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Memory and Cognition PSY 324 Topic: Long-term Memory- Structure Dr. Ellen Campana Arizona State Memory and Cognition PSY 324 Topic: Long-term Memory- Structure Dr. Ellen Campana Arizona State University

STM/WM vs. LTM STM/WM vs. LTM

Working Memory Baddeley (2000) Episodic Buffer Input Sensory Memory Central Executive Phonologal Loop Longterm Working Memory Baddeley (2000) Episodic Buffer Input Sensory Memory Central Executive Phonologal Loop Longterm Memory Visuospatial Sketchpad

Long-term Memory Episodic Buffer Input Sensory Memory Central Executive Phonologal Loop Longterm Memory Visuospatial Long-term Memory Episodic Buffer Input Sensory Memory Central Executive Phonologal Loop Longterm Memory Visuospatial Sketchpad

Long-term Memory n Long-term memory is memory for everything except what “just” happened n Long-term Memory n Long-term memory is memory for everything except what “just” happened n Not all long-term-memories are equal n Memories fade over time n Memories can get consolidated n Long-term memory is also involved in shortterm memory (as we’ve discussed a little) Understanding / interpreting what’s happening now n Not always conscious of using long-term memory n

Long-term Memory n WATCH OUT! n n The word “long-term” tends to really mess Long-term Memory n WATCH OUT! n n The word “long-term” tends to really mess people up in this class. We’re using a special definition of “long-term” here (not everyday meaning)! Long-term? n When I was little I went fishing with my dad n YES n I’m working on long multiplication – I carried the 2 n NO n I got a text from Jessie 5 minutes ago n YES – It’s considered LONG-TERM

Long-term vs. Short-term/Working n Murdoch (1962) – Serial Position n Experiment shows that Long-term Long-term vs. Short-term/Working n Murdoch (1962) – Serial Position n Experiment shows that Long-term Memory and Short-term / Working memory are different n Same task, can see both n Affected by different experimental manipulations n Next: Demo n You can do this one or the one at Coglab. Extra credit for the one at Coglab.

Serial Position Curve Demo 1) 2) Make sure you are in “presentation mode” On Serial Position Curve Demo 1) 2) Make sure you are in “presentation mode” On the next slide you will see words appear, one at a time. Try to remember them.

change smock bend grass rust wind chop chair first wrist treat float arch bird change smock bend grass rust wind chop chair first wrist treat float arch bird pen

Serial Position Curve Demo 1) 2) Make sure you are in “presentation mode” On Serial Position Curve Demo 1) 2) Make sure you are in “presentation mode” On the next slide you will see words appear, one at a time. Try to remember them. 3) Now write down all that you can remember

Serial Position Curve Demo 1) 2) Make sure you are in “presentation mode” On Serial Position Curve Demo 1) 2) Make sure you are in “presentation mode” On the next slide you will see words appear, one at a time. Try to remember them. 3) Now write down all that you can remember 4) How many did you get in each group? Group 1: grass, pen, float, bird, treat n Group 2: wrist, first, bend, chair, change n Group 3: chop, smock, arch, wind, rust n

Example Data Pattern # Remembered 1 st 5 2 nd 5 3 rd 5 Example Data Pattern # Remembered 1 st 5 2 nd 5 3 rd 5

Long-term vs. Short-term/Working Long-term vs. Short-term/Working

Long-term vs. Short-term/Working Recency Effect Primacy Effect Long-term vs. Short-term/Working Recency Effect Primacy Effect

Long-term vs. Short-term/Working n Serial Position Curve n When done as Murdoch did, always Long-term vs. Short-term/Working n Serial Position Curve n When done as Murdoch did, always has a “U-shape” n Primacy effect: Increase at the start of the list n Recency effect: Increase at the end of the list n The two effects are due to different types of memory Primacy effect = Long-term Memory n Recency effect = Short-term Memory n

Primacy & Long-term Memory Primacy & Long-term Memory

Recency & Short-term/Working Memory Recency & Short-term/Working Memory

Sources of Evidence n You should know and understand the evidence linking the primacy Sources of Evidence n You should know and understand the evidence linking the primacy effect to LTM and the recency effect to STM n n evidence was in those graphs – can you state it in words? LTM = primacy effect Slowing down presentation increases memory for those first words n Due to more time to rehearse, which means higher likelihood of transfer to LTM n

