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me elco ck W do rad gs!!! B ldo ul B 200 6 -20 07 MRS. CONTRERAS Language Arts 9 th Grade – Eng I IGCSEHonors Room C 209
Home Learning THE FOLLOWING ARE DUE: • (in box) Movie Project: Group Sheet, Movie Concept, Core Story Elements, 8 1/2 x 14 Flowchart & Characters.
Weekly Forecast 11/6/06 – 11/10/06 • • Monday – Group PP Presentation (Persian/Arabic). "The Koran" pg 576 Tuesday – Teacher Planning Day Wednesday – FCAT Writes Practice Thursday – Discuss "The Thousand One Nights: The Second Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor" pg 582 • Friday – Holiday
Home Learning By Monday, 11/13: • Having completed, typed and emailed all information concerning characters and story last week, this week, take advantage of one day (Teacher Planning or Holiday) to finalize the introduction and development of characters (how they are to be introduced, to grow or not grow in the story, interact with other characters, advance plot, develop conflict, etc. ) and story. This week, ALL story scenes must be in place, so make sure you don’t need additional scenes between existing ones. Amend the typed 8 ½ x 14 flowchart as needed (once again email to all group members when done). Each scene on chart must be labeled either as a story element (if it is) or for its purpose (introduce character, explain how it links prior scene to next scene). • Read introduction to West African oral literature pg 612 -623. • Read "How the World was Created from a Drop of Milk" pg 624627. Have a great week!
Omar Rodriguez Annays Rodriguez Massiel Lezcano Stacy Pereda Luis Mourino Claudia Ruiz Courtesy of wikipedia. org
Persian & Arabic Literature • In the Sixth Century, Persia and Arabia really began to prosper intellectually, socially, artistically, and technologically (Applebee 564). • Islam being the new religion, is what helped spread theses cultural achievements (564). • Persia was an empire that had over 1, 000 years in History, such as when Persian king Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon (539 BC), making Mesopotamia part of the Persian empire and freeing the Jews to return to Palestine (22, 564). • Persia became a center for Islamic learning thanks to Islam (564). • Arabia is a desert peninsula on the traffic circle of Asia, Africa, and Europe (564). • The Arabs were originally Nomadic using camels to make it easier for them to cross the desert. The Arabs used a method called Caravans which basically meant that they would cross the desert in long trains of camels (564). Courtesy of languages. umd. edu
Persian & Arabic Literature Continued…. • Islam was founded in the Arabian city of Mecca where a prophet by the name of Muhammad gave Islam its holy book the Koran, one of the world’s most important book of sacred literature (565). • People that follow Islam are known as Muslims. The religion spread by conquest and persuasion. The Islamic civilization in the 1200 s stretched westward across northern Africa to Spain and eastward to the Chinese border (565).
Historical Highlights • Pre-Islamic Persia (1000 B. C. - A. D. 642) • • Originally Aryan Nomads (566). Settled in plateau west of India which became known as Persia or Iran, “land of the Aryans” (566). A religious reformer/prophet by the name of Zoroaster founded a religion called Zoroastrianism. “Zoroastrianism saw the world and human morality in terms of a struggle between good and evil divinities” (566). Cyrus the Great established a Persian empire that reached from the Indus River to Anatolia, now Turkey (566). Cyrus, along with Cambyses II and Darius I, did not destroy the lands he conquered, but treated the people with respect, particularly to customs. Darius connected the empire by roads, as well as standardized coinage and weights to promote trade (566). With time, the rule of the above mentioned conquerors ended when Darius was defeated by the Greeks (battle of Marathon 490 BC). Afterwards, in 331 BC, Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire and made it his own. (566) In 224 BC, a group called the Sassanids, which were a native Persian Dynasty, regained control of Persia until the rise of Islam in 642 AD. “Cyrus the Great” Courtesy of Google Images
Historical Highlights (continued…) • Arabs and the Rise of Islam (A. D. 5701258) • • According to Arabic tradition, Arabs descend from Abraham, who is the ancestor or “father” of the Hebrews (566). Arabs were originally desert nomads, but later became farmers and traders (566). It is said that Muhammad was born in Mecca (570 AD). According to the Arabic tradition, “the Angel Gabriel visited Muhammad and revealed to him the will of God, or Allah. Muhammad began to preach Islam, or ‘submission to Allah’s will’” (567). This new faith scared the people of Mecca, causing them to force those who followed the faith to Medina. When in Medina, those following the faith started a military campaign against the people of Mecca as well as anyone who opposed their faith (567). In time (631 AD), most of Arabia followed that Islamic faith, and not long after (640 AD) so did the Persians (567). When Muhammad died, caliphs (successors) continued to rule the empire (567). “From 762 to 1258, the Abbasid dynasty ruled from the great capital Baghdad…In 1258, the rise of independent Muslim states began to break it apart” (567). “Sign of Muhammad” Courtesy of Google Images
