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Media and Democracy Week 5 Media and Democracy Week 5

Bennett: News: The Politics of Illusion n Key Themes ¨ Gatekeeping ¨ News as Bennett: News: The Politics of Illusion n Key Themes ¨ Gatekeeping ¨ News as Democratic Information System ¨ Politicians, Press, and the People ¨ Defining News n War on Terror: Chilling Effect ¨ Soft News/Infotainment ¨ News Bias n Beyond objectivity

Bennett: The Political Economy of News n Corporate Profit Logic and Content ¨ Audience Bennett: The Political Economy of News n Corporate Profit Logic and Content ¨ Audience demographics ¨ Economics vs. Democracy n n n Ratings Fragmentation Media Monopoly ¨ Information Trends § Distorted power in markets; less alternative news § Less critical coverage of corporate activity; ads as news/internal censorship § Infotainment/soft news (news that sells) § Generic News – wire services § Branding the news – news as commodity/product

Bennett: The Political Economy of News n n n Ownership Concentration & Conglomeration Logics Bennett: The Political Economy of News n n n Ownership Concentration & Conglomeration Logics of Hypercommercialism & Commodification Synergistic Strategies Telecommunications Act of 1996, 2003 ¨ News on the Internet ¨

Our Traditional Media Realm n US Media of Note ¨ Newspapers, n National, Local Our Traditional Media Realm n US Media of Note ¨ Newspapers, n National, Local ¨ International n Television, Radio, Magazines Newspapers http: //www. newspaperindex. com/

Newspapers USA Today n NY Times/Washington Post n Wall Street Journal n Centre Daily Newspapers USA Today n NY Times/Washington Post n Wall Street Journal n Centre Daily Times n The Daily Collegian n ¨ The n Paper Voices

USA Today § America’s only national newspaper § § Circulation – highest in country USA Today § America’s only national newspaper § § Circulation – highest in country § § 2. 25 million copies/weekdays/all 50 states (hotels) Founded in 1982 § § Gannett Company Easy to read; colorful graphics = “Mc. Paper” “Imagined Community” – Benedict Anderson

NY Times n “National newspaper of record” ¨ New n Circulation: 3 rd in NY Times n “National newspaper of record” ¨ New n Circulation: 3 rd in country ¨ Daily n n York Times Company (15 other papers) distribution Founded in 1851 Liberal Bias (cultural cosmopolitanism)

Wall Street Journal n International business/finance news and issues ¨ Published n Circulation: 2 Wall Street Journal n International business/finance news and issues ¨ Published n Circulation: 2 nd in country ¨ Daily n n n by Dow Jones & Company distribution (online subscriptions) Founded in 1889 American conservatism/economic liberalism Purchased by News Corps – 2007

Centre Daily Times (CDT) n State College’s main daily newspaper ¨ The n Mc. Centre Daily Times (CDT) n State College’s main daily newspaper ¨ The n Mc. Clatchey Company (31 other papers) Circulation: 27, 000 ¨ Daily n n distribution Founded in 1898 (Weekly Times); 1934 (CDT) Penn State Focus (“Blue Weekly” – tabloid)

The Daily Collegian § Penn State’s student-operated newspaper Including commonwealth campuses (“weekly collegian”) § The Daily Collegian § Penn State’s student-operated newspaper Including commonwealth campuses (“weekly collegian”) § Gannett Company § § § Circulation – 40, 000/weekdays Founded in 1887 (Free Lance); 1940 (DC) § The Paper – Aaron Matthews (2007) § http: //www. thepaperdocumentary. com/

Voices of Central Pennsylvania § Central Pennsylvania’s monthly news magazine of investigative journalism and Voices of Central Pennsylvania § Central Pennsylvania’s monthly news magazine of investigative journalism and regional and local interest news non-profit , volunteer § “Community platform” – progressive; identity; muckraking; § § § Circulation – 12, 000 Founded in 1989 § Find copies - http: //www. voicesweb. org/node/10 § § Internships available Suzen Erem

