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Medical Terminology A Living Language Blood and the Lymphatic and Immune Systems Medical Terminology: Medical Terminology A Living Language Blood and the Lymphatic and Immune Systems Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Blood at a Glance: Functions l Transports substances throughout body l Substances are attached Blood at a Glance: Functions l Transports substances throughout body l Substances are attached to red blood cells or dissolved in plasma White blood cells fight infection and disease l Platelets initiate blood clotting process l Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Blood at a Glance: Components l Blood cells (formed elements) l l Erythrocytes Platelets Blood at a Glance: Components l Blood cells (formed elements) l l Erythrocytes Platelets Leukocytes Plasma Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Blood Combining Forms l l l l agglutin/o bas/o chrom/o coagul/o eosin/o erythr/o fibrin/o Blood Combining Forms l l l l agglutin/o bas/o chrom/o coagul/o eosin/o erythr/o fibrin/o granul/o clumping base color clotting rosy red fibers, fibrous granules Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Blood Combining Forms l l l l hem/o hemat/o leuk/o morph/o neutr/o phag/o sanguin/o Blood Combining Forms l l l l hem/o hemat/o leuk/o morph/o neutr/o phag/o sanguin/o thromb/o blood white shape neutral eat, swallow blood clot Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Blood Suffixes l l l l -apheresis -cytosis -emia -globin -penia -phil -poiesis -stasis Blood Suffixes l l l l -apheresis -cytosis -emia -globin -penia -phil -poiesis -stasis removal more than normal number of cells blood condition protein abnormal decrease attraction formation standing still Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Anatomy and Physiology Average adult has about five liters of blood l Circulates through Anatomy and Physiology Average adult has about five liters of blood l Circulates through body within blood vessels l Blood cells are produced in red bone marrow l l Process called hematopoiesis Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Anatomy and Physiology Is a mixture of cells floating in a fluid l Fluid Anatomy and Physiology Is a mixture of cells floating in a fluid l Fluid is plasma l Cells are called formed elements l l Erythrocytes Leukocytes Platelets Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Plasma About 55% of whole blood l Plasma is 90– 92% water l Remaining Plasma About 55% of whole blood l Plasma is 90– 92% water l Remaining 8– 10% is dissolved substances l Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Dissolved Substances in Plasma l Plasma proteins l l Albumin – helps transport fatty Dissolved Substances in Plasma l Plasma proteins l l Albumin – helps transport fatty substances Globulin – gamma globulins are antibodies Fibrinogen – blood clotting protein Additional important substances l Calcium, potassium, sodium, glucose, amino acids, fats, urea, creatinine Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Red Blood Cells (RBC) Called erythrocytes l Enucleated l l No nucleus Biconcave disk Red Blood Cells (RBC) Called erythrocytes l Enucleated l l No nucleus Biconcave disk l 5 million per cubic millimeter of blood l Adult has 35 trillion; more in males l Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Erythrocytes l Hemoglobin (Hgb, Hb) gives red color l l l Pigment containing iron Erythrocytes l Hemoglobin (Hgb, Hb) gives red color l l l Pigment containing iron Responsible for oxygen transport Life span of 120 days l l l Spleen removes worn out ones Iron can be reused Bilirubin is waste product disposed of by liver Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

White Blood Cells (WBC) Also called leukocytes l Spherical shape with large nucleus l White Blood Cells (WBC) Also called leukocytes l Spherical shape with large nucleus l 8, 000 per cubic millimeter of blood l Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Leukocytes l Provide protection against pathogens l l Bacteria Viruses Foreign material Subdivided into Leukocytes l Provide protection against pathogens l l Bacteria Viruses Foreign material Subdivided into two categories l l Granulocytes – have granules in cytoplasm Agranulocytes – no granules in cytoplasm Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Leukocyte Classification l Granulocytes l Basophils l l l Eosinophils Neutrophils Release histamine and Leukocyte Classification l Granulocytes l Basophils l l l Eosinophils Neutrophils Release histamine and heparin to damaged tissue Destroy parasites and increase during allergic reaction Important for phagocytosis Agranulocytes l Monocytes Important for phagocytosis l Lymphocytes Provide protection through immunity Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Platelets Older term is thrombocyte l Smallest of all blood elements l Plate-like fragments Platelets Older term is thrombocyte l Smallest of all blood elements l Plate-like fragments of larger cell l 200, 000 -300, 000 per cubic millimeter l Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Platelets l Critical in blood clotting l Hemostasis Agglutinate into small clusters when blood Platelets l Critical in blood clotting l Hemostasis Agglutinate into small clusters when blood vessel is damaged l Leads to formation of thrombin l l l Which converts fibrinogen to fibrin Results in formation of mesh-like blood clot Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Blood Typing l Each person’s blood is different from others’ l l Must do Blood Typing l Each person’s blood is different from others’ l l Must do blood typing before blood transfusion l l Due to presence of marker proteins on surface of erythrocytes Test to determine if donated blood is compatible with recipient’s blood There are many different blood markers l Two most important ones for transfusions are ABO system and Rh factor Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Rh Factor l Person with Rh factor on red blood cells is Rhpositive (Rh+) Rh Factor l Person with Rh factor on red blood cells is Rhpositive (Rh+) l l Person without Rh factor is Rh-negative (Rh-) l l Will not make anti-Rh antibodies Will produce anti-Rh antibodies Rh+ person may receive either Rh+ or Rhtransfusion, but Rh- person can receive only Rh- blood Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Word Building with fibrin/o and hem/o –gen fibrinogen fiber producing –lysis fibrinolysis fiber destruction Word Building with fibrin/o and hem/o –gen fibrinogen fiber producing –lysis fibrinolysis fiber destruction –ous fibrinous pertaining to fibers –globin hemoglobin blood protein –lysis hemolysis blood destruction –lytic hemolytic blood destruction –rrhage hemorrhage rapid flow of blood Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Word Building with hemat/o and sanguin/o –ologist hematologist blood specialist –ic hematic pertaining to Word Building with hemat/o and sanguin/o –ologist hematologist blood specialist –ic hematic pertaining to blood –ous sanguinous pertaining to blood Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Word Building with –cyte erythr/o erythrocyte red cell leuk/o leukocyte white cell thromb/o thrombocyte Word Building with –cyte erythr/o erythrocyte red cell leuk/o leukocyte white cell thromb/o thrombocyte clotting cell granul/o granulocyte granular cell a– granul/o agranulocyte Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht not a granular cell Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Word Building with –cytosis & –penia erythr/o erythrocytosis too many red cells leuk/o leukocytosis Word Building with –cytosis & –penia erythr/o erythrocytosis too many red cells leuk/o leukocytosis too many white cells thromb/o thrombocytosis too many clotting cells erythr/o erythropenia too few red (cells) leuk/o leukopenia too few white (cells) thromb/o thrombopenia too few clotting (cells) pan– cyt/o pancytopenia too few all cells Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Word Building with –poiesis erythr/o erythropoiesis red (cell) producing leuk/o leukopoiesis white (cell) producing Word Building with –poiesis erythr/o erythropoiesis red (cell) producing leuk/o leukopoiesis white (cell) producing thromb/o thrombopoiesis clotting (cell) producing hemat/o hematopoiesis blood producing Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Blood Vocabulary blood clot coagulate hard collection of fibrin, blood cells, and tissue debris; Blood Vocabulary blood clot coagulate hard collection of fibrin, blood cells, and tissue debris; end result of hemostasis to convert a liquid to a solid; as in blood clotting dyscrasia general term for disease affecting blood hematology branch of medicine specializing in blood conditions; physician is a hematologist Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 6. 4 – Electronmicrograph showing a blood clot, composed of fibrin, red blood Figure 6. 4 – Electronmicrograph showing a blood clot, composed of fibrin, red blood cells, and tissue debris. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Blood Vocabulary hematoma hemostasis packed cells whole blood collection of blood under skin as Blood Vocabulary hematoma hemostasis packed cells whole blood collection of blood under skin as a result of blood escaping into tissue from damaged blood vessels to stop bleeding or stagnation of blood flow through tissues transfusion of only blood cells without plasma mixture of both plasma and formed elements Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Blood Pathology hemophilia genetic disorder; blood fails to clot due to lack of one Blood Pathology hemophilia genetic disorder; blood fails to clot due to lack of one clotting factor hyperlipidemia excessive level of lipids in the blood stream; risk factor for atherosclerosis septicemia having bacteria or their toxins in the bloodstream; also called blood poisoning Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Erythrocyte Pathology anemia group of conditions characterized by a reduction in number of RBCs Erythrocyte Pathology anemia group of conditions characterized by a reduction in number of RBCs or the amount of hemoglobin; results