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MIDLANDS STATE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF SURVEYING AND GEOMATICS SVG 101 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF GEOMATICS Lecture Notes 1

MODULE OUTLINE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. INTRODUCTION SPATIAL DATA CAPTURE DATA STORAGE AND PROCESSING DATA STRUCTURING AND QUALITY CONTROL DATA OUTPUT DATA DELIVERY FUTURE OF GEOMATICS EXCURSION TO SURVEYING AND MAPPING ORGANISATION 2

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 3

1. 1 DEFINITIONS What is Geomatics? Derived from two words: Geo- Matics Geo- earth Matics – mathematical There are many definitions of Geomatics: 4

Cont’d • It has been said that geomatics is many things to many people, but it is generally accepted as the science and technology of acquiring and managing information about our world and its environment. The name geomatics emerged several years ago in Canada. The term represents the rapidly changing and expanding world of land information management 5

Cont’d Definitions of Geomatics on the Web: • The science and technology of gathering, analyzing, interpreting, distributing and using geographical information. www. its. umn. edu/education/modules/gps/glossa ry. html • Geomatics is the discipline of gathering, storing, processing, and delivering of geographic information, or spatially referenced information. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Geomatics 6

Cont’d • The mathematics of the earth; the science of the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data, especially instrumental data, relating to the earth's surface. (Oxford English Dictionary) Geomatics Engineering is a modern discipline, which integrates acquisition, modelling, analysis, and management of spatially referenced data, i. e. data identified according to their locations. Based on the scientific framework of geodesy, it uses terrestrial, marine, airborne, and satellite-based sensors to acquire spatial and other data. It includes the process of transforming spatially referenced data from different sources into common information systems with welldefined accuracy characteristics. 7

Cont’d • Geomatics is the science and technology of gathering, analyzing, interpreting, distributing and using geographic information. Geomatics encompasses a broad range of disciplines that can be brought together to create a detailed but understandable picture of the physical world and our place in it. 8

Cont’d • Geomatics is both an applied science and a professional discipline and it refers to the integrated approach of measurement, analysis, management and display of spatial data. (UCT) • Geomatics is the science and technology of land surveying, mapping and spatial data handling (usually geographical data about the earth). (UNC) 9

Cont’d • Geomatics is a scientific discipline which deals with the measurement, storage, manipulation, analysis and presentation of geo-spatial data. 10

1. 2 Overview of Geomatics process involves the following: DATA CAPTURE DATA PROCESSING DATA OUTPUT VERIFICATION 11

1. 3 DISCPLINES IN GEOMATICS Geomatics encompasses a broad range of disciplines that can be brought together to create a detailed but understandable picture of the physical world and our place in it. These disciplines include: – – – – Surveying Photogrammetry Remote Sensing Geodesy Cartography geographic information systems (GIS) global positioning system (GPS) 12

1. 4 Application areas in Geomatics • • the environment land management and reform development planning infrastructure management natural resource monitoring sustainable development coastal zone management and mapping 13

1. 5 CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN GEOMATICS • • • Land Surveyors Mine Surveyors Engineering Surveyors Geodesists Photogrammetrists GIS specialists Remote Sensing specialists Cartographers Planners Environmentalist Software Engineers 14

GEOMATICS PROFESSIONAL INSTITUTES INTERNATIONAL • FIG: International Federation of Surveyors • ISPRS: International Association of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing • GSDI: Global Spatial Data Infrastructure • PLATO (SA) • GISSA (SA) • RICS (UK) • ICA: International Cartographers Association NATIONAL • • SIZ: Survey Institute of Zimbabwe CLSZ: Council of Land Surveyors Zimbabwe ZIE: Zimbabwe Institute of Engineers REIZ: Real Estate Institute of Zimbabwe 15

Assignment 1 Describe in detail how Geomatics can be applied in the following areas giving examples: – – – – – Medicine Agriculture Archeology Accommodation Land Reform Mining Olympics Games Music Industry Natural Resource Management Wild Life Management 16

CHAPTER 2 SPATIAL DATA CAPTURE 17

GEOMATICS OVERVIEW DATA SOURCES DATA DELIVERY DATA CAPTURE DATA STORAGE DATA STRUCTURING AND QUALITY CONTOL DATA OUTPUT (CARTOGRAPHY) ANALOGUE MAPS 18

2. 1 DATA SOURCES There are basically 3 sources of data: I. Primary – Data from scratch – DIY II. Secondary – Existing data – Readily available – Buy from other organizations – From within the organization III. Administration records – Subset of secondary – Bi-product data from within or other organizations 19

Factors to consider • As you go down from I to II time and cost of doing a survey increase • As you move from III going up applicability and suitability decrease • Field work is very slow and expensive but accuracy is very high 20

2. 2 DATA FORMAT • Digital form – Most valuable form since this can be used in many forms • Hard copy – Maps – Documents Before going out to collect data, always look in-house for data collected by organization or by-product for normal operations for other project to minister cost and time

2. 3 MAJOR DATA SOURCES • Maps • Drawings usually engineering drawings • Aerial Photographs • Satellite Imagery • Paper records and documents • DATABASES • Government Department • Commercial sector • Field work Can be found in digital or hard copy format 22

2. 4 Administrative Data Sources Roads – Department of Roads Place names – DA, Public services Vegetation – Forest Commission, DNR Dams/Rivers – ZINWA Historical Places – Museums and Monuments Land Class/Bore holes – AREX Railway lines – NRZ Aerodromes – Department of aviation Hospitals – MHCW Utilities – PTC, ZESA National Parks – Department of National Parks Schools – Ministry of Education Restricted areas – Ministry of Defence Mines – Ministry of Mines Demographic data – CSO Filling stations – Private sector 23

2. 5 DATA CAPTURE TECHNIQUES 24

2. 5. 1 ADMINISTRATIVE DATA CAPTURE RECLASSIFICATION DIGITAL DATA MANUSCRIPTS AND MAPS VERIFIED DATA DIGITISING PROCESS DATA STORAGE EDIT LISTS (you might not be allowed to publish something on your map so you edit) 25

2. 5. 2 DIGITIZING AND SCANNING • This is the process of converting analogue data usually hardcopy maps into their digital format • Data capturing in any project cost about 80% of the total cost of the project. • In Zimbabwe (third world), we are in the processing of converting data into digital form • Hardcopy – maps, films, manuscripts, orthophotomaps • You can digitize using a table digitizer 26

TABLE DIGITIZER VECTORISE SCAN RASTER CLEAN RASTER HARD COPY TABLE DIGITIZER LISTS VECTOR STORAGE VECTOR PUNCHING 27

SCANNING VECTORISE SCAN RASTER CLEAN RASTER HARD COPY TABLE DIGITIZER VECTOR STORAGE VECTOR PUNCHING 28

VECTOR VS RASTER • The scanner captures everything on the map • Need to clean the raster map • Under vectorizing we have – Automatic – Semi automatic – manual 29

2. 5. 3 FIELD WORK • This involves making direct measurements from scratch in the field and there are so many techniques which can be employed: – Astronomy – Geodesy – Plane surveying – GPS – Photogrammetry – Remote Sensing 30

Cont’d Astronomy Basically is the use of stars to determine your position on the earth. It’s a very old system but where surveying originated. Geodesy This is a specialized discipline which is devoted to the size and shape of the earth GPS Global Positioning System – this uses satellites to determine your position on the earth 31

Cont’d Photogrammetry Basically it is the use of aerial photographs to measure features on the earth’s surface Plane Surveys CAD drawings Tacheometry Engineering surveys Control – Resection, Levelling, Traversing etc You can use hard copy maps in your field check You can use any technique or a combination 32

Field work PLOT HARDCOPY DATA PROCESSING FIELD WORK EDITED MEASUREMENT OR PROCESSED DATA STORAGE 33

FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE THE CHOICE OF A TECHNIQUE Equipment availability – Buy, Hire, use that which Cost – what is the cost of using the equipment or even what we have, the cost of buying or hiring, some are very expensive e. g. Remote Sensing and GPS, the most Human Resources – (skills base), are you going to have someone to do the job, internal, external (consultants), Purpose – requirements (format), final product (what will it be be) Accuracy – on a map, resolution 34

Cont’d Speed – plane surveys are the most accurate but its very slow - GPS is very fast, maybe one of the fastest but its accuracy is low Weather condition – to a smaller extend e. g Photogrammetry Accessibility – in other areas you cannot reach Curvature – Plane < 250 km 2 - Geodetic > 250 km 2 35

CHAPTER 3 DATA STORAGE AND PROCESSING 36

Characteristics of Spatial Data • Basically geographic features are recognized by two types of data: – Spatial data – Attribute data • Spatial data Considered as geographic data and it describes or specifies location and answers the question [where] and the map is perhaps the most familiar form in which spatial data is represented 37

Cont’d • A map consists of a group of points, lines, and polygons/areas that are positioned with reference to a common reference coordinate system • This is represented in two dimensional so that it is easily portrayed on a flat sheet of paper • The map states the data and present the data to the user • Each feature has a location that must be in a unique way • Locations are recorded in form of a coordinate system like latitude and longitude, xyz or any state plane coordinate system 38

Cont’d • In some cases the coordinate of one system can be transformed mathematically into the coordinate of another system • Attribute data This is called the descriptive data and it spacifies characteristics at the location and answers the question [what? Or how much? ] Attribute data is normally stored in tables. 39

DIGITAL TOPO CADASTRAL DATABASE Aerial Photographs Satellite Images Digital Cad. Maps GPS/Field Geodetic Data Paper Maps Other Digital Data Digital Topo Cadastral Database GIS Data (DTDB, DCDB) Mosaic Images/Orthophotos/Image Maps DTM/DEM, Digital Cartographic Database Geodetic Database, Hardcopy Maps Gvt. Departments Private Sectort, NGOs Large Scale Maps Medium Scale Maps Small Scale Maps Tourist Maps 40

Data Storage • • • Types of data stored Formats Spatial Integration Retrieval and Storage Data storage devices Data storage modes Security Back up Access Levels Create new information 41

Data Bases • • • Centralized DB Distributed DB Partitioned DB Replicated DB Duplicated DB 42

CHAPTER 4 DATA STRUCTURING AND QUALITY CONTROL 43

DATA STRUCTURING • • • Data cleaning Building topology Superimpose layers Add attributes Format conversion Media conversion Georeferencing Registration Rectification Conflation 44

Quality Control • • Systems for QC Reducing/Minimising errors Reduction of costs Ensuring conformality to: – Requirements – Standards • Gross errors 45

Data Structuring and Quality Control Data Cleaning Data Storage Cleaned Layers Overlayed Layers Quality Control Topographical Layers Maps Manuscripts Adding Attributes 46

DATA STRUCTURING • • • Cleaning Edge matching Data reduction Sampling Conflation Reclassify 47

CHAPTER 5 DATA OUTPUT CARTOGRAPHY 48

DATA OUTPUT: CARTOGRAPHY • • • Cartographic compilation Graphic design Film plotting Rasterizing map products Plate making Printing 49

CARTOGRAPHY MANUSCRIPTS Carto. Comp. Graphic Design Map Data Film Making Data Storage Rasterizing Raster Products Films Plate Making Plates Printing Printed Maps 50

CHAPTER 6 DATA DELIVERY 51

DATA DELIVERY • • • Data extraction Processing Quality control Copy to required format Layer selection Selection on attributes Clipping Transformation Format conversion 52

Data Delivery System Client Orders Extracted Data Processed Data Corrected Data Copying to Media Stored Data Office Data Delivery Product Information Online Data 53

Data Delivery Issues • System keeps an audit of: – How much data copied – By whom – To whom • Users have different access privileges 54

CHAPTER 7 FUTURE OF GEOMATICS 55

Future of Geomatics • Clients needs – Clients are more affluent – Demanding more complicated products – Require effective and efficient delivery • Technical development – Hardware – Software – Off-the-shelf products – New ways/methods • Skills development – New skills – Skills base expanding 56

Cont’d • New Disciplines – Education – Training – CPD • Multi-discipline – Different professional coming together to solve common problems – Teams/working groups – Synergies 57