Sources of Evidence n You should know and understand the evidence linking the primacy Sources of Evidence n You should know and understand the evidence linking the primacy effect to LTM and the recency effect to STM n n evidence was in those graphs – can you state it in words? STM = recency effect Adding delay with articulation before recall reduces memory for later words (but not first words) n Saying something prevents rehearsal with STM / phonological loop of WM n

Coding in STM vs. LTM n STM/WM Auditory coding = sound of a word Coding in STM vs. LTM n STM/WM Auditory coding = sound of a word n Visual coding = appearance of a person n n Long-term Memory n Semantic coding = basic meaning (but detail lost)

Coding in STM vs. LTM n Since STM and LTM use different types of Coding in STM vs. LTM n Since STM and LTM use different types of coding, we need different types of tests n Recall test: participants learn information and then, after delay, they list whatever they can remember n performance depends on a high degree of conscious awareness & memory for the details n Good for STM, but only some types of LTM (strong declarative – you’ll learn this term in the next section)

Coding in STM vs. LTM n Since STM and LTM use different types of Coding in STM vs. LTM n Since STM and LTM use different types of coding, we need different types of tests n Recognition test: participants learn information and then, after a delay, they are shown a list that contains some items from the previous list and some new items. Their task --say which ones they’ve seen. n Performance can be based on memories that are semantically coded n Can even be used to show things are coded

Recognition Tests of Semantic Coding n Read this passage (you will be tested): There Recognition Tests of Semantic Coding n Read this passage (you will be tested): There is an interesting story about the telescope. In Holland, a man named Lippershey was an eyeglass maker. One day his children were playing with some lenses. They discovered that things seemed very close if two lenses were held about a foot apart. Lippershey began experimenting, and his “spyglass” attracted much attention. He sent a letter about it to Galileo, the great Italian scientist. Galileo at once realized the importance of the discovery and set about building an instrument of his own.

Recognition Tests of Semantic Coding n Which of the following sentences did you actually Recognition Tests of Semantic Coding n Which of the following sentences did you actually read in that passage? Galileo, the great Italian scientist, sent him a letter about it. He sent Galileo, the great Italian scientist, a letter about it. INCORRECT DIFFERENT MEANING A letter about it was sent to Galileo, the great Italian scientist INCORRECT BUT SAME MEANING AS CORRECT He sent a letter about it to Galileo, the great Italian scientist. CORRECT

Recognition Test Example Results % Chosen Correct Incorrect, Same Meaning Conclusion: Information semantically coded! Recognition Test Example Results % Chosen Correct Incorrect, Same Meaning Conclusion: Information semantically coded! Incorrect, Different Meaning

STM vs. LTM and the Brain n Double dissociation (=> independent systems) Some people STM vs. LTM and the Brain n Double dissociation (=> independent systems) Some people with brain damage have intact (good) STM but impaired (bad) LTM n Some people with different brain damage have intact n LTM but impaired STM n STM Clive Wearing and H. M. OK Impaired K. F. n LTM Impaired OK f. MRI study - different brain activity for reacall of early vs. late words in a list

Types of LTM Types of LTM

Types of Long-Term Memory Long-term Memory Declarative (conscious) Episodic Semantic (personal events) (facts) Implicit Types of Long-Term Memory Long-term Memory Declarative (conscious) Episodic Semantic (personal events) (facts) Implicit (not conscious) Priming Conditioning Procedural Memory NOTE: This is a description of the categories, not a model…. For instance LTM can be divided into declarative and implicit types of knowledge. Declarative knowledge can be further divided into Episodic and Semantic memories, and so on.