Historical Highlights (continued…) • A Persian Rebirth (A. D. 819 -1502) • • • A renaissance of Persian culture resulted from the challenge of a group called the Samanids who gained power over the northeastern part of the Islamic Empire (567). In 945, the Persians took control of Baghdad; this was because the city of Bukhara (which was in Persia) was competing with Islamic capital of Baghdad to be the center of learning (567). Persians, who had been reading and writing Arabic, now started to also write in Persian, a tradition that flourished despite the loss of power to the Seljuks, which were people from central Asia who spoke Turkish (567). Sultans or Shah means “king” in Persian. These Seljuk Shahs moved the capital to Isfahan (located in Persia) and then appointed Persians as the prime ministers (567). One of the most famous Shahs was Malik Shah, who “was a great patron of the arts and sciences as well as a powerful political leader” (567). Persia continued to live under the rule of the Turkish until 1502 (567). “The Great Mosque” Courtesy of Google Images
History to Literature (567). • Event in History • Event in Literature 1. 2. 3. 4. Muhammad becomes the prophet of Islam Trade and navigation flourish in the region. The Samanids support a revival of Persian culture. A mystical form of Islam called the Sufism arises. 2. 3. 4. “ 1001 Nights” Courtesy of Google Images Allah’s revelations to Muhammad are gathered in The Koran. The Thousand One Nights tells the adventures of a sailor names Sindbad. The Samanids commission a Persian epic called the Shahnameh. Rumi gives poetic expression to the ideas of Sufism. (567)
People and Society While the Islamic empire shared a common faith and guidelines for moral behavior, these peoples differed in their diverse backgrounds, which led to class distinctions (568). The Ruling Class Nomads • Included the Arabs who • At first the empire was a remained desert nomads theocracy, a form of government or wanderers like their led by religious authority (568). ancestors (568). • By the 10 th century, power was • Known as Bedouins, this in the hands of military dictators class was grouped into or hereditary aristocrats. Emirs tightly knit clans (568). (princes), sultans (rulers) or • They prided themselves shahs (kings) often ruled with on survival of desert terrain, which made them the help of viziers (chief excellent warriors, making ministers) (568). up the core of the Islamic • Members of this class were army (568). supported education and the Courtesy of http: //thewideworldofjohn. smugmug. com arts (568).
The Lower Classes Merchants and Traders • They were the poor class of Mecca (568). • Merchants sold their • Conditions of poor were wares in outdoor town greatly improved under and city markets called Islam since it stressed bazaars (569). helping the poor (568). • Arabia and Persia were • Nonbelievers paid the connected to major sea highest tax, converts to and land trade routes the religion paid a a which brought upon higher tax than Muslimgreat wealth for the born citizens (568). merchants, as well as • If non-believers paid the spread of ideas taxes and did not throughout the empire promote their faiths, they (569). were left alone (568). Courtesy of http: //static. flickr. com
• • The Learned Class Consisted of scholars, scientists, writers, and artist (569). They were highly valued members of society (569). Had the support of rulers who supported scientific achievements (569). They built a combination of an academy and library called the House of Wisdom where texts from Greece, India, Persia and elsewhere were translated (569). • • • Islamic Mystics These respected members of society were also known as dervishes (569). They sought personal connections with Allah (569). They were associated with Sufism, an Islamic movement in the 12 th and 13 th century (569). Brotherhoods of dervishes lived in monasteries similar to European ones (569). Traveling dervishes were given charity by the people (569). Courtesy of static. flickr. com