in less oxygen reaching tissues aplastic anemia severe anemia in which red bone marrow stops making sufficient blood cells; may require bone marrow transplant hemolytic anemia results from excessive loss of RBCs Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Erythrocyte Pathology hemolytic reaction hypochromic anemia destruction of RBCs when patient receives mismatched blood Erythrocyte Pathology hemolytic reaction hypochromic anemia destruction of RBCs when patient receives mismatched blood transfusion results from insufficient amount of hemoglobin in RBCs; unable to transport sufficient oxygen iron-deficiency results from insufficient amount of iron to anemia make hemoglobin for RBCs Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Erythrocyte Pathology pernicious anemia (PA) insufficient absorption of vitamin B 12; unable to make Erythrocyte Pathology pernicious anemia (PA) insufficient absorption of vitamin B 12; unable to make enough RBCs polycythemia condition of having too many RBCs; blood vera is too thick and flows sluggishly genetic disorder where RBCs take on sickle cell abnormal sickle shape; become more anemia fragile leading to hemolytic anemia thalassemia genetic disorder where unable to produce functioning hemoglobin Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 6. 5 – Comparison of normal-shaped erythrocytes and the abnormal sickle shape noted Figure 6. 5 – Comparison of normal-shaped erythrocytes and the abnormal sickle shape noted in patients with sickle cell anemia. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Leukocyte Pathology leukemia cancer of white blood cell-forming portion of red bone marrow; results Leukocyte Pathology leukemia cancer of white blood cell-forming portion of red bone marrow; results in large number of abnormal and immature WBCs circulating in blood stream Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Clinical Laboratory Tests blood culture & sensitivity (C&S) blood is incubated to identify infecting Clinical Laboratory Tests blood culture & sensitivity (C&S) blood is incubated to identify infecting bacteria and then test determines best antibiotic to use set of blood tests: RBC count, WBC complete blood count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, white count (CBC) blood cell differential, and platelet count erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) determines rate at which RBCs settle in a test tube; indicates presence of inflammation in body Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Clinical Laboratory Tests hematocrit (HCT, Hct, crit) measures volume of RBCs hemoglobin (Hgb, hb) Clinical Laboratory Tests hematocrit (HCT, Hct, crit) measures volume of RBCs hemoglobin (Hgb, hb) measures amount of hemoglobin present platelet count determines number of platelets prothrombin time (Pro time, PT) measures how long needed for blood to coagulate and form a clot Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Clinical Laboratory Tests red blood cell count measures number of RBCs (RBC) red blood Clinical Laboratory Tests red blood cell count measures number of RBCs (RBC) red blood cell morphology examines RBCs for abnormalities in shape sequential multiple analyzer computer (SMAC) machine for doing multiple blood chemistry tests automatically Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Clinical Laboratory Tests white blood cell measures number of leukocytes count (WBC) white blood Clinical Laboratory Tests white blood cell measures number of leukocytes count (WBC) white blood cell determines the number of each type of differential (diff) WBC Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Medical Procedures bone marrow aspiration sample of bone marrow removed by aspiration and examined Medical Procedures bone marrow aspiration sample of bone marrow removed by aspiration and examined for diseases such as leukemia and aplastic anemia phlebotomy incision into vein in order to withdraw blood for testing; also called venipuncture Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 6. 6 – Phlebotomist using a needle to withdraw blood. Medical Terminology: A Figure 6. 6 – Phlebotomist using a needle to withdraw blood. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Medical Procedures autologous transfusion collection and storage of patient’s own blood prior to actual Medical Procedures autologous transfusion collection and storage of patient’s own blood prior to actual need blood transfusion artificial transfer of blood into the bloodstream bone marrow transplant (BMT) patient receives red bone marrow from donor after patient’s own bone marrow has been destroyed Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Medical Procedures homologous transfusion replacement blood with blood from another person plasmapheresis removal of Medical Procedures homologous transfusion replacement blood with blood from another person plasmapheresis removal of whole blood, separation of plasma from formed elements; formed elements returned to patient with donor plasma transfusion Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Blood Pharmacology anticoagulant prevents blood clot formation antihemorrhagic prevents bleeding antiplatelet agent hematinic thrombolytic Blood Pharmacology anticoagulant prevents blood clot formation antihemorrhagic prevents bleeding antiplatelet agent hematinic thrombolytic warfarin, Coumadin Amicar, Vitamin K interferes with action of Plavix, Ticlid platelets increases number of Procrit, RBCs and hemoglobin Aranesp Activase, dissolves existing clots Streptase Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

