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Media Representation of the Obama Family – The Thin Line Between Media Management and Media Representation of the Obama Family – The Thin Line Between Media Management and Manipulation Seminar: Cultural Meanings of the Obama Presidency Referees: Eva-Maria Lauber, Domenica Schulz

CONTENT • • Introduction: the Obama Election – a Personal Touch from the Beginning CONTENT • • Introduction: the Obama Election – a Personal Touch from the Beginning The Project The First Family and Media in the Past o The Pet Issue o Media Appearance The Family as a Political Asset: the Family Interview Media Control by the White House o Chief Official White House Photographer Pete Souza The President´s Daughters in the Media o Balcony Picture o Red Silk Dress o Childhood Obesity Conclusion Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 2

THE OBAMA ELECTION – A PERSONAL TOUCH FROM THE BEGINNING In 2009, America inaugurated THE OBAMA ELECTION – A PERSONAL TOUCH FROM THE BEGINNING In 2009, America inaugurated the first African American President in its history. In this period, America faced the gravest financial crisis since the Great Depression. and the war in Iraq was increasingly viewed critically by Americans. Worldwide, the elections were number one news. Being the first African American President in history, Barack Obama presented a strong symbol in the context of anti-racism. His election showed the desire of the American people for change, and his slogan “Yes we can!” represented a new optimism. Obama had raised hope for better times. Surprisingly enough, a couple of weeks later, the headlines around the world were dominated by one central question – what kind of dog would the family choose after moving into the White House. As representative of the media coverage, see on the right hand side the front page of the Washington Post and The New Yorker in April 2009. Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 3

THE PROJECT The Presidency of Obama had a personal touch right from the beginning; THE PROJECT The Presidency of Obama had a personal touch right from the beginning; public interest in his family life was and still is overwhelming. This is partly due to the fact that the Presidential Family is the first one with young children since the Presidency of J. F. Kennedy. Furthermore, the media nowadays are more powerful than ever, and the Obamas’ movement into the White House with young children made a professional media management inevitable. However, this media management not only serves the protection of his family, but also enables the White House to shape the picture presented to the public. This creates an image of the First Family which in turn serves several purposes, as we will see later on. As the First Family has always lived in the spotlight of the nation, we will first consider what roles presidential family life played in the past. We will briefly compare the media appearance of former presidential families with that of the Obamas, and see in how far private matters of the First Family, like for example the choice of pets, played a role in the past. Then we will discuss the value of the family as a political asset, and how important this value might have been for the Obama campaign. We will also have a closer look at the media control through the White House. By way of exemplifying their strategy, we will see how Obama´s two daughters are presented in the media. In order to show the necessity of a tight media control, we will also present cases in which private family details despite all efforts of the White House caused a nationwide discussion. Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 4

THE FIRST FAMILY AND MEDIA IN THE PAST: The Pet Issue Within presidential families, THE FIRST FAMILY AND MEDIA IN THE PAST: The Pet Issue Within presidential families, it is a long-standing tradition to have a pet. Every single President of the United States of America had a least one pet. Some Presidential Families even had many domestic animals, such as dogs, cats, ponies, horses, or even pigs. The presidential pets are very important to show the world that the President is fond of animals and that he wants his children to be happy. One of the most popular presidential pets was the pony Macaroni that belonged to Caroline Kennedy. The Kennedys often released pictures of their children and their pets, because people liked to see happy and harmonious photos of their First Family. J. F. K. with his children and Macaroni Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 5

THE FIRST FAMILY AND MEDIA IN THE PAST: The Pet Issue That the search THE FIRST FAMILY AND MEDIA IN THE PAST: The Pet Issue That the search for a new pet can become a national issue can be seen in the case of Bo, the Obama family’s dog. The Obamas started their search for a presidential dog right after Barack Obama's election. In the media, a serious discussion arose of the questions whether the dog should come from a dog pond, or whether it should be from a professional breeder, and what breed the dog should be. The Obamas then decided on the Portuguese Water Dog which Ted Kennedy gave them as a gift. Right after the world got to know Bo, hundreds of blogs and websites about the dog appeared; people discussed about the President's decision and uploaded pictures of Bo. Portuguese Water Dogs suddenly became very popular: Many people wanted to have the same kind of dog as the Obamas. Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 6