Arts and Culture “The Islamic Empire’s emphasis on learning blended a rich variety of cultures. At a time when Europe was in its Middle Ages, the Muslim world displayed great intellectual and artistic liveliness” (570). Islamic Architecture • Islamic houses of worship was called mosques are usually domed (570). • They were also decorated with carved lacelike patterns called arabesques (570). • Their high tower was known as a minaret from which the muezzin or caller summons the people to pray (570). • Famous mosques include the Alhambra in Granada, Spain, the Great Mosque of Damascus, and the Dome of the Rock, the site of Solomon’s temple in Jerusalem (570). Scholarship and Science • • Muhammad’s emphasis on learning led to the developments of universities which encouraged the study of religion, philosophy, law and Arabic grammar (570). At the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, translations were being made by scholars and scholarly works were being written as well (570). In Spain, Averroës reconciled Islamic thinking to that of Aristotle. In Egypt, Spanish Jew Moses Ben Maimom reconciled philosophy and Jewish law (570). One scholar’s book called Optics allowed advancements in astronomy through the development of the telescope, aiding mapmaking and navigation (570). Courtesy of http: //www. cpt. org
• • • Literature In the early times, Arabic literature was mainly comprised of an oral tradition (571). Qasidas were recited to celebrate important events, expressing deep emotions of love or grief (571). The Koran, the Islamic sacred text, was put into writing in about 653 AD. A century later, a golden age produced nonfiction, history, philosophy, science and biography (571). Persia produced great literature, such as the Avesta, the sacred text of the Zoroastrian religion. Virtually all writings were mostly Arabic until the 9 th century when the Samanids gained control, again producing works in Persian (571). The combination of Persian poetic traditions and Sufism allowed some of the greatest lyric poetry to be made (571). Courtesy of http: //web. utk. edu • • Decorative Arts The Islamic world produced exquisite ceramic tiles, carvings and woven carpets (571). These works were mostly abstract, due to the religious belief that only Allah could create life (571). Buildings, furniture, fabrics, pottery, and metalwork usually had abstract yet symmetrical patterns to adorn them (571). One type of art that was not abstract was Persian miniatures (depicted people and animals) which were painted onto silk or used as manuscript illustrations (571).
Timeline: Events in Literature ü C. 500: Pre Islamic oral poetry flourishes in Arabic; translated Sanskrit tales, in Persia. (Applebee 572) ü 610: Beginning of revelations to Prophet Muhammad that becomes the Koran. ü C. 622: First ghazals, or love lyrics composed in Arabic. (572) ü C. 653: Uthman, third caliph, authorizes the official text of The Koran. (572) ü C. 750: Golden Age of Arabic literature begins; Ibn Ishaq composes definitive biography of Muhammad. (572) ü C. 800: Arabic poet Abu Nuwas creates his famou poetry collection the s Khamriyyat. (572) ü C. 800: Tales later collected in The Thousand One Nights start appearing in Arabic. (572) ü C. 920: Rudaki initiates revival of Persian language poetry. (572) ü 1010: Ferdowsi completes his version of the Persian epic the Shahnameh. (572)
Timeline: Events in Literature • • • C. 1050: Arabic mystic Ibn Hazm composes his philosophical work The Ring of the Dove. (572) C. 1075: Malik Shah becomes the patron of astronomer and poet Omar Khayyam. (572) C. 1177: Persian mystic Farid- ad- Din Attar completes allegoric poem The Conference of the Birds. (573) 1244: Rumi meets Shams ad- Din, inspiration for the poems in Divan- e. Shams. (573) 1257 - 1258: Sadi composes his Bustan and Gulistan. (573) C. 1360: Persian poet Hafiz composes his Divan. (573) C. 1370: Persian poetry begins to decline. (573) 1375 - 1379: Ibn Khaldun writes the Muqaddimah, a monumental history of world civilization. (573) C. 1500: The Thousand One Nights is recorded in its present form. (573)
Golden Age of Arabic Literature Begins • The interesting part about the rise of the Arabic literature known today is that it was written not only by Arabs, of course, but also by non- Arabs. For instance, some of these non- Arabs that created Arabic literature were Persians, Iranians, Indians, Egyptians, Syrians and Spanish Muslims along with a number of other cultural groups. Some of the Arabic literary works derive from both the Persian and Arabic culture. One of the most famous is the “Thousand One Nights, ” written by a couple of well known writers at the time such as Tabari, Masudi, Ibn Khaldun, and Ibn Batuta. Poetry was the most significant type of Arabic Literature. They were odes or as they called it, qasida. These poems usually dealt with love, fighting, courage, etc. These poems also discussed “nature and the power of God. ” c. Of google images
Timeline: Events in the Middle East • • • C. 570: Birth of Muhammad. (572) 622: Muhammad’s flight to Medina. (572) 632: Death of Muhammad; Abu- Bakr becomes first caliph. (572) 637 - 641: Arabs conquer Jerusalem, Alexandria, and Persia. (572) 661: Umayyad Dynasty comes to power and makes Damascus the new Islamic capital. (572) 786 - 809: Caliph Harun al- Rashid makes Baghdad the center of Arabic culture. (572) C. 819 - 900: Samanid Dynasty wields power in Persi and spurs a cultural revival. (572) 830: Caliph al- Ma’mun builds the House of Wisdom in Baghdad. (572) C. 850: Al- Khwarizmi outlines the principles of algebra. (572) 998: Muhammad, a Ghaznevid Turk, becomes sultan of the Persian province of Khurasan. (572) c. Of google images
