- Количество слайдов: 21
MESOAMERICA: MAYA, AZTEC, INCA
ESSENTIAL QUESTION: What are the similarities and differences between the three Mesoamerican civilizations?
GEOGRAPHY *PG. 385* -North America and South America make up the Americas region -North America: -mountains, deserts, plains, forests -north is cold and icy -south is warmer -Mesoamerica: -southern part of modern Mexico and northern countries of Central America -rain forests -volcanoes (create fertile soil) -farming is good -South America: -Andes Mountains on western shore -Amazon rain forest east of Andes (largest rain forest in the world-35% of South America-estimated producer of 50% of world’s oxygen!) -Amazon River (west to east-2 nd longest river in the world)
MAYA AZTEC *PG. 411* -Mesoamerica around 1000 BC -thick forests (hard to farm, but lots of animals and resources) -farmers from northern Mexico who migrated south in the 1100 s -all good farmland was taken, so they hired themselves out as skilled fighters INCA *PG. 423* -based civilization on advances from earlier people (terrace farming in highlands and irrigation farming along coast)
TRADE & ECONOMY -first settlers in Americas were nomadic -small villages formed and people started growing maize, beans, squash, potatoes (South America)
TRADE & ECONOMY cont’d. MAYA *PG. 391* AZTEC INCA *PG. 423* -Trade grew and population grew -lowlands: cotton, rubber trees, cacao beans (chocolate was known as food of the gods) -highlands: jade and obsidian -big cities by 200 AD -Aztec economy was based on tributes conquered tribes were required to pay (cotton, gold, food) -built causeways (raised roads above water) to help with trade -people had to pay the government in labor (no taxes…) -raised llamas for meat and wool -no merchants or markets in the Inca Empire (the government would distribute goods — only got two sets of clothes-one formal and one casual and would wear until they literally fell apart)
POLITICS & GOVERNMENT MAYA *PGS. 392 -393* -Classic Age: 250 -900 -cities had pyramids, temples, and palaces -paved plazas for gatherings, canals, ball courts (more on this in Society & Culture) -each city ruled independently (no central government) -Pacal became king at 12 in Palenque and focused on community events and building his grand temple AZTEC *PG. 412* -grew most powerful by 1500 s (had merchant spies to quell rebellion) -capital city was Tenochtitlan -water undrinkable— built aqueducts -farming difficult— built chinampas (floating rafts with soil attached to trees in the water) INCA *PG. 423* -Pachacuti led Incas in 1400 s -rebuilt capital at Cuzco -expanded empire (made leaders of conquered areas move out and then brought in their own loyal leaders—sent children to learn Inca ways and then they returned to rule as an Inca) -established an official language—Quechua only spoken, not written -people had to pay the government in labor (no taxes…)
POLITICS & GOVERNMENT: SOCIAL CLASSES MAYA AZTEC INCA *PGS. 416 -418* -Upper Class controlled all elements of society: king (feather headdresses, -divided into calpullis -Upper Class (Incas from -king (lived in a palace with Cuzco-kings, priests, officials)—did not have a zoo, aviary…) cotton capes, jaguar skins), -nobles (tax collectors and to pay the labor tax— priests, warriors, merchants men could have multiple judges who helped king) (upper class did allow lower wives -priests and warriors class to participate in daily -Lower Class (farmers, (priests kept calendars, religious ceremonies) passed down history, artisans, servants)— -Lower Classes: farming performed ceremonies and most kids did not go to families (had to pay their warriors were respected for school, but some girls rulers with cloth and salt— wealth they brought) were sent to trade had to serve in battle—had -merchants and artisans schools and then sent to to build temples) (merchants became rich serve the king—men -Slaves: orphans, slaves’ through controlling trade could only have one wife children, and people who and artisans through owed money became -No Slaves making goods for the king and nobles) slaves -farmers and slaves (farmers did not own land slaves could be sacrificed to gods if disobeyed)
RELIGION MAYA -worshipped several elemental gods (mostly the creator) -believed gods needed blood to keep from causing disasters or ending the world, so they pierced their tongues and skin (on special occasions, extra blood was needed— human sacrifices— usually slaves or prisoners) AZTEC *PG. 419* -many gods based on elements -sacrifices were required to keep gods strong -some think priests sacrificed as many as 10, 000 people a year in religious ceremonies INCA *PG. 423* -many different gods (conquered people had to worship Inca gods, but could worship their own gods, too) -sun god very important (ceremony at Machu Picchu *PGS. 428 -429*) -mummified kings were revered and often brought to ceremonies -sacrifices (not as many brutal human—llamas, cloth, food, children [left to die in cold-not heart ripped outprobably peasant from conquered people –‘fattened up’ for up to a year before])
Society & Culture ¡ Early civilizations: l Olmec ¡ ¡ ¡ l Mesoamerica in 1200 BC First complex civilization in the Americas Statues of leaders’ heads and gods Maybe had writing and a calendar Traded with nearby villages and along the Pacific coast Ended around 400 BC Chavin (chah-VEEN) ¡ ¡ ¡ First civilization in South America Lasted from 900 -200 BC Woven textiles, stone monuments, pottery
Society & Culture MAYA *PG. 392 -393* • Cities had pyramids, temples and palaces. • Paved plazas for gatherings, canals, ball courts. • Games – players used their heads, shoulders and hips to bounce a rubber ball through a hoop above their heads – the winners received jewels and clothing – the losers were sometimes killed. • Marriage – men at 20, women by age 14. Marriages determined by village matchmaker. AZTEC *PG. 412 * • Oral tradition • Tenochtitlan – capital city INCA *PG. 423 * • Based on advances from earlier people – terrace farming in highlands and irrigation farming along the coast. • Quechua – official language. Only spoken, not written. • No merchants or markets in the Inca Empire. • Only two sets of clothes – one formal and one casual and they were worn until they fell apart.