THE FIRST FAMILY AND MEDIA IN THE PAST: The Pet Issue The case of THE FIRST FAMILY AND MEDIA IN THE PAST: The Pet Issue The case of Bo shows how very important every single personal decision of the President is for the American people and how much they want to know things about the First Family, even relatively unimportant ones. For this reason, it is not surprising that the President of the United States has to be very careful about everything that is connected to his family, and that he has to know how to handle the media. He has to ponder every fact that has to do with his family and has to decide what can be made public and what has to stay a secret. Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 7

THE FIRST FAMILY AND MEDIA IN THE PAST: Media Appearance Of course, all of THE FIRST FAMILY AND MEDIA IN THE PAST: Media Appearance Of course, all of the presidents of the United States have always been careful about the information that is released about them. Especially pictures of the President, his wife, and his children should convey a certain image. Every First Family has tried to represent the image of a perfect happy family. Therefore, many pictures showing them “in private“ and in public can be found in the media. When having a closer look at the pictures of all the First Families that can be found in the media, it is striking that most pictures are posed. Not very many pictures can be found that show a First Family in an unfavorable way. Here are some posed pictures of Presidential Families – the Reagans, the Clintons, and the Bushs. Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 8

THE FIRST FAMILY AND MEDIA IN THE PAST: Media Appearance Every First Family has THE FIRST FAMILY AND MEDIA IN THE PAST: Media Appearance Every First Family has been highly aware of the media and has tried to work with it to show the world the image they wanted to present. In the case of the Kennedys, the children of John F. emphasized the youthful image of the President, although his wife tried to protect their children from photographers. The innocence and happiness of their children combined with the image of a perfect family, represent a great tool potential for a president. Obama's children are the youngest children of a president since the Kennedys. Therefore it is not surprising that the Obamas are as aware of the importance of protecting their children as Jackie Kennedy was. In the pictures below, a quite similar image of the two First Families is conveyed. Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 9

THE FAMILY AS A POLITICAL ASSET: The Family Interview In July 2008, Obama and THE FAMILY AS A POLITICAL ASSET: The Family Interview In July 2008, Obama and his family were interviewed by the entertainment reporter Maria Monounos from Access Hollywood. It was the first time that Obama gave an interview with his wife and his daughters, Sasha and Malia, who were seven and ten years old at the time. On the right is the picture that appeared with the article covering the interview on ABC News. It shows the family in a very informal manner, surrounding the interviewer just as they would a close family friend. For the video of the interview please follow the link below: http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=NLW k. PGJm. Zt. A Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 10

THE FAMILY AS A POLITICAL ASSET: The Family Interview The interview received extremely positive THE FAMILY AS A POLITICAL ASSET: The Family Interview The interview received extremely positive media coverage. Americans simply loved the family. The audience was thrilled by the harmonious family life presented during the interview, as a selection of responses from the Access Hollywood webpage illustrate: “Just a down to earth family that has the same values as many of us in America. ” “It´s great to see the human side of Barack and his family. ” “They are people you would enjoy having for neighbors. ” “Finally a real family for the White House. ” (The quotations are taken from the webpage “Share Your Thoughts: Access´ Exclusive With Barack Obama & Family”, the full link can be found in the reference list. ) Obama´s wonderful family, especially his two young daughters, captured everybody´s heart. In times when society faces increasing destabilization of the institution of family as such, the Obamas represent a strong symbol. On the one hand they provide a powerful role model, on the other hand they seem to be a down to earth family, which is on the same level with voters. Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 11

THE FAMILY AS A POLITICAL ASSET: The Family Interview The interview came at a THE FAMILY AS A POLITICAL ASSET: The Family Interview The interview came at a time when Obama´s competitor Mc. Cain had to struggle to keep himself in the media spotlight, as an article on ABC News by Jennifer Parker analyzing the interview pointed out shortly afterwards. Mc. Cain was trying to receive media attention with a biographical tour and television ads highlighting his Vietnam war hero records. In this situation, Obama could capitalize well on the media echo created by the interview. Furthermore, the interview created a natural contrast between Obama and the image Mc. Cain was trying to bring across. As Obama could not build on the image of a warrior and a POW because of his very different biography, he focused on his soft side instead. Up to this point, the Obamas had largely shielded their daughters from the media. During the events of the fourth of July, however, the girls joined their parents, with whom the interview was originally planned. The Obama campaign later explained that the girls had been so eager to talk to Ms. Mounous, because she had recently interviewed a popular teen pop band. Nevertheless, the interview stood in harsh contrast to the position that Obama had up until that point. He had always claimed that he wanted to keep his family life private. Therefore, critics suspected that he used his family for political reasons and to advance his candidacy. Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 12