TIMELINE: EVENTS IN THE MIDDLE EAST 1064: Seljuk Turks come to power in much of Islamic Empire. (572) 1099: Crusaders capture Jerusalem and massacre Muslims and Jews. (572) 1187: Muslims under the Kurdish leader Saladin recapture Jerusalem. (573) 1218: Mongols under Genghis Khan invade Persia. (573) C. 1300: Turkish chieftain Osman I founds the Ottoman state in present day Turkey. (573) 1383 - 1385: Mongol rebel Timur the Lame(Tamerlane) briefly holds power in Persia. (573) 1453: Byzantine capital, Constantinople, falls to the Ottoman Turks. (573) 1502: Safavid dynasty comes to power in Persia. (573) 1520: Suleiman the Magnificent rules the Ottoman Empire. (573)
Mongols invade Persia • Because Genghis Khan was interested in gaining trade and weapons along with goods, he sent Mongols to an empire located between Persia and Central Asia. Genghis Khan later sent messengers to this land the sultan of the empire murdered the chief of the messengers and sent the rest of them back to Khan. Out of frustration, Khan sent his army towards Transoxiana. They figured if they forced all the small towns of the sultan’s empire to surrender first, it would be simple for them to invade the rest of the land. According to research, one of the sultan’s pieces of land helped Genghis Khan by sending him army members. Not only did the Mongols take over Persia but also part of north China, the Middle East, and southeast Asia to Central Europe. in doing this, the Mongol Empire quickly became known as the “largest neighboring empire in history. ” Courtesy of google images
Timeline: Events in World History / / / C. 250: Rise of Mayan civilization in Mexico. (572) 527: Justinian I becomes Byzantine Emperor. (572) 618: Beginning of China’s T’ang dynasty. (572) 732: Battle of Tours in France stops Muslims incursions in Europe. (572) 794: Beginning of Japan’s Heian period, known for its elegant imperial court life. (572) 800: Charlemagne crowned first Holy Roman Emperor, uniting western Europe. (572) C. 850: Empire of Ghana flourishes in western Africa. (572) C. 900: Anasazi civilization in North America enters classic Pueblo period. (572) 1054: Christianity splits into Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic. (572) 1066: Normans under William I invade and conquer England. (572) 1095: Pope Urban II begins the Crusade to wrest the Holy Land from the Muslims. (572)
Timeline: Events in World History C. 1150: Angkor Wat, magnificent temple compound in present day Cambodia, completed. (573) 1209: Genghis Khan begins Mongol conquests in Asia. (573) 1279: Mongol ruler Kublai Khan conquers China. (573) 1235: Sundiata founds Mali Empire in Africa. (573) C. 1300: Western Europe’s Renaissance begins in Italy. (573) C. 1450: Aztecs flourish in Mexico; Incas in Peru. (573) C. 1455: German printer Johannes Gutenberg prints landmark Bible on his new press. (573) 1492: Muslims driven from Spain; Columbus makes voyage of discovery to the New World. (573) 1517: Martin Luther begins Reformation. (573) 1521: Cortes conquers Aztecs. (573)
Columbus makes voyage of discovery to the New World • Legend has it that Christopher Columbus discovered America, although we all know this is no fact. It was said that Columbus slowly convinced King Ferdinand Queen Isabella gave him the money that was necessary to complete the voyage westward. When Columbus accidentally landed in America he, apparently, made “friends” with the Indians that were already there and they all had a thanksgiving feast together. Now if you’re part of the legends are facts society the this would be a complete fact, but seeing as to how there no such thing, the truth is to come out eventually. The truth is that Columbus was what we call a sort of “BTK” let’s say. He killed a great number of people and stole their land along with all the goods that were included. Columbus also wanted to attack the Turks from behind and save the “Holy Land” that the Turks had power over. c. Of google images
Connect To Today Surgery • Developed use of anesthetics (Applebee 574). • Began eye surgery (574). • Are the cause of many medical breakthroughs (574). Courtesy of http: //www. ibd. nrc. ca
Modern Banking • Money handlers established banks throughout the empire. • “By using a letter of credit from a bank in one city, merchants could get cash from another bank in another city” (574). • Word for letter was sakk (574). Courtesy of http: //www. gosfi. net
The Mail System • Darius I established mail system in the empire (574). • Relay system of royal messengers (574). • They were giving the famous postal slogan (547). Courtesy of http: //www. en. wikipedia. org
Mathematics • Our number system comes from Arabic mathematicians (575). • This is the reason why our numbers are called “Arabic numbers”. • Al-Khwarizmi was the most famous mathematician (575). • Laid the principles of algebra (575). Courtesy of http: //www. goddessy. com