Society & Culture Tenochtitlan today under Mexico City
Society & Culture ¡ Mayan Ball Game
Society & Culture ¡ Exploring the Mayan Ball Game l www. ballgame. org
Society & Culture: Social Classes MAYA • Remember: • Upper class • Lower class • Slaves AZTEC Remember: • Divided into Calpullis • King • Nobles • Priests and warriors • Merchants and artisans • Farmers and slaves INCA Remember: • Upper class • Lower class • No slaves
Science & Technology MAYA *PG. 398 -399* • Architecture – did not use metal tools. Did not have wheeled vehicles – they cut stone with obsidian and rolled it on logs and lifted it with ropes. • Observatories • 365 days in a year • Moon cycles • Calendars – one for religious ceremonies and one for agriculture • Created a symbol for zero • Writing system similar to hieroglyphics. • Popol Vuh – book where Maya legend and history were written. AZTEC INCA *PG. 420 -421* *PG. 430 -433 * • Knew plants as medicine • Stone bridges and canals – causeways and aqueducts • Pyramid-shaped stone temples • Chinampas – floating rafts of soil attached to trees in the water. • Codex books made of bark or animal skins • Buildings and forts made of stone • Their stonework was so precise that no cement was needed to hold the stone blocks together and several buildings are still being USED TODAY! • System of roads • Two highways connected the entire empire. • Gold and silver jewelry • A life size field of corn made out of gold and silver in a temple courtyard! • Textiles
Collapse MAYA • Mayan civilization disappears. • Why? • Increased warfare • Too many people to feed (people eventually fled cities and moved back to farming countryside) • Kings made too many harsh demands on the people • Drought • Most likely a combination of these • Collapse by 900 s. AZTEC *PG. 413 * INCA *PG. 425 * Europeans arrive in the late 1400 s • Cortes comes from Spain 1519 in search of gold. Moctezuma thinks Cortes is a god who was said to return in 1519. • Moctezuma sends Cortes gifts. In response, Moctezuma is taken prisoner. • Aztecs revolt and drive out the Spanish • Spanish come back in 1521 with Indian allies and kill Moctezuma. • The Aztecs are conquered! After the Inca ruler dies, his two sons fight for power. Atahualpa wins, but the empire is weakened. • Atahualpa was on his way to be crowned and got word that the Spanish had arrived (led by Pizarro) • Atahualpa agrees to meet with Pizarro. • Pizarro tells Atahualpa to convert to Christianity – Atahualpa says NO. ‘ • Pizarro attacked and captured Atahualpa. • Incas try to buy the Spanish off with gold, but they kill Atahualpa anyway. • The Incas are captured!
Collapse ¡ How did the Spanish defeat the powerful Aztecs? l l ¡ Alliances (American Indians – Malintzin – pg. 415) Weapons (Spanish had armor, cannons, swords, and horses – which the Aztecs had never seen before) Geography (Spanish blocked causeways, bridges, and waterways to cut off Tenochtitlan’s drinking water and supplies – Aztecs died of starvation) Disease (Spanish brought smallpox) How did the Spanish defeat the Incas? l l Internal conflict Atahualpa is captured Weapons (Spanish had armor, cannons, swords, and horses) Disease (Spanish brought smallpox)