Declarative vs. Implicit Memory n Major distinction is whether or not the person is Declarative vs. Implicit Memory n Major distinction is whether or not the person is consciously aware of the knowledge / memory Declarative – conscious (declare = speak) n Implicit – unconscious, but can be seen in behavior n n We’ll discuss the sub-categories of each type Declarative = episodic and semantic n Implicit = priming, procedural memory, and conditioning n

Declarative Memory Declarative Memory

Episodic vs. Semantic n Different types of information that is stored n Episodic = Episodic vs. Semantic n Different types of information that is stored n Episodic = “episodes” of one’s own life n Visiting your grandfather’s house when you were 10 n Semantic = facts and knowledge n Skinner wrote the book n Verbal Behavior Different types of experience for each (Tulving) Episodic = remembering n Semantic = knowing n

Remembering vs. Knowing n Remembering Mental time travel, re-experiencing past events n Also called Remembering vs. Knowing n Remembering Mental time travel, re-experiencing past events n Also called self-knowing n NOTE: memories of the past are not always true n n Knowing n No mental time travel, memory is separate from specific personal experiences n Facts, vocabulary, numbers, concepts, etc.

Episodic vs. Semantic n Neuropsychological Evidence (double dissociation) n K. C. (damage to hippocampus) Episodic vs. Semantic n Neuropsychological Evidence (double dissociation) n K. C. (damage to hippocampus) n n Italian woman (encephalitis) n n Lost episodic memory but semantic memory is intact Lost semantic memory but semantic memory is intact Evidence from Imaging n Participants recorded descriptions of personal events and facts they new. These were played back to them in a brain scanner. Hearing their own episodic vs. semantic memories activated different (but partially overlapping) areas.

Episodic n Semantic Over time, episodic memories can become semantic memories Remember a fact, Episodic n Semantic Over time, episodic memories can become semantic memories Remember a fact, but forget when it was learned n Personal events can actually “morph” into facts n n Semantic memory can be enhanced with episodic memory Personal semantic memories remembered better n Can you use this when you study for the exam? ? ? n

Episodic n Semantic memory influences attention, which then influences Episodic memory n Textbook example: Episodic n Semantic memory influences attention, which then influences Episodic memory n Textbook example: football game n One friend knows a lot about football and the other knows very little n The one who knows a lot remembers individual plays n The one who knows little remembers only “a game”

Implicit Memory Implicit Memory

Implicit Memory n Implicit memory (or nonknowing) occurs when Prior experience influences performance, BUT Implicit Memory n Implicit memory (or nonknowing) occurs when Prior experience influences performance, BUT n We do not consciously remember the experience n n Many different types n Priming n Repetition Priming n Conceptual Priming Procedural memory n Classical Conditioning n

Priming n Priming is when presentation of one stimulus (the priming stimulus) affects the Priming n Priming is when presentation of one stimulus (the priming stimulus) affects the response to a stimulus that comes afterward (the test stimulus) n Different ways that priming can be seen n Positive = priming improves speed / accuracy in test n Negative = priming reduces speed / accuracy n Different types of priming n Repetition priming = priming stimulus is exactly the same as test stimulus n Conceptual priming = priming stimulus is related to the test stimulus in terms of meaning

Repetition Priming n Tulving (1982) Show people 96 words (some are priming stimuli) n Repetition Priming n Tulving (1982) Show people 96 words (some are priming stimuli) n People then quickly complete word fragment puzzles n n C_ _ A R _T n Compare performance on new words to performance on words used as priming stimuli

Repetition Priming % of word fragment puzzles solved Seen before New Repetition Priming % of word fragment puzzles solved Seen before New

Repetition Priming n OK, so this effect happens…. But couldn’t it actually be declarative, Repetition Priming n OK, so this effect happens…. But couldn’t it actually be declarative, not implicit, memory? ? ? n Tulving tried to prevent people from using declarative memory in the experiment n Speeded test (no time for conscious awareness) n No memory test, instead people solved a problem n In another experiment, he looked at this question in much more detail n To understand that you’ll need to know a bit more about memory tests in general

Repetition Priming n Tulving wanted to make sure that declarative memory (even very weak Repetition Priming n Tulving wanted to make sure that declarative memory (even very weak memory) was not causing repetition priming n Repeated the word-fragment study, and this time gave people recognition tests, too n n both tests were given at 1 hour and 7 days of delay Over time: n Performance on the recognition task decreased n Performance on the word-fragment task stayed the same

Repetition Priming Word Fragment Task Recognition Test Performance (good is up) 1 hour 7 Repetition Priming Word Fragment Task Recognition Test Performance (good is up) 1 hour 7 days