Television n “Network News” ¨ ABC, n NBC, CBS, Cable ¨ MSNBC, n The Television n “Network News” ¨ ABC, n NBC, CBS, Cable ¨ MSNBC, n The Sunday Morning Punditocracy ¨ This n Week Public Broadcasting ¨ PBS n Fox, CNN – Jim Lehrer/BBC Non-Profit/Public Service ¨ C-Span

“Network News” n Nightly News Broadcasts ¨ NBC (1 st - Brian Williams) ¨ “Network News” n Nightly News Broadcasts ¨ NBC (1 st - Brian Williams) ¨ ABC (2 nd - Diane Sawyer) ¨ CBS (3 rd - Katie Couric) n Audiences: 21 million; older demographic (60); shrinking yearly

Cable (24/7 ¨ CNN n (Cable News Network) Time Warner ¨ ¨ Fox n Cable (24/7 ¨ CNN n (Cable News Network) Time Warner ¨ ¨ Fox n “coverage” ) Founded in 1980; first all-news television network in US 212 countries/territories (2 nd in the US) “CNN” Effect” = perceived impact of real-time 24 -hour news coverage on the decision-making processes of US government. - #1 rated cable news network News Corp. ¨ ¨ Founded in 1996; emphasis on graphics “Nationalistic”/conservative viewpoints § “Fair and Balanced”; “Fox News Alert” (“Breaking news”) ¨ MSNBC n Microsoft/General Electric ¨ ¨ Started in 1996; Liberal/progressive viewpoints

The Sunday Morning Punditocracy Meet the Press: David Gregory NBC 1947 Face the Nation: The Sunday Morning Punditocracy Meet the Press: David Gregory NBC 1947 Face the Nation: Bob Schieffer CBS 1954 This Week: Christiane Amanpour ABC 1981 Fox News Sunday: Chris Wallace FOX 1996 State of the Union: John King CNN 2009

Pundit n A pundit is someone who offers to massmedia their opinion or commentary Pundit n A pundit is someone who offers to massmedia their opinion or commentary on a particular subject area on which they are knowledgeable Wikipedia n An authority, or one who announces judgments, opinions or conclusions in an authoritative manner Webster’s Third Dictionary

Public Broadcasting ¨ PBS (WPSU locally – channel 3) ¨ Straight Journalism ¨ n Public Broadcasting ¨ PBS (WPSU locally – channel 3) ¨ Straight Journalism ¨ n The News. Hour with Jim Lehrer (Wash. DC/7 pm locally) ¨ n Reporting: context, depth, unembellished § (1975/"Robert Mac. Neil Report“) § 2. 4 million viewers nightly Corporate/Foundational/Viewer Funded § http: //www. pbs. org/newshour/aboutus/funders. html BBC World News (UK/6 pm locally) ¨ World Focus (NYC /11 pm )

Non-Profit/Public Service ¨C-Span Founded in 1979 n Cable-industry financed non-profit network for televising live Non-Profit/Public Service ¨C-Span Founded in 1979 n Cable-industry financed non-profit network for televising live sessions of US Government and related events (No government funding) n No Sponsorships or Advertising n ¨ C-Span 2 (1986); C-Span 3 (2001)

Talk n Conservative Radio/TV/Web Rush Limbaugh(None/1988)(13 million) ¨ (31. 25/400 million) ¨ Bill O’Reilly Talk n Conservative Radio/TV/Web Rush Limbaugh(None/1988)(13 million) ¨ (31. 25/400 million) ¨ Bill O’Reilly (Harvard/1996) (4 million) ¨ Glenn Beck (None/3. 4 million)(3. 5 million) ¨ n Liberal ¨ Air America Radio (2004/1. 5 million) n n Difficulties: funding/management WPSU (PBS member station in State College) ¨ Owned by Penn State ¨ NPR - privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization – n n serves as a national syndicator to 797 public radio stations in the United States News and public affairs/ cultural programs – Most Unbiased news source (? ) – attacked by everyone WKPS (The Lion - 90. 7 FM) –radio/web (1994) ¨ Owned by PSU/FCC licensed n n Radio Free Penn State - Weekdays 5 -6: 30 (ANDY NAGYPAL) http: //www. collegian. psu. edu/archive/2004/09/09 -16 -04 tdc/09 -16 -04 dnews-11. asp