THE FAMILY AS A POLITICAL ASSET: The Family Interview In reaction to the criticism, THE FAMILY AS A POLITICAL ASSET: The Family Interview In reaction to the criticism, Barack claimed that the interview had been a mistake only a few days later in the TODAY show: “I think that we got carried away in the moment. […] We were having a birthday party, and everybody was laughing. And suddenly this thing cropped up. I didn´t catch it quickly enough. I was surprised by the attention it received. ” (Celizic, Mike “Obama calls “Access Hollywood” interview a mistake”, full source can be found in reference list. ) In retrospect, he judged the interview to be a mistake and said that it would not occur again. Maria Monounos later emphasized that the girls had gotten into the situation by chance; the whole incident had been spontaneous, just as the Obama campaign officially declared. Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 13

THE FAMILY AS A POLITICAL ASSET: The Family Interview It is however questionable whether THE FAMILY AS A POLITICAL ASSET: The Family Interview It is however questionable whether such a major incident really happens by chance during a presidential campaign. What is particularly revealing is an episode that Malia talks about at the beginning of the interview. This had already been mentioned in Barack Obama's The Audacity of Hope, published October 2006. In chapter 9, entitled “Family”, he describes a dialogue between himself and his daughter Malia in which she gives him advice on how to greet her playmate properly. He gratefully accepts the remarks by his eldest daughter and reassures himself that he didn´t embarrass her too much. The incident effectively shows the open and trustful relationship between Obama and his daughter. It illustrates his family values, in that he meets his daughter on eye level, considers her opinion, and takes her advice. He respectfully acknowledges that she is much more experienced in dealing with behavior manners among children. At the same time, Malia is shown to be a respectful child, who assures him the faux pas wasn´t that bad after all. This is exactly the story Malia tells in the interview when she is asked how she keeps her daddy cool. This represents at least quite a coincidence for a spontaneous interview. Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 14

THE FAMILY AS POLITICAL ASSET: The Family Interview Last but not least, the interview THE FAMILY AS POLITICAL ASSET: The Family Interview Last but not least, the interview was strategically very clever in terms of the audience it reached, as Jennifer Parker pointed out in her discussion of the issue. (Source: Parker, Jennifer “Obama Grants First Family Interview to `Acess Hollywood´”, link can be found in reference list. ) According to her, the so-called soft news programs can be smart politicking when it comes to reaching the millions of Americans who don´t follow every detail of the long campaigns. Through “Access Hollywood”, the senator was able to reach an audience different from the one usually addressed in news programming. In contrast to those following the news programs regularly, the people reached by Access Hollywood were less likely to have already decided on whom to vote. This made the broadcasting of the interview all the more valuable for the presidential campaign. In the end, the extent to which the interview was planned cannot be determined. Official declarations stress that the events happened by chance and the family was carried away by the day’s festivities. But there is also evidence that hints at the possibility that an event with such an impact might not have been spontaneous after all. Whatever the case may be, it is undeniable that despite criticism about Obama instrumentalizing his family, the interview boosted his campaign considerably. Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 15

MEDIA CONTROL BY THE WHITE HOUSE Since the Obama family moved into the White MEDIA CONTROL BY THE WHITE HOUSE Since the Obama family moved into the White House, the desire for details concerning their private family life has reached a new climax. The nation had already been interested in the family life of the presidential candidate, but now the family lives permanently in the media spotlight. Therefore, it is no wonder that the White House manages the media coverage of all family members professionally. This media management has been extensively analyzed by Wallsten and Fiore in an article in Latimes. com in April 2009, at the beginning of Obama´s presidency. Behind the seemingly spontaneous glimpses the public gets of the presidential family, there is a deliberate strategy to present the Obama family as within reach and as an ordinary family. One part of the strategy is to prevent paparazzi photography. By releasing enough official pictures of the family, the monetary value of unauthorized pictures is reduced, thus enabling the White House to control the released pictures. For example, celebrity news outlets risk being cut off by the White House if they publish unauthorized pictures. In this manner, the Obama administration is able to control the image of the family that is perceived by the public. Managing their public appearance is not new for presidential families, but Obama definitely takes management to a new level. The editor of Essence, Angela Burt. Murray, is cited by Wallsten and Fiore as saying: “The Obama team has been masterful in the management of the image and the allocation of stories. […] There´s definitely a science to the way they´re approaching this. ” Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 16

