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Michael P King Public Defender SEPARATE TRIALS The rule & the proviso to the Michael P King Public Defender SEPARATE TRIALS The rule & the proviso to the rule

Section 21 a general gateway Under section 21(2) Criminal Procedure Act (NSW): ‘If of Section 21 a general gateway Under section 21(2) Criminal Procedure Act (NSW): ‘If of the opinion: a) that an accused person may be prejudiced or embarrassed in his or her defence by reason of being charged with more than one offence on the same indictment, or the court may order a separate trial of any count or counts in the indictment. ’

Section 21 a general gateway Under section 21(2) Criminal Procedure Act (NSW): ‘If of Section 21 a general gateway Under section 21(2) Criminal Procedure Act (NSW): ‘If of the opinion: a) that an accused person may be prejudiced or embarrassed in his or her defence by reason of being charged with more than one offence on the same indictment, or the court may order a separate trial of any count or counts in the indictment. ’

Section 21 a general gateway Under section 21(2) Criminal Procedure Act (NSW): ‘If of Section 21 a general gateway Under section 21(2) Criminal Procedure Act (NSW): ‘If of the opinion: b) that for any other reason it is desirable to direct that an accused person be tried separately for any one of more offences charged in an indictment, the court may order a separate trial of any count or counts in the indictment. ’

Section 21 a general gateway Under section 21(2) Criminal Procedure Act (NSW): ‘If of Section 21 a general gateway Under section 21(2) Criminal Procedure Act (NSW): ‘If of the opinion: b) that for any other reason it is desirable to direct that an accused person be tried separately for any one of more offences charged in an indictment, the court may order a separate trial of any count or counts in the indictment. ’

England ancester of s 21 Under section 5(3) Indictments Act 1915 ‘Where, before trial, England ancester of s 21 Under section 5(3) Indictments Act 1915 ‘Where, before trial, or at any stage of a trial, the court is of opinion that a person accused may be prejudiced or embarrassed in his defence by reason of being charged with more than one offence in the same indictment, or that for any other reason it is desirable to direct that the person should be tried separately for any one or more offences charged in an indictment, the court may order a separate trial of any count or counts of such indictment.

England ancester of s 21 Under section 5(3) Indictments Act 1915 ‘Where, before trial, England ancester of s 21 Under section 5(3) Indictments Act 1915 ‘Where, before trial, or at any stage of a trial, the court is of opinion that a person accused may be prejudiced or embarrassed in his defence by reason of being charged with more than one offence in the same indictment, or that for any other reason it is desirable to direct that the person should be tried separately for any one or more offences charged in an indictment, the court may order a separate trial of any count or counts of such indictment.

The Rule case 1. Where the Crown case is that the accused persons were The Rule case 1. Where the Crown case is that the accused persons were parties to some form of joint enterprise, the starting point is that they should be tried jointly.

The Rule case 2. The ordering of separate trials is not automatic just because The Rule case 2. The ordering of separate trials is not automatic just because there will be some evidence led in a joint trial that will be inadmissible against one accused.

The Rule case 3. The rule applies particularly in cases when two or more The Rule case 3. The rule applies particularly in cases when two or more coaccused attempt to place the blame on each other;

The Rule case 4. It is highly desirable that the same verdict and the The Rule case 4. It is highly desirable that the same verdict and the same judgment should be returned against all those concerned in the same offences. That is to say, there is a need to avoid a situation, which might commonly arise where inconsistent verdicts might be given because of the holding of separate trials. It is not simply a question of saving time and money, although this is a consideration that may be taken into account.

The Rule Gibbons & Proctor It is not enough to say that counsel could The Rule Gibbons & Proctor It is not enough to say that counsel could have defended them more easily if they had been tried separately. There is no ground for thinking that there was any miscarriage of justice. There may have been many things made clear to the jury which would not have been made clear if the prosecution had been embarrassed by having to deal with the two cases separately. The whole story was before the jury of what went on in the house where the two appellants lived together. There is no ground for thinking that either of them was improperly prejudiced by their being tried together.