Periodicals The Nation n The American Prospect n The Weekly Standard n National Review Periodicals The Nation n The American Prospect n The Weekly Standard n National Review n Reason n Utne n

The Nation Weekly US Periodical: Politics/Culture n Liberal/Progressive (Left) n Editor: Katrina Vanden Heuvel The Nation Weekly US Periodical: Politics/Culture n Liberal/Progressive (Left) n Editor: Katrina Vanden Heuvel n Circulation: 200, 000 n Sustained by donors n

The American Prospect Monthly US Periodical: Politics n Liberal/Progressive (Left) n Editors: Mark Schmitt, The American Prospect Monthly US Periodical: Politics n Liberal/Progressive (Left) n Editors: Mark Schmitt, Paul Starr, Robert Kuttner, Robert Reich n Circulation: 40, 000 n Sustained by subscription n ¨ “generate debate, further ideas, and set agendas”

The Weekly Standard n Weekly US Periodical: Politics n Leading neoconservative magazine (Right) Editor: The Weekly Standard n Weekly US Periodical: Politics n Leading neoconservative magazine (Right) Editor: Fred Barnes William Kristol n Circulation: 83, 000 n Sustained by News Corps n ¨ Advocacy journalism (partisan)

National Review n Bi-weekly US Periodical: Politics n Conservative (Right) Editor: William F. Buckley National Review n Bi-weekly US Periodical: Politics n Conservative (Right) Editor: William F. Buckley (first); today Rich Lowry n Circulation: 155, 000 n Sustained by donations and subscriptions n ¨ Young Americans for Freedom n http: //www. clubs. psu. edu/up/psyaf/

Reason n Monthly US Periodical: Politics, Culture n Libertarian (Left-Center-Right – debated/issue driven) Editor: Reason n Monthly US Periodical: Politics, Culture n Libertarian (Left-Center-Right – debated/issue driven) Editor: Matt Welch n Circulation: 60, 000 n n Sustained by Reason Foundation, a national, non-profit research and educational organization. ¨ “Free Minds and Free Markets”

Utne n Bi-monthly US Periodical: Culture n Liberal/ Progressive Editor: Jay Walljasper n Circulation: Utne n Bi-monthly US Periodical: Culture n Liberal/ Progressive Editor: Jay Walljasper n Circulation: 205, 000 n Sustained by Ogden Publications n ¨ Reprinted Articles from a wide range of alternative sources

Think Tanks n A think tank (also called a policy institute) is an organization, Think Tanks n A think tank (also called a policy institute) is an organization, institute, corporation, or group that conducts research and engages in advocacy in areas such as social policy, political strategy, economy, science or technology issues, industrial or business policies, or military advice.

Primary Think Tanks n n n http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/List_of_think_tanks_in_the_United_States Critics have suggested that, Primary Think Tanks n n n http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/List_of_think_tanks_in_the_United_States Critics have suggested that, because of the private nature of the funding of some think tanks, their results are biased to a varying degree. Some argue that members will be inclined to promote or publish only those results which ensure the continued flow of funds from private donors. In some cases, corporate interests have found it useful to create "think tanks. " For example, The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition was formed in the mid 1990 s by Philip Morris to dispute research finding a link between second-hand smoke and cancer.

Political Knowledge and the Public Sphere? n Moral Politics: How Liberals and Conservatives Think Political Knowledge and the Public Sphere? n Moral Politics: How Liberals and Conservatives Think ¨ n Discourse ¨ n http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Moral_Politics http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Discourse Political Discourse http: //www. huffingtonpost. com/peter-clothier/language-political-disco_b_81164. html ¨ http: //krugman. blogs. nytimes. com/2007/11/21/a-thought-about-political-discourse/ ¨ n Filtering the Flak ¨ http: //www. thedailyshow. com/video/index. jhtml? video. Id=220276&title=White-House-Press. Corps