MEDIA CONTROL BY THE WHITE HOUSE In the last month of the campaign, various MEDIA CONTROL BY THE WHITE HOUSE In the last month of the campaign, various articles about the Obamas and their marriage appeared in Vogue, People, and Essence and O (Oprah Winfrey's magazine). Furthermore, a correspondent from “Extra”, a celebrity TV Show, was invited to the White House for an interview. Also, the coverage of the story about the new family dog Bo was carefully distributed among media outlets the White House thought most appropriate. These included Washington Post, the celebrity website TMZ. com and Us Weekly. See a range of covers featuring the Obama family below. Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 17

MEDIA CONTROL BY THE WHITE HOUSE Wallsten and Fiore conclude that the complex media MEDIA CONTROL BY THE WHITE HOUSE Wallsten and Fiore conclude that the complex media strategy described above serves several purposes. First, in the twenty-first century every family as exposed to the media spotlight as the First Family needs protection. Second, the family is a political asset for a president. The image of a normal, harmonious family shows a softer side of the president and helps to bolster his popularity and political clout. This is even more important when he promotes policies that lack broad appeal. Third, a more idealistic desire is being pursued with the media exposure. The First Family serves as a role model for other families. It provides a strong symbol in times of weakened family bonds. Considering the description of Obama’s media management by the LA Times, it is noticeable how masterful the Obama administration has been in managing the media. This provides an interesting parallel to Obama´s incredible ability to utilize new media during his presidential campaign. He was the first candidate who activated strong support especially among younger Americans via the use of the World Wide Web. Additionally, he raised a large amount of funds for his election campaign through carefully constructed online representation. He now also effectively controls the media representation of his family. Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 18

MEDIA CONTROL BY THE WHITE HOUSE: Chief Official White House Photographer Pete Souza Like MEDIA CONTROL BY THE WHITE HOUSE: Chief Official White House Photographer Pete Souza Like many Presidents before him, Barack Obama has a personal photographer: Pete Souza, who was also the personal photographer of Reagan, and his team escort Obama on every official appointment. But they are also allowed to take official pictures of the First Family in the White House. These pictures, however, are always posed. It is quite interesting that all the photos taken by Souza and his team are property of the United States. They are not allowed to delete any pictures, although they take about 8, 000 shots a month. In the documentary The White House: Through the Lens (2009), Souza and his team offer insight into their daily life with the President. Barack Obama states in that documentary that he trusts Souza completely and that he is the only one who is allowed to take personal shots of his family. If he did not have a personal photographer, Obama states, he would be forced to throw himself to the wolves. Nevertheless, Souza is not allowed to take any pictures of the First Family in really private situations or in their private rooms. Also, Obama has to approve every single shot before it gets into the media. Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 19

THE PRESIDENT`S DAUGHTERS IN THE MEDIA The White House strategically releases images of the THE PRESIDENT`S DAUGHTERS IN THE MEDIA The White House strategically releases images of the First Family to diminish the financial value of unauthorized pictures. So the White House has the control over how the family is portrayed. Celebrity news outlets must refuse to publish unauthorized pictures, or they risk being cut off by the White House Press Secretary Robert Gibbs has said: “If there is at least some supply that continues in a way that is respectful to who they are, you drive down the price and the paparazzi is not part of the equation” (Wallsten, Peter and Faye Fiore: “Getting to know the Obamas, on their terms. ”) The First Family serves as a role model. Barack Obama wants to show that he has found the right balance between his work and his private life. He also tries to be a role model when it comes to bringing up his children. When he was still a Senator, the story was circulated in the media that he gives his daughter only $ 1 pocket money per week and that he wants his girls to know limits. They also have to set the table, rinse the dishes, tidy up their rooms and practice the piano every day. By giving this information to the media, the Obamas try to serve as a role model for the perfect, modern, well-educated family. This is, of course, also what people want their First Family to be - a good example for everybody. Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 20