Repetition Priming In Tulving’s study performance on the implicit memory task and the declarative Repetition Priming In Tulving’s study performance on the implicit memory task and the declarative memory task followed different patterns, so they aren’t the same n The neurobiological data is even more convincing n n Warrington & Weiskrantz (1968) tested Korsakoff’s syndrome patients on a recognition task n Patients are unable to form new declarative memories

Repetition Priming n Pictures were used instead of words n n Patients were shown Repetition Priming n Pictures were used instead of words n n Patients were shown more and more complete versions until they could recognize the object Patients tested on the same stimuli for 3 days Due to impairment they had no conscious recollection of previous training sessions n Previous days’ tests were the priming stimuli n n Performance improved with repetition

Repetition Priming Performance (good is down ) Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Repetition Priming Performance (good is down ) Day 1 Day 2 Day 3

Repetition Priming n What’s the point of these repetition priming studies? n To demonstrate Repetition Priming n What’s the point of these repetition priming studies? n To demonstrate that repetition can lead to the formation of memories that are implicit n In other words, these memories can affect behavior, even though we are not consciously aware of them

Repetition Priming in the Real World n Repetition underlies the propaganda effect n Being Repetition Priming in the Real World n Repetition underlies the propaganda effect n Being exposed to advertising (even if we aren’t aware of it or attempt to ignore it) affects behavior n If people have heard a statement before, they are more likely to say that it’s true n This happens even if they are explicitly told that the statement is false when they hear it “I can’t say that using anti-viral kleenex will prevent your kids from getting the flu, but…”

Repetition Priming in the Real World n Repetition underlies the propaganda effect n Being Repetition Priming in the Real World n Repetition underlies the propaganda effect n Being exposed to advertising (even if we aren’t aware of it or attempt to ignore it) affects behavior n If people have heard a statement before, they are more likely to say that it’s true n This happens even if they are explicitly told that the statement is false when they hear it “I can’t say that using anti-viral kleenex will prevent your kids from getting the flu, but…”

Repetition Priming in the Real World n The propaganda effect is true for pictures, Repetition Priming in the Real World n The propaganda effect is true for pictures, too n Perfect & Askew (1994) n Participants read magazine articles n Each page had an ad, but these were not mentioned n After the reading task there was a surprise test on the ads n Participants rated those ads they’d seen as more memorable, eye-catching, appealing, and distinctive n Participants actually recognized very few (2. 8/25)

Repetition Priming in the Real World n Repetition priming affects real life! n Creating Repetition Priming in the Real World n Repetition priming affects real life! n Creating misunderstandings n I thought you said you wanted to go to the game! No. I said “I’m not like ‘I want to go to the game’”. n Affecting your studies n Multiple Choice: Which of these is true? (the others are NOT true but you read them anyway…. ) n Interfering with the legal process (Chapter 8) n Leading questions n Confusing juries (lawyer can ask something that is false, but jury members may remember it as true later)

Procedural Memory n Procedural memory is memory for “how to do things” when you Procedural Memory n Procedural memory is memory for “how to do things” when you don’t consciously know how you do them (and can’t describe them to others) n n Physical activities (tying shoes, riding a bike, writing) Cognitive tasks (reading, reasoning, decision-making) Combinations (driving, playing soccer) Try learning to do something new n n Dancing, juggling, knitting, ping-pong, air hockey, DDR As you learn it will mysteriously get easier but you won’t be able to say exactly what you are doing differently

Procedural Memory n People who can’t form new explicit memories often can form new Procedural Memory n People who can’t form new explicit memories often can form new procedural memories n n H. M. learned how to do mirror drawing but couldn’t remember having done it before K. C. learned how to stack books in the library after the accident, and his performance improved with practice Jimmy G. could tie his shoes Clive Wearing could play the piano

Classical Conditioning n We learned about this in Chapter 2 (review it if you Classical Conditioning n We learned about this in Chapter 2 (review it if you don’t remember it) n n Point here is that classical conditioning still exists… it is now seen as a form of implicit memory Pairing of Conditioned & Unconditioned Simuli creates implicit memory => new behavior Rat associated with sound for little Albert => fear n Tone associated with food => salivation n Tone associated with air puff => blink n

The End But be sure to read about the movies in your book! The End But be sure to read about the movies in your book!