Astronomy • Made achievements in optics and astronomy (575). • We use many telescopes similar to the ones used by Muslim astronomers (575). • For example, the Hubble Telescope (575). Courtesy of http: //antwrp. gsfc. nasa. gov
Word Origins • Many words of our language have Arabic or Persian origins (575). • Admiral • Alcohol • Coffee • Cotton • Magazine • Zero Courtesy of http: //www. pennyhead. com
In Conclusion… • The Arabic and Persian really did prosper and take change. I would say that thanks to Islam religion all of these great achievements occurred for example intellectually, socially, artistically, and technologically. Another topic I talked about is the Mecca Islam. The Mecca Islam is where the great prophet called Muhammad gave Islam its book the Koran, which was a very important book of literature. • In conclusion, Persia continued to lose and regain its rule for hundreds of years. In the end, it remained under Turkish rule. It went through a big religious transformation and many great people were a part of the grand transformation of Persia. • In conclusion, the people and society of the Islamic culture had many social classes. Their differences led to the different class distinctions which were nomads, the ruling class, the lower class, merchants and traders, the learned class, and Islamic mystics. • In conclusion, the Persian and Arabic rich culture and tradition allowed for advances in architechture, scholarship and science, literature and decorative arts. Courtesy of mail. brain. com
In Conclusion… • Throughout this presentation, different time periods were mentioned such as events in literature, events in the Middle East and Events in world history all throughout A. D. 500 - 1500. The major events that were briefly discussed were the Golden Age of Arabic Literature, the Mongols invade Persia under Genghis Khan, and Columbus “discovers” America, a quite controversial event. • To conclude, many of Persia and Arabia’s customs and traditions are being used today. They made many advances in medicine, astronomy and mathematics. These advancements have been the basic framework of new technology in these fields. We also use their concept of modern banking and mail system to communicate and conduct businesses. Lastly, we have even adopted words whose origins are from Persia and Arabia. • In conclusion Islamic faith was began by Muhammad which he spread the faith and principle of monotheism. There religion focuses on principles of morals and how you should do good on earth and care for others as god cares for you. Throughout the excerpts they greatly show adoration for him and they express how important it is for you to be good on earth by doing deeds such as giving alms to the poor. Courtesy of carlpanczak. com
“The Koran” Courtesy of Google Images
• Around the year 610 AD, at the age of 40, the prophet Muhammad received his first of many revelations from the archangel Gabriel (576). • According to the Islamic faith, Muhammad received the Word of God, the basis for Islam, which means “surrender to the will of Allah” (576). • Muhammad orally passed on his teachings, and later these were written down in the Koran or Qur’an which means recitation (576). • Deemed as important as the Bible to Jews and Christians, the Koran is the chief authority in Islamic life, setting forth principles and values, such as the importance of prayer, faith, work, charity, brotherly love, respect for elders, kindness to animals, honesty, humility, bravery, justice, cleanliness, and moderation (576). • Muslims believe that human beings will one day stand be judged by God according to their earthly behavior (576). Provided by yahoo images
5 formal acts of worship (5 Pillars of Islam) 1 -professing their faith 2 -praying five times daily 3 -giving charity to the poor 4 -fasting from sunrise to sundown during the holy month Ramadan, the ninth month of Islamic calendar 5 -making a pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca, birthplace of Muhammad Provided by yahoo images
• • Provided by yahoo images Monotheism: the belief of the existence of only ONE god, the creator of the universe. God requires all human beings to submit to his will, yet he is still sympathetic and merciful. The greatest of god’s creation are said to be human beings who are capable of wrongdoing as well as good. An example of monotheism is when the Koran identifies god as He not as they meaning there is one not many. Ex: “He is the Mighty, the Wise One” (578) Parallelism: is the use of similar grammatical forms or sentence structure to express ideas that are related or of equal importance Ex: “if not us, who? If not now, when? ” (577). In some cases, parallel constructions bring ideas together in a way that suggests they are opposites (antithesis or dichotomous). Ex: “For him that gives in charity…We shall smooth the path of salvation; but for him that neither gives nor takes…We shall smooth the path of affliction” (579). Parallelism gives writers a way to emphasize relationships and ideas while adding a kind of rhythm to their words (581).
