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METROLOGY DPT 312 PREPARED BY: CIK ROSHALIZA HAMIDON roshaliza@unimap. edu. my 0194754105 049852639 ROSHALIZA METROLOGY DPT 312 PREPARED BY: CIK ROSHALIZA HAMIDON [email protected] edu. my 0194754105 049852639 ROSHALIZA HAMIDONMETROLOGY-010809

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO METROLOGY & QUALITY ROSHALIZA HAMIDONMETROLOGY-010809 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO METROLOGY & QUALITY ROSHALIZA HAMIDONMETROLOGY-010809

OUTLINE • • • Overview Metrology & Measurement The uses of measurement Quality Measure OUTLINE • • • Overview Metrology & Measurement The uses of measurement Quality Measure of Quality Inspection What to inspect? ? Why we need for Quality and inspection? Metrology and Quality Control ROSHALIZA HAMIDONMETROLOGY-010809

Overview • The old saying ‘ measure it twice and cut it once ’……. Overview • The old saying ‘ measure it twice and cut it once ’……. • The measurements we make with accuracy and precision reduce the waste of will materials and will further contribute to the production of high qualityitems ROSHALIZA HAMIDONMETROLOGY-010809

Metrology and Measurement • Metrology comes from Greek word ‘metron’ (measure) and –logy. • Metrology and Measurement • Metrology comes from Greek word ‘metron’ (measure) and –logy. • Metrology is the science of measurement and measurement is the language of science (language to communicate about size, quantity, position, condition and time • Metrology includes all theoretical and practical aspects of measurement • Measurement is a procedure in which an unknown quantity compared to a known standard an , using accepted and consistent system of units ROSHALIZA HAMIDONMETROLOGY-010809

Figure 1. 1 This derivation of the Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci, depicts Figure 1. 1 This derivation of the Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci, depicts nine historical units of measurement: the Yard, the Span, the Cubit, the Flemish Ell, the English Ell, the French Ell, the Fathom, the Hand , and the Foot. The Vitruvian man was drawn to scale, so the units depicted are displayed with their proper historical ratios. ROSHALIZA HAMIDONMETROLOGY-010809

Figure 1 -2 Without metrology there is no science. This principle has been recognize Figure 1 -2 Without metrology there is no science. This principle has been recognize since the early years of human history, as these examples of fundamental quantities show. Each era produced its equivalent. ROSHALIZA HAMIDONMETROLOGY-010809

Metrology and Measurement (cont’) • In manufacturing, metrology is defined as the measurement of Metrology and Measurement (cont’) • In manufacturing, metrology is defined as the measurement of dimensions: length, thickness, depth, diameter, angle, flatness, straightness, roundness and surface roughness • Why we need measurement? ? 1. To make things 2. To control the way other people to make things 3. For scientific description ROSHALIZA HAMIDONMETROLOGY-010809

The uses of measurement To make things To control manufacture For progress ROSHALIZA HAMIDONMETROLOGY-010809 The uses of measurement To make things To control manufacture For progress ROSHALIZA HAMIDONMETROLOGY-010809

Quality • • Quality is a very important aspect of manufacturing. Definition of quality Quality • • Quality is a very important aspect of manufacturing. Definition of quality i. Deming - “non-faulty systems” ii. Juran - “fitness for use” iii. Crosby - “conformance to requirements” • Customer’s view (more subjective) – – • Producer’s view – – – • the quality of the design (look, feel, function) product does what’s intended and lasts conformance to requirements (Crosby) costs of quality (prevention, scrap, warranty) increasing conformance raises profits Government’s view – – products should be safe not harmful to environment ROSHALIZA HAMIDONMETROLOGY-010809

Measure of Quality ROSHALIZA HAMIDONMETROLOGY-010809 Measure of Quality ROSHALIZA HAMIDONMETROLOGY-010809

Inspection • An inspection is, most generally, an organized examination or formal evaluation exercise. Inspection • An inspection is, most generally, an organized examination or formal evaluation exercise. • It involves the measurements, tests, and gauges applied to certain characteristics in regard to an object or activity. • The results are usually compared to specified requirements and standards determining for whether the item or activity is in line with these targets (wikipedia) ROSHALIZA HAMIDONMETROLOGY-010809

What to inspect? • Inspection specific to PRODUCTS § Electronic parts (circuits, chips, etc. What to inspect? • Inspection specific to PRODUCTS § Electronic parts (circuits, chips, etc. ) § Machine elements (engines, brakes, gears, etc. ) § Heat and thermodynamic components (engines, fuel injectors § Medical and Bio-related products (implants, dental devices, surgical parts, etc. ) • Inspection specific to PROCESSES § Chip removal processes (turning, milling, drilling, etc. ) § Chipless manufacturing (casting, molding, forging, etc. ) § Non-traditional methods (EDM, ECM, ultrasonics, etc. ) ROSHALIZA HAMIDONMETROLOGY-010809

Why We Need for Quality and Inspection? ? • Quality is a very important Why We Need for Quality and Inspection? ? • Quality is a very important aspect of manufacturing. • Needed for interchangeable manufacturing. • Basic concept of standardization and mass production • Components of a product must fit together, assemble properly and be replaceable • Quality should be built into a product. • Prevention of defects is a major goal ROSHALIZA HAMIDONMETROLOGY-010809

Metrology and quality control • Certification to ISO 9000 standards has become a primary Metrology and quality control • Certification to ISO 9000 standards has become a primary requirement for both manufacturing and service oriented organization • Calibration and control of test, measurement and inspection equipment is one of the more important requirements given in standard • Requirement of ISO 9001: 2000 • Metrology, the science of measurement, plays an important roles in checking if specifications are met, and is needed to develop experimental data for analyzing a process • The quality of goods and services offered is highly dependent on reliable measurement. ROSHALIZA HAMIDONMETROLOGY-010809

References • C. l. Dotson, Fundamentals of Dimensional Metrology, Thomson Delmar Learning, 2006 • References • C. l. Dotson, Fundamentals of Dimensional Metrology, Thomson Delmar Learning, 2006 • A. T. Bozdana, PP, Engineering Metrology and Quality Control, Mechanical Engineering University of Gaziantep • Analysis of Material Removal • G. M. S de Silva, Basic Metrology for ISO 9000 certification, Butterworth Heinemann, 2002 ROSHALIZA HAMIDONMETROLOGY-010809