THE PRESIDENT`S DAUGHTERS IN MEDIA: Balcony Picture This picture caused a lot of trouble. THE PRESIDENT`S DAUGHTERS IN MEDIA: Balcony Picture This picture caused a lot of trouble. You can see Sasha standing on a balcony of the White House and waving to her father, who is waving back. The White House asked the media not to publish it because the President doesn't want to have any private photos of his daughters in the media. He doesn't want to publish photos that show only the daughters without their parents, because that would be an intrusion on their private sphere. Nevertheless, some media (http: //www. 20 min. ch/news/ausland/st ory/23294500) denied his request and published the photo. Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 21

THE PRESIDENT`S DAUGHTERS IN MEDIA White House Press Secretary Robert Gibbs said about this: THE PRESIDENT`S DAUGHTERS IN MEDIA White House Press Secretary Robert Gibbs said about this: “When the kids participate with their parents on an official occasion, they are members of the First Family. But when the girls are alone, or the First Lady and the President are just fulfilling their task as parents, the family should have a wide shelter of privacy. “ Obama doesn't tolerate any pictures being taken of his family in the White House except on official occasions. The house and the garden are taboo for photographers. Sometimes Obama releases private photos in the internet which he has chosen himself. The use of this photos is permitted for everyone, but the details are highly controlled: only shots in very low resolution are made available. This is why media are forced to contact the White House and ask for photos in high resolution if they want to print them. Of course, this level of control displeases many photographers who work for the White House. Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 22

THE PRESIDENT`S DAUGHTERS IN MEDIA: Red Silk Dress Malia Ann and Natasha Obama belong THE PRESIDENT`S DAUGHTERS IN MEDIA: Red Silk Dress Malia Ann and Natasha Obama belong to the most photographed children in the world. Whenever something new happens in their life, the media reports it all over the world. There is a huge media interest in their appearance and in their clothes: whenever a photo is taken of them, their appearance is scrutinized rigorously. On Obama's election day, his daughter Malia wore a red silk dress by Biscotti and was the star of the media. Two days later, the $ 110 dress was sold in every store. There are more pictures of Malia in her red dress in the internet than photos of Barack Obama on his election day. This shows very clearly the huge interest in Malia and Sasha. Sometimes, they are of more interest for the media than the President of the United States and they have to cope with this stardom. Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 23

THE PRESIDENT`S DAUGHTERS IN MEDIA: Childhood Obesity Another example for the sometimes bizarre interest THE PRESIDENT`S DAUGHTERS IN MEDIA: Childhood Obesity Another example for the sometimes bizarre interest in Malia and Sasha was the aftermath of a incidental comment by Michelle Obama. In February 2010, Michelle Obama started a campaign to tackle childhood obesity in the U. S. In this context, she stated that her two daughters had also been in danger of becoming overweight. She hadn‘t noticed the change, but the children‘s doctor said that they had to be careful. So Michelle put Malia and Sasha on a diet: fewer burgers, low-fat milk, and fruit juice and water instead of sugary drinks. The girls soon had a normal BMI soon, and the problem was solved. This story aroused criticism and a huge discussion started. Some experts said that Michelle had done a good thing, because it showed that nobody is not in danger of becoming overweight. By talking about her family's weight problems and how she solved the problem, she encouraged many people to do the same. Other eating disorder specialists argued that the terms ″health″ and ″weight″ get confused. This leads to a ″ weight stigmatization″ and is therefore not helpful. This example shows how easily a statement can get out of control and that nobody can really control the media. Michelle Obama mentioned the issue concerning their daughters in an aside, but it took on a life on its own, and the media jumped onto it. Their daughters got exactly the kind of public attention that their parents wanted to avoid. Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 24

MEDIA REPRESENATATION OF THE OBAMA FAMILIY – THE THIN LINE BETWEEN MEDIA MANAGEMENT AND MEDIA REPRESENATATION OF THE OBAMA FAMILIY – THE THIN LINE BETWEEN MEDIA MANAGEMENT AND MANIPULATION: Conclusion The United States of America has its first black President. This sensational news went around the world in 2008. Immediately, Barack Obama and his family were media stars, and from then on, they couldn’t show themselves in public any longer without being chased by reporters and photographers. The U. S. President is the most powerful man in the world, and it is self-evident that he is the center of media interest. The Obamas, however, receive an even a greater amount of media attention than former presidential families because of their being African American. Therefore, it is of utmost importance for them to handle the media very carefully and to know how to protect themselves and their two young girls Malia and Sasha. Generally, the First Family receives a great amount of attention in the United States. The family details, especially when Presidents move into the White House with children, are a major national interest. Just one example of this phenomena is the intensity with which all issues surrounding presidential pets are discussed publicly. Taking this specific background into consideration, the hysteria about Bo moving into the White House seems less exceptional than we first thought it to be, as Bo received a similar amount of attention former presidential pets did. Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 25