The Lymphatic and Immune Systems at a Glance l Functions of the Lymphatic System The Lymphatic and Immune Systems at a Glance l Functions of the Lymphatic System l l l Network of vessels that picks up excess tissue fluid, cleanses it, and returns it to circulatory system Picks up fats absorbed by digestive system Functions of Immune System l Fights disease and infections Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

The Lymphatic and Immune Systems at a Glance l Organs of the Lymphatic System The Lymphatic and Immune Systems at a Glance l Organs of the Lymphatic System l l l Lymph nodes Lymphatic vessels Thymus gland Spleen Tonsils Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Lymphatic & Immune Combining Forms l l l adenoid/o immun/o lymphaden/o lymphangi/o adenoids protection Lymphatic & Immune Combining Forms l l l adenoid/o immun/o lymphaden/o lymphangi/o adenoids protection lymph node lymph vessel Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Lymphatic & Immune Combining Forms l l l path/o splen/o thym/o tonsill/o tox/o disease Lymphatic & Immune Combining Forms l l l path/o splen/o thym/o tonsill/o tox/o disease spleen thymus tonsils poison Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Lymphatic and Immune Suffix l –globulin protein Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Lymphatic and Immune Suffix l –globulin protein Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Anatomy and Physiology l Network of: l l l Lymphatic vessels Lymph nodes Spleen Anatomy and Physiology l Network of: l l l Lymphatic vessels Lymph nodes Spleen Thymus gland Tonsils Perform diverse functions Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Anatomy and Physiology l First, removes excess tissue fluid l l Collects excess tissue Anatomy and Physiology l First, removes excess tissue fluid l l Collects excess tissue fluid throughout body Purifies it as it passes through system Returns it to circulatory system Lymph = fluid within lymphatic vessels Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 6. 7 – Lymphatic vessels (green) pick up excess tissue fluid, purify it Figure 6. 7 – Lymphatic vessels (green) pick up excess tissue fluid, purify it in lymph nodes, and return it to the circulatory system. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Anatomy and Physiology l Second, lymph vessels around the small intestine assist with fat Anatomy and Physiology l Second, lymph vessels around the small intestine assist with fat absorption l l l Picks up absorbed fats Delivers to circulatory system These lymph vessels are called lacteals Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Anatomy and Physiology l Third, lymphatic and immune systems work together l l Form Anatomy and Physiology l Third, lymphatic and immune systems work together l l Form a group of cells, tissues, organs, & molecules Body’s primary defense against pathogens l Including foreign invaders and own cells that have become diseased Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Lymphatic Vessels Network of vessels throughout body l One-way pipes conducting lymph from tissues Lymphatic Vessels Network of vessels throughout body l One-way pipes conducting lymph from tissues toward thoracic cavity l Low pressure system l l Uses valves to prevent backflow Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Lymphatic Vessels Begin as very small lymph capillaries in tissues l Capillaries merge into Lymphatic Vessels Begin as very small lymph capillaries in tissues l Capillaries merge into larger lymph vessels l Finally drain into one of two large lymphatic ducts in thoracic cavity l Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Lymph Nodes l Also called lymph glands l l l But not real glands Lymph Nodes l Also called lymph glands l l l But not real glands Composed of lymphatic tissue Located along route of lymphatic vessels Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 6. 10 – Structure of a lymph node. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Figure 6. 10 – Structure of a lymph node. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Lymph Nodes l House lymphocytes and antibodies l l Remove pathogens and cell debris Lymph Nodes l House lymphocytes and antibodies l l Remove pathogens and cell debris from lymph as it passes through Trap and destroy cells from cancerous tumors Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Sites for Lymph Nodes Name Axillary Cervical Inguinal Mediastinal Location Armpits Neck Groin Chest Sites for Lymph Nodes Name Axillary Cervical Inguinal Mediastinal Location Armpits Neck Groin Chest Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Drains fluid from: Arms Head and neck Legs and pelvis Within chest cavity Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Tonsils Collections of lymphatic tissue located on each side of throat l There are Tonsils Collections of lymphatic tissue located on each side of throat l There are three sets of tonsils l l Palatine tonsils Pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) Lingual tonsils Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Tonsils l All contain a large number of leukocytes l l l Act as Tonsils l All contain a large number of leukocytes l l l Act as filters Prevent invasion of pathogens through digestive or respiratory systems Not required for life and can safely be removed if they become a continuous site of infection Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Spleen Located in LUQ of abdomen l Consists of lymphatic tissue that is highly Spleen Located in LUQ of abdomen l Consists of lymphatic tissue that is highly infiltrated with blood vessels l l Vessels spread out into slow moving blood sinuses Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Spleen Phagocytic macrophages line blood sinuses to remove pathogens l Because blood is moving Spleen Phagocytic macrophages line blood sinuses to remove pathogens l Because blood is moving through slowly, macrophages have time to identify pathogens and worn out RBCs l Filters out and destroys old red blood cells, recycling the iron l Not an essential organ for life and may be removed due to injury or disease l Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Thymus Gland Located in upper portion of mediastinum l Secretes hormone, thymosin l l Thymus Gland Located in upper portion of mediastinum l Secretes hormone, thymosin l l l Changes lymphocytes to T lymphocytes (simply called T cells) Active in unborn child and throughout childhood until adolescence, when it begins to shrink in size Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Thymus Gland Essential for proper development of immune system l Assists body with immune Thymus Gland Essential for proper development of immune system l Assists body with immune function and development of antibodies l Important role in the immune response l Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Immunity l Body’s ability to defend itself against pathogens l l Bacteria, viruses, fungi, Immunity l Body’s ability to defend itself against pathogens l l Bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans, toxins, cancerous tumors Two forms l l Natural immunity Acquired immunity Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Natural Immunity Also called innate immunity l Not specific to a particular disease l Natural Immunity Also called innate immunity l Not specific to a particular disease l Doesn’t require prior exposure to pathogen l Example: l l l Macrophage WBCs that ingest any pathogen encountered Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 6. 14 – Enhanced photomicrograph showing a macrophage (purple) attacking bacillus Escherichia coli Figure 6. 14 – Enhanced photomicrograph showing a macrophage (purple) attacking bacillus Escherichia coli (yellow). Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Acquired Immunity Body’s response to a specific pathogen l May be either: l l Acquired Immunity Body’s response to a specific pathogen l May be either: l l l Passive acquired immunity Active acquired immunity Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Acquired Immunity l Passive acquired immunity l l l Results when a person receives Acquired Immunity l Passive acquired immunity l l l Results when a person receives protective substances produced by another human or animal Examples: maternal antibodies, antitoxin Active acquired immunity l l l Develops following direct exposure to pathogen Stimulates immune response – series of mechanisms designed to neutralize pathogen Immunizations or vaccinations are special types of active acquired immunity Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Immune Response Disease-causing agents called antigens stimulate immune response l Two distinct and different Immune Response Disease-causing agents called antigens stimulate immune response l Two distinct and different processes l l l Humoral immunity (also called antibody-mediated immunity) Cellular immunity (also called cell-mediated immunity) Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Humoral Immunity l Involves production of B lymphocytes l l l Also called B Humoral Immunity l Involves production of B lymphocytes l l l Also called B cells Respond to antigens by producing a protective protein, an antibody Antibodies combine with antigen to form antigenantibody complex Targets pathogen for phagocytosis Prevents infectious agent from damaging healthy cells Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Cellular Immunity Involves production of T cells and natural killer cells (NK) l These Cellular Immunity Involves production of T cells and natural killer cells (NK) l These defense cells are cytotoxic l l Physically attack and destroy