALL-SCALE MINING Minerals Act (1990) Issued if… Mining on limited scale Plan EMP Permission SMALL-SCALE MINING Minerals Act (1990) Issued if… Mining on limited scale Plan EMP Permission from MR IT M Rduration Maximum E P 2 + 2… years M & P R D Act (2002) Issued if… Life less than 2 years Area less than 1. 5 ha EMP IT M R E P Maximum duration 2 +(1+1+1) = 5 years MAY NOT BE LEASED OR SOLD, BUT IS MORTGAGEABLE

OLD ORDER RIGHTS MINING PROSPECT UNUSED Rights Authorizations Former TBVC PRIVATELY-OWNED MINERAL RIGHTS INCLUDED OLD ORDER RIGHTS MINING PROSPECT UNUSED Rights Authorizations Former TBVC PRIVATELY-OWNED MINERAL RIGHTS INCLUDED IN OLD-ORDER CATEGORY Valid and active Valid but not active

TRANSITIONAL ARRANGEMENTS OBJECTIVES Security of tenure for active properties Holders of old-order rights to TRANSITIONAL ARRANGEMENTS OBJECTIVES Security of tenure for active properties Holders of old-order rights to comply Open access to (non-active) properties OLD-ORDER RIGHTS PROSPECTING: Within 2 years Minister MUST MINING: Within 5 years Minister MUST convert UNUSED Valid for 1 year, Minister MAY convert ALTERNATIVES

REGISTRATION REQUIREMENTS Registration at Mining Titles Office q Within 30 days after a new REGISTRATION REQUIREMENTS Registration at Mining Titles Office q Within 30 days after a new prospecting and mining right has been granted in terms of the MPRDA q Surface right permits for the use of land are preserved but must be registered within one year after the MPRDA took effect MPRDA does not require registration of q Reconnaissance permissions, mining permits and retention permits q However, MTRAB provides for “registration of all mineral and petroleum titles and all other related rights, deeds and documents”

2003 MINING TITLE REGISTRATION AMENDMENT BILL PREAMBLE Amending Mining Titles Registration Act (Act 16 2003 MINING TITLE REGISTRATION AMENDMENT BILL PREAMBLE Amending Mining Titles Registration Act (Act 16 of 1967), rather than drafting a new Act To regulate the registration of mineral and petroleum titles and rights connected therewith To align 1967 Act and other deeds records and documents with MPRDA of 2002

2003 MINING TITLE REGISTRATION AMENDMENT BILL DEFINITIONS: HOLDER, MINING RIGHT, MINING TITLE q Old 2003 MINING TITLE REGISTRATION AMENDMENT BILL DEFINITIONS: HOLDER, MINING RIGHT, MINING TITLE q Old definitions referring to prior laws deleted q New definitions only recognize rights as defined in MPRDA DEFINITION: RIGHT q Any right held by a deed registered in the Mining Titles Office

2003 MINING TITLE REGISTRATION AMENDMENT BILL SECTION 2 q Establishing a Mineral and Petroleum 2003 MINING TITLE REGISTRATION AMENDMENT BILL SECTION 2 q Establishing a Mineral and Petroleum Titles Registration Office (MPTRO or MTO) q To register all mineral and petroleum titles, related rights, deeds and documents SECTION 3 q MPTRO is the responsibility of the Director-General: Department of Minerals and Energy SECTIONS 4 - 6 q Administration duties of MPTRO officials

2003 MINING TITLE REGISTRATION AMENDMENT BILL SECTION 7: CANCELLATION OF RIGHTS q No registered 2003 MINING TITLE REGISTRATION AMENDMENT BILL SECTION 7: CANCELLATION OF RIGHTS q No registered deed conveying title to any right can be cancelled by DG without a court order; and q Upon cancellation, endorsements must be made on the deed, related documents and registers SECTIONS 8 - 10: ACCESS TO INFORMATION q Any member of the public may inspect public registers and records in MPTRO q Conditions apply – To ensure proper access and preservation of records from damage and loss SECTIONS 11 - 12 q The DG must prepare, open and keep registers of rights/titles – Long overdue

2003 MINING TITLE REGISTRATION AMENDMENT BILL SECTIONS 13 - 18: REGISTRATION ISSUES q Deemed 2003 MINING TITLE REGISTRATION AMENDMENT BILL SECTIONS 13 - 18: REGISTRATION ISSUES q Deemed registered upon date of signature by DG q Transfer or cessions of rights must follow sequence of the successive transactions in the vesting of such rights q Upon transfer or cession, transfer/estate duty is payable q Only conveyancer can prepare and execute deed of transfer or mortgage bond to be registered q Only notary public can prepare and attest a contract or deeds of cession of rights, other than a cession of a mortgage bond, to be registered by DG q Deeds executed by the DG must state the full name, ID or registration number of the holder

2003 MINING TITLE REGISTRATION AMENDMENT BILL SECTIONS 19 - 20: UNDIVIDED SHARES q No 2003 MINING TITLE REGISTRATION AMENDMENT BILL SECTIONS 19 - 20: UNDIVIDED SHARES q No transfer or cession of an undivided share in a right over a defined portion of land can be registered SECTIONS 31 - 40: MORTGAGE BONDS q Registration and cancellation of debt secured over mineral properties SECTIONS 41 - 45: SERVITUDES/CONTRACTS q Must be created by notarial deed q Must contain definition, description and diagram q Deed (with bond – if applicable) to be filed in MPTRO

2003 MINING TITLE REGISTRATION AMENDMENT BILL SECTION 47: LEASES AND SUB-LEASES q Holders must 2003 MINING TITLE REGISTRATION AMENDMENT BILL SECTION 47: LEASES AND SUB-LEASES q Holders must notify DG upon termination SECTION 67: CONVERTED OLD-ORDER RIGHTS q Must be lodged for registration within 30 days of conversion

2003 MINING TITLE REGISTRATION AMENDMENT BILL GENERAL COMMENTS q Detailed regulations required for registration 2003 MINING TITLE REGISTRATION AMENDMENT BILL GENERAL COMMENTS q Detailed regulations required for registration q Surveying: Some areas in SA may not yet be on WGS 84 – Coordinate system must be clearly marked q Closure certificate should include geotechnical report for the 0 – 240 m zone - to be registered against the farm portion – land development where restrictions apply q Deeds Registry system used in old TVL allowing for 1 degree blocks have merits and could be expanded – especially useful when names change q Effective date should correspond with all the other Acts and regulations, not only MPRDA – January 2005 sensible

IN CONCLUSION Compulsory registration of mining and prospecting rights at Mining Titles Office Transfer, IN CONCLUSION Compulsory registration of mining and prospecting rights at Mining Titles Office Transfer, letting, subletting, alienation and encumbrance by mortgage must also be registered Such registration is not new – holders of mineral contracts and rights were very active in registering rights recently, possibly to ensure Constitutional protection