MEDIA REPRESENATATION OF THE OBAMA FAMILIY – THE THIN LINE BETWEEN MEDIA MANAGEMENT AND MEDIA REPRESENATATION OF THE OBAMA FAMILIY – THE THIN LINE BETWEEN MEDIA MANAGEMENT AND MANIPULATION: Conclusion Precisely because the First Family traditionally receive such a high amount of media attention, a strict media management is inevitable. We have outlined the major characteristics of the media management the Obama administration is pursuing, which first of all serves the protection of the presidential family. Behind every seemingly spontaneous glimpse into the family life is the political strategy of the White House. (Wallsten and Fiore, Getting to know the Obamas, on their terms. Full link can be found in reference list. ) We would argue that this restriction of information about the First Family is indeed necessary. Being in the center of media attention does not only mean that having a normal private life is impossible. It also means that one can easily become the object of hatred, violence, or extortion; this is most valid for the President of the United States. On top of this, having two young daughters requires special prudence. Malia and Sasha cannot live a normal life but are always surrounded by paparazzi when they are in public. The only thing that can be done is to shield them as well as possible from sometimes relentless media coverage in order to enable them to have a happy childhood. Media management is one of the most important issues for Barack Obama, and his strict manipulation of the media should be tolerated because it fulfils a very important purpose – to protect himself and his family. Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 26

MEDIA REPRESENATATION OF THE OBAMA FAMILIY – THE THIN LINE BETWEEN MEDIA MANAGEMENT AND MEDIA REPRESENATATION OF THE OBAMA FAMILIY – THE THIN LINE BETWEEN MEDIA MANAGEMENT AND MANIPULATION: Conclusion The media management, however, serves several purposes. First, the harmonious nuclear family serves as a role model in times of weakening family bonds. This function of a role model is not only true for the Obamas, but for the First Family in general, and is one reason for the intensity of public interest in private family issues. But apart from that, it can also help bolster the President ´s popularity when he is pursuing unpopular political aims. We judge the potential for media manipulation quite critical in cases were the family related issues become utilized as political assets. One example of this is, in our perspective, the allegedly spontaneous family interview during the presidential campaign. During our research, however, we discovered only very rarely sources that did emphasize this potential for media manipulation. The only article articulating the criticism directly was a German source. (Rest, T. (2009) “Papa ist da, und er hat Fotografen mitgebracht. “, full link can be found in reference list. ) Thus, we concluded that the issue might be considered more negatively from an outside perspective. As we have shown, Americans generally take a greater interest in the family life of the President. For this reason, they might perceive the media management as less manipulative Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 27

REFERENCES The Obama Election – A Personal Touch From The Beginning • Cover Washington REFERENCES The Obama Election – A Personal Touch From The Beginning • Cover Washington Post. http: //talkinstuff. files. wordpress. com/2009/04/wp_front_page_04_15_091. jpg? w=468&h=851 (05. 01. 2011) • Cover The New Yorker http: //www. newyorker. com/magazine/toc/2009/04/27/toc_20090420 (05. 01. 2011) The First Family and the Media in the Past • The White House Debuts The Obamas' New Dog Bo, A Portuguese Water (http: //www. zimbio. com/pictures/M 9 meu 3 FVGsk/White+House+Debuts+Obamas+New+Dog+Bo+Portuguese/z. GCrp 22 Bid/Bo+Obama, accessed on February, 14 2011) • • • Dog. Zimbio Clair, Stacy (2009): “Obama‘s dog: Meet Bo, the Portuguese water dog. “ Chicago Tribune (online). (http: //www. chicagotribune. com/news/chi-talk-obama-puppy-13 -apr 13, 0, 2536424. story, accessed on January, 15 2011) “Obama's Dog: Tails from the White House Lawn. ” ( http: //www. obama-dog. com/blog/about. html, accessed on January, 15 2011). „Presidential Pet Museum. “ (http: //www. presidentialpetmuseum. com/index. htm, accessed on January, 15 2011). Picture J. F. K. and Macaroni: http: //www. presidentialpetmuseum. com/index. htm, accessed on January, 15 2011. Picture Bo and Obama in White House (Taken from a website about Bo): http: //www. bo-obama-dog. com/page/2/, accessed on January, 15 2011. Picture Reagan and family: http: //commons. wikimedia. org/wiki/File: Reagan_family_1967. jpg, accessed January, 15 2011. Picture Clinton and Family: http: //de. electionsmeter. com/sondaggi/hillary-clinton, accessed, January, 15 2011. Picture Bush and Family: http: //www. online-artikel. de/article/george-w-bushs-tochter-hat-geheiratet-4630 -1. html, accessed January, 15 2011. Picture John and Jackie Kennedy on porch: http: //www. thekennedyway. com/jfk-familylife. htm, accessed January, 15 2011. Picture Barack and Michelle Obama on porch: http: //www. wethebesttv. com/community/media/archive. aspaid=1&date=12/1/2010, accessed on January, 15 2011. Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 28