The Exordium • Readers are told who God is and his attributes (578). • For example, Allah goes by the following epithets “Lord of the Universe, the Compassionate, the Merciful, Sovereign of the Day of Judgment” (578). • Parallelism “You alone we worship, and to You alone we turn for help” (578). • We are told that Allah should guide us to the straight path, which implies there is a crooked one. However implied, the text explicitly follows by explaining what the “straight” path is: “the path of those whom You have favored, not of those who have incurred Your wrath” (578). In this excerpt, we are instructed that following the straight path leads to God’s favor while not following this path leads to God’s wrath/punishment (578). • Such simple use of dichotomies in language (favor/wrath, straight/astray) does not allow for the complexities of human existence. One is either on one side of the fence or another with seemingly no in between. Courtesy of http: //thewideworldofjohn. smugmug. com
Faith in God • Epithets: “the Mighty, the Wise One” (578). • This excerpt from the Koran once again instructs on who Allah is. The first two verses depict God as the supreme power and authority. For example, “He has sovereignty over the heavens…ordains life and death…has power over all things” (578). • God is evidently everywhere inside and outside of space and time. For example, we are told “He is the First and the Last, the Visible and the Unseen. He has knowledge of all things” (578). • God is omniscient (all knowing) as when the text states “He is with you wherever you are. God is cognizant of all your actions” (578). This means that while we can only be in one place at one time, God is simultaneously present in everyone’s lives witnessing their actions. • God is also omnipotent (all powerful) as when the text states that “He has sovereignty over the heavens and the earth” (578). In fact, nothing gets past him. “He knows all that goes inot the earth, and all that emerges from it, all that comes down from heaven and all that ascends to it” (578). Courtesy of http: //thewideworldofjohn. smugmug. com
Night • “For him that gives in charity…We shall smooth the path of salvation; but for him that neither gives nor takes…We shall smooth the path of affliction” (579). This use of parallelism emphasizes the divergent outcomes of man, one good, the other bad. • The use of first-person plural: “We”, “Us”, “Ours” is used not to indicate more than one person but the special status of God (579). • A stern warning, “I warn you” is given to the hardened sinner who “denies the Truth and gives no heed” (579). His/her end the text states is “the blazing fire” (579). Purification comes from almsgiving, doing good works for God’s sake, “seeking no recompense” (579). “The Great Mosque” Courtesy of Google Images
Daylight • Once again man is told that “the life to come holds a richer prize for you than this present life. You shall be gratified with what your Lord will give you” (580). Such a statement implies that we are to be trusting that whatever rewards await us in the afterlife, these will be enough for us. After all, if God made everything, including us, who is better qualified to “know” what we need. • Through seeming oppositional statements, the Koran instructs us to provide shelter to the orphan, guide others who are in darkness, and give alms (580). In this way, a believer can “proclaim the goodness of [the] Lord” (580). “The Great Mosque” Courtesy of Google Images
• Typical of Sacred Literature, this literary work praises the divine and worships him (Allah) for his supernatural qualities, such as creating the heavens and the earth in six days. • This work perpetuates Islamic beliefs, being its most important book, sacred to their religion. • These prayers have a serious tone that shows great respect and admiration (adoration) for Allah. • If it weren’t for this piece of literature, one could argue that the Islamic faith could have been forgotten. At the very least, people could have neglected the religion if there was no written document to instruct or educate others about the religion. • The Koran has allowed the Islamic faith to blossom and spread among the world’s people.