The Rule Herron J speaks ‘of [the accused], two have blamed one and the The Rule Herron J speaks ‘of [the accused], two have blamed one and the remaining one …blamed the other two. In the light of commonsense and reason, it might be contrary really to the true interests of justice if the whole picture was not presented to the jury at the same time’. Kerekes ‘If separate trials were had, very often only one half of the picture could be presented to the jury. In order to do complete justice, juries are entitled to see and hear all of those who are alleged to have acted in common purpose, and it is neither a rule of law nor of practice that were an essential part of one accused’sdefence amounts to an attack on a co-accused there must be separate trials’. Beavan

The Rule Hunt J replies • Kerekes and Beavan are no longer binding • The Rule Hunt J replies • Kerekes and Beavan are no longer binding • There is a fallacy in the notion that juries are entitled to see and hear all those who have acted in common purpose • Each accused will make a dock statement and this will be inadmissible against the other • The jury will be told they should disregard the statement and only look at the half picture which is admissible. Farrell & Cotton

The Rule The High Court decides King CJ was right when he said in The Rule The High Court decides King CJ was right when he said in Collie, ‘the interests of justice demand that the jury should have the whole picture presented to them and not half of it, and should see the person on whom blame is sought to be cast as well as the person seeking to cast it. ’ Webb & Hay

The Rule case 5. There is also to some lesser degree the question the The Rule case 5. There is also to some lesser degree the question the general administration of justice and of balancing prejudice with convenience with the latter identified as the efficient dispatch of trials, the conserving of costs, and the avoidance of inconvenience to witnesses by having to attend a number of trials

The Rule case 6. In determining the issue as to whether a separate trial The Rule case 6. In determining the issue as to whether a separate trial should be ordered, the court must take into account not only the interests of the applicant but also the interests of the administration of justice. In fact, it is the interests of justice as a whole that are to be the governing factor. But, of course, among those interests are the interests of the accused.

The Rule case 7. In cases where separate trials are not ordered, the risks The Rule case 7. In cases where separate trials are not ordered, the risks to an accused must be obviated by express and careful directions to the jury as to the use that they make of the evidence as it concerns each accused

The Proviso genesis In cases where the evidence against one accused is significantly different The Proviso genesis In cases where the evidence against one accused is significantly different from the evidence against another, then separate trials should be ordered. Guimond We would encourage the adoption of such a practice. Darby

The Proviso Middis The evidence against the applicant is significantly weaker than, and different The Proviso Middis The evidence against the applicant is significantly weaker than, and different to, that which is admissible against another coaccused with whom he is to be tried ‘[Guimond] proceeded on the clear basis that separate trials should only be granted in such a case where the evidence admissible against the second accused (to whom the prejudice is caused) is substantially weaker than that admissible against the first. ’ Dellapatrona I interpolate that, with unfeigned respect, I am doubtful that the weakness of the applicant's case as compared with that of the coaccused against whom it is proposed to tender the prejudicial evidence can be a relevant consideration. Pham

The Proviso Middis The evidence against the other accused contains material which is highly The Proviso Middis The evidence against the other accused contains material which is highly prejudicial to the applicant, although not admissible against him

The Proviso Middis There is a real risk that the weaker Crown case against The Proviso Middis There is a real risk that the weaker Crown case against the applicant will be made immeasurably stronger by reason of the prejudicial material The term ‘immeasurably’means ‘significant although not incommensurable’ Pham

The Proviso positive injustice The applicant bears the onus of establishing the reasons for The Proviso positive injustice The applicant bears the onus of establishing the reasons for the making of an order for separate trials The applicant must demonstrate that there is a real risk that a positive injustice would be caused to him as a consequence of a joint trial One way of demonstrating positive injustice is if by placing the irrelevant and prejudicial material on the scales it would be likely to turn a potential acquittal into a conviction Pham

Relevant matters & irrelevant matters • Guilt by association • Where admissions by a Relevant matters & irrelevant matters • Guilt by association • Where admissions by a co-accused are made • Where the accused has a minor role • Where an accused is claiming duress • Where inadmissible ERISPs back up other witnesses • Where there is evidence of bad character • Where there is a combination of factors

Irrelevant matters & irrelevant matters • Where there is bad character of an accused Irrelevant matters & irrelevant matters • Where there is bad character of an accused or good character of a co-accused • Where tactical considerations may result in an unjust verdict • Cut-throat defences • Other out of court statements by co-accused • Where inadmissible ERISPs back up other witnesses

Protective Directions Gilbert ‘Put bluntly, unless we act on the assumption that criminal trials Protective Directions Gilbert ‘Put bluntly, unless we act on the assumption that criminal trials act on the evidence and in accordance with the directions of the trial judge, there is no point in having criminal jury trials’ Mc. Hugh J ‘The system of criminal justice as administered by appellate courts, requires the assumption that, as a general rule, juries understand follow, the directions given to them by trial judges. It does not involve the assumption that their decision making is unaffected by matters of possible prejudice’ Gleeson CJ Gummow J

Protective Directions & model directions • A direction as to separate consideration of the Protective Directions & model directions • A direction as to separate consideration of the cases concerning each accused • A direction that the evidence of an accused’s recorded police interview is not available for consideration in a coaccused’s case; and • A direction as to the impermissible use of evidence of bad character of an accused, that is, the jury must not engage in propensity reasoning White & ors (No. 1)

Other Jurisdictions & Victoria Section 193 Criminal Procedure Act 2009; 2) If an indictment Other Jurisdictions & Victoria Section 193 Criminal Procedure Act 2009; 2) If an indictment names more than one accused, the court may order that charges against a specified accused be tried separately. 3) The court may make an order under subsection … (2) if the court considers that— a) the case of an accused may be prejudiced because the accused is charged with more than one offence in the same indictment; or b) a trial with the co-accused would prejudice the fair trial of the accused; or c) for any other reason it is appropriate to do so.

Other Jurisdictions & Victoria Section 193 Criminal Procedure Act 2009; 2) If an indictment Other Jurisdictions & Victoria Section 193 Criminal Procedure Act 2009; 2) If an indictment names more than one accused, the court may order that charges against a specified accused be tried separately. 3) The court may make an order under subsection … (2) if the court considers that— a) the case of an accused may be prejudiced because the accused is charged with more than one offence in the same indictment; or b) a trial with the co-accused would prejudice the fair trial of the accused; or c) for any other reason it is appropriate to do so.

Other Jurisdictions & South Australia section 278(2) Criminal Law Consolidation Act 1935: Where before Other Jurisdictions & South Australia section 278(2) Criminal Law Consolidation Act 1935: Where before trial, or at any stage of a trial, the court is of the opinion that an accused person may be prejudiced or embarrassed in his defence by reason of being charged with more than one offence in the same information or that, for any other reason, it is desirable to direct that an accused person should be tried separately for any one or more offences charged in an information the court may order a separate trial of any count or counts of the information.

Other Jurisdictions & South Australia section 278(2) Criminal Law Consolidation Act 1935: Where before Other Jurisdictions & South Australia section 278(2) Criminal Law Consolidation Act 1935: Where before trial, or at any stage of a trial, the court is of the opinion that an accused person may be prejudiced or embarrassed in his defence by reason of being charged with more than one offence in the same information or that, for any other reason, it is desirable to direct that an accused person should be tried separately for any one or more offences charged in an information the court may order a separate trial of any count or counts of the information.

Case Studies & VU PHAM HAZAIRIN ISKANDER HARPREET SINGH WHITE &ORS (NO. 1) SAMUEL Case Studies & VU PHAM HAZAIRIN ISKANDER HARPREET SINGH WHITE &ORS (NO. 1) SAMUEL LOCKETT PETER KEARNS ETHAN MCKELLAR

Practical Considerations & South Australia • Do it early • Analyse the evidence carefully Practical Considerations & South Australia • Do it early • Analyse the evidence carefully • Prepare detailed written submissions • Consider a 5 F appeal • Review the evidence during the trial

© Michael P King | Marion Benjamin 2015 & South Australia fin © Michael P King | Marion Benjamin 2015 & South Australia fin