REFERENCES The Family as a Political Asset – Interview During the Campaign • Parker, REFERENCES The Family as a Political Asset – Interview During the Campaign • Parker, Jennifer “Obama Grants First Family Interview to `Acess Hollywood´” July 8, 2008. Abc News. http: //abcnews. go. com/Politics/Vote 2008/story? id=5330730&page=1 (3. 12. 2010) • Share Your Thoughts: Access´ Exclusive With Barack Obama & Family, July 9, 2008. http: //blogs. accesshollywood. com/archives/2008/07/access-exclusive-with-barack-o. html (3. 12. 2010) • Celizic, Mike “Obama calls “Access Hollywood” interview a mistake” July 9, 2008. http: //today. msnbc. msn. com/id/25600445/ns/today-today_on_the_trail/ (3. 12. 2010) • Obama, Barack (2006) The Audacity of Hope. Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream. New York: Three Rivers Press. 325 -352. (Interview page 344). Media Control by the White House • Getting to know the Obamas, on their terms. By Peter Wallsten and Faye Fiore. April 20, 2009. Latimes. com http: //articles. latimes. com/2009/apr/20/nation/na-obama-presidency 20 (3. 12. 2010) • Eberhard, Uli (2009): “Obama, digital. ” (http: //fokussiert. com/2009/01/19/offizieller-praesidenten-fotograf-pete-souzaobama-digital/, accessed on January, 15 2011). • “Pete Souza Photography. ” (http: //www. petesouza. com/, accessed on January 15, 2011). Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 29

REFERENCES Protection for the Daughters of the President • • Bauder, David (2009) “Obamas REFERENCES Protection for the Daughters of the President • • Bauder, David (2009) “Obamas ambivalenter Umgang mit Bildern. “ 20 minutes online. (http: //www. 20 min. ch/news/ausland/story/23294500, accessed January, 15 2011) Rest, T. (2009) “Papa ist da, und er hat Fotografen mitgebracht. “ Süddeutsche Zeitung (online) (http: //www. sueddeutsche. de/leben/barack-obama-papa-ist-da-und-er-hat-fotografen-mitgebracht 1. 44751 , accessed January , 15 2011) Westfall, Sandra Sobieraj ( 2008): “Barack Obama Gives Daughter $1 Allowance a Week. “ People (online. ) (http: //www. people. com/people/article/0, , 20214569, 00. html, accessed January, 15 2011 Tan, Cheryl (2008): First Daughter Malia Obama – Fashion Trendsetter in the Making? “ The Wall Street Journal (online) (http: //blogs. wsj. com/runway/2008/11/06/first-daughter-malia-obama-fashiontrendsetter-in-the-making/tab/article/, accessed on January, 15 2011). Black, Rosemary (2010): “Michelle Obama under fire for mentioning daughter Malia‘s weight during obesity remarks. “ Daily News online. (http: //www. nydailynews. com/lifestyle/2010/02/05/2010 -0205_michelle_obama_under_fire_for_mentioning_daughters_during_obesity_remarks. html, accessed on January, 15 2011. ) Balcony Picture: http: //www. 20 min. ch/news/ausland/story/23294500, accessed January, 15 2011. Picture red silk dress: http: //blogs. wsj. com/runway/2008/11/06/first-daughter-malia-obama-fashiontrendsetter-in-the-making/tab/article/, accessed January, 15 2011. Project on Media Representation of the Obama Family 30