• • • Typical of sacred texts, the Exordium sets out to delineate human obedience but provides only words like “straight path” and juxtaposes this to the path of “those who have incurred Your wrath” (578). While human beings are to walk one path rather than the other, even the “how to” walk is not quite clear. Still, the faithful are to always be monitoring their behavior, even though they may never fully understand the standard by which they are being judged. The Koran once again accentuates the immense power of God, impressing upon its readers that God’s eyes are on every action and thought, creating a great sense of vigilance. There is also great emphasis on the rewards to be received in the afterlife by those who believe and give alms in the present life. Believers are expected to act upon faith or fear. They are to believe that God will reward them for doing rightly. The following questions arise from these sections of text: Why is it that human beings need to know there are rewards? Is not the logic of the rituals or the ethical imperative expected of believers enough to convince that there may be good behind such demands? Also, why are rewards given in the hereafter? Why must human beings prove themselves? Why are human beings, even adults taught at the basic level of little children according to dichotomies, associating such demands with words like “good/favor” or “bad/wrath”? The status of God is unclear. If God is one person (monotheism), why employ the use of first-person plural? Believers are instructed on what to do by emphasizing the consequences of performing the opposite (undesirable action). Fear of damnation as in “the blazing fires” (579) reserved for the hardened sinner, and the guilt “Did He not find you an orphan and give you shelter? Did he not find you in error and guide you? . . . Therefore do not wrong the orphan…” (580) are the principal motivators in trying to persuade individuals to live according to religious mandates.
• Cognizant = Fully informed; conscious. • Alms= money, food, or other donations given to the poor or needy; anything given as charity • Abhor = strongly reject; hate violently • Covenant= an agreement, usually formal, between two or more persons to do or not do something specified. • Endeavors= A conscientious or concerted effort toward an end; an earnest attempt. • Affliction = a state of pain, distress, or grief; misery: • Avail = to be of use or value to; profit; advantage: • Heed = careful attention; notice; observation • Recompense = to repay; remunerate; reward, as for service, aid, etc. Provided by Yahoo Images
1. 2. 3. 3. 4. 5. What image or images did you find most memorable in these excerpts? Explain your response The images that I found most memorable were those that described God in such great detail and honor. It is memorable to me because having faith in god is very important to me and I also agree with the prayers mentioning all the wonderful qualities of him such as compassionate and merciful which is repeated on all three poems which makes it furthermore memorable and convincing that god is truly compassionate and merciful. Unanswered question: When the author states “by the night, when she lets fall her darkness, and…” who is the author referring to ? Is it God? According to the Koran, what qualities and actions make a person righteous? According to the Koran a righteous person would be someone with moral principles that should be practiced daily. A righteous person will pray daily, have faith, work, give charity, brotherly love, respect for elders, kindness to animals, honesty, humility, bravery, justice. . etc. 4. How do the excerpts you read support the idea “God the Compassionate, the Merciful”? -think about the kind of behavior God wants from people; how God punishes sins; and how God rewards goodness. ? God is expressed as compassionate and merciful because as the excerpts reveal with sections like “your Lord has not forsaken you, more does He abhor you” (Applebee, 580) this reveals that god will not reject you and not take value upon what you have done on earth. It assures that you will be rewarded greatly after the present life. When the excerpt on faith of god says “God is cognizant of al your actions (579) and ”He has knowledge of the inmost thoughts of men” this reveals that god knows when you sin mentally as well and he does take action and punish them. God expects people to be thoughful of others as he is to us. For example he wants us to give alms to the poor because they are in great need.
5. How might the words of the Koran be applied not just too individuals but also to governments or social groups? The words of the Koran might be applied to the government or to social groups by giving a certain level of respect to different kinds of people. As the Koran constantly describes God as the compassionate, the Merciful we minors classify the elders with respect by saying politely Ma’am, Sir, Mrs. , and Mr. , as well in governments they characterized The judges and use respectful adjectives as the honorable judge (following with a name). 6. Based on their tone, word choice, imagery, and other literary qualities, how do you think these excerpts from the Koran should be read aloud in order best to convey their meaning? The Koran is a serious piece of literature meant to greatly worship the divine God. This excerpt should be read aloud with praise and admiration no humor nor disrespect. 5. What kinds of rules or guidelines for behavior do you think a person should follow in life? How do these compare with those set forth in The Koran? I agree with the teaching of Islamic faith which focuses mainly on principle morals such as respect for elders, