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Measurement 4 Trade and Migration Measurement 4 Trade and Migration

General problems of measurement Flows of goods or of people, or of money (capital General problems of measurement Flows of goods or of people, or of money (capital transfers, cash remittances…) between two countries Statistics are usually built at State level: customs, people’s registration, banks, etc. Clandestine / unregistered flows across borders Inconsistencies

Trade Total exports should fit total imports between one area A and one area Trade Total exports should fit total imports between one area A and one area B Sometimes not (ex. Oil from Africa) Trade balances from national accounts ≠ Balance of payments (customs and central banks data) Measurement of protection is a hard task: tariffs and especially tariff-equivalent measures of nontariff barriers (e. g. quotas) Mac. Maps Database of CEPII in France

Foreign Direct Investments Balance of payments source (IMF standards): money flows, potentially disaggregated by Foreign Direct Investments Balance of payments source (IMF standards): money flows, potentially disaggregated by sectors (OECD database) Multinational firms data with employment, output, etc. : only for some countries, from national sources (industrial censuses), specific surveys…

Official Development Assistance Collected and homogenized by DAC for OECD countries Commitments (for a Official Development Assistance Collected and homogenized by DAC for OECD countries Commitments (for a number of years) ≠ Disbursements (in one year) Grants (incl. debt relief) Concessionary part of loans Other things: research for development, wages of international organizations…

Migrations Definition issues: what is a migrant? Country of birth (Australia, Canada, New. Zealand, Migrations Definition issues: what is a migrant? Country of birth (Australia, Canada, New. Zealand, USA), nationality (EU, Japan, Korea), time of stay… Flows: Permits & population registers (only some countries like Belgium, Netherlands): - rules of registration vary - measurement at the time of the permit delivery - usually entries > exits Refugees (UNHCR) Nationality acquisition Stocks: Population censuses, Labor force surveys allows knowledge of some migrants’ characteristics more irregular migrants Migrants in collective households not covered by LFS Specific surveys on migrant sub-samples of the population. How to reach 2 nd generation, especially in jus soli countries?

In the future: mirror-surveys 1) Collect data in the country of origin: households with In the future: mirror-surveys 1) Collect data in the country of origin: households with migrants outside 2) Track the migrants in the country of residence (costly step!) 3) Information on both sides to analyze migration behaviors (decisions to move, to remit, etc. ) 4) Complex network structures

GDP per capita inequality between countries of birth GDP per capita inequality between countries of birth