pathogenic cells Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Standard Precautions l There a large number of pathogens in a hospital setting l Standard Precautions l There a large number of pathogens in a hospital setting l l Nosocomial infection – acquired in the hospital Cross infection – pathogen acquired from another person Reinfection – becomes infected again with same pathogen Self-inoculation – pathogen from one part of patient’s body spreads to another part of body Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Word Building with adenoid/o & immun/o –ectomy adenoidectomy surgical removal of adenoids –itis adenoiditis Word Building with adenoid/o & immun/o –ectomy adenoidectomy surgical removal of adenoids –itis adenoiditis inflammation of adenoids –logist immunologist immunity specialist Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Word Building with lymph/o aden/o – ectomy lymphadenectomy surgical removal of lymph gland aden/o Word Building with lymph/o aden/o – ectomy lymphadenectomy surgical removal of lymph gland aden/o – pathy lymphadenopathy lymph gland disease angi/o –gram lymphangiogram record of lymph vessel angi/o –oma lymphangioma lymph vessel tumor –oma lymphatic tumor –tic lymphatic pertaining to lymph Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Word Building with path/o & splen/o –genic pathogenic disease producing –logy pathology study of Word Building with path/o & splen/o –genic pathogenic disease producing –logy pathology study of disease –ectomy splenectomy surgical removal of spleen –megaly splenomegaly enlarged spleen Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Word Building with thym/o & tonsill/o –ectomy thymectomy surgical removal of thymus –oma thymus Word Building with thym/o & tonsill/o –ectomy thymectomy surgical removal of thymus –oma thymus tumor –ar tonsillar pertaining to tonsils –ectomy tonsillectomy surgical removal of tonsils –itis tonsillitis inflammation of tonsils Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Lymphatic & Immune Vocabulary allergen antigen causing an allergic reaction allergist physician who specializes Lymphatic & Immune Vocabulary allergen antigen causing an allergic reaction allergist physician who specializes in testing for and treating allergies allergy hypersensitivity to a common substance disease resulting from immune system autoimmune attacking its own body is if a pathogen; disease examples include rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Lymphatic & Immune Vocabulary hives appearance of wheals as part of allergic reaction human Lymphatic & Immune Vocabulary hives appearance of wheals as part of allergic reaction human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virus that causes AIDS; known as a retrovirus immune system that does not immunocompromised function properly; also called immunodeficiency disorder immunoglobins antibodies; assist in protecting the body Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Lymphatic & Immune Vocabulary immunology branch of medicine concerned with treating immune system disorders Lymphatic & Immune Vocabulary immunology branch of medicine concerned with treating immune system disorders inflammation tissues’ response to injury; redness, pain, swelling, and feeling hot to touch lymphedema excessive tissue fluid due to blocked lymphatic flow opportunistic infection appearing in immunocompromised person urticaria severe itching associated with hives Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 6. 16 – Inflammation as illustrated by cellulitis of the arm. Note that Figure 6. 16 – Inflammation as illustrated by cellulitis of the arm. Note that the area is red and swollen. It is also painful and hot to touch. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Allergic Reactions anaphylactic shock life-threatening condition from severe allergic reaction; circulatory and respiratory problems Allergic Reactions anaphylactic shock life-threatening condition from severe allergic reaction; circulatory and respiratory problems occur; also called anaphylaxis Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Lymphatic and Immune Pharmacology blocks histamine release during allergic reaction anti-inflammatory; used to corticosteroids Lymphatic and Immune Pharmacology blocks histamine release during allergic reaction anti-inflammatory; used to corticosteroids treat autoimmune diseases antihistamine immunosuppressants blocks immune system; prevents rejection of transplant Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Zyrtec, Benadryl prednisone, Solu-Medrol Cell. Cept, Neoral Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Lymphatic and Immune Pharmacology inhibits protease, enzyme protease needed for viruses to inhibitor drugs Lymphatic and Immune Pharmacology inhibits protease, enzyme protease needed for viruses to inhibitor drugs reproduce inhibits reverse transcriptase, enzyme transcriptase needed for viruses to inhibitor drugs reproduce Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Crixivan, Fortovase Epivir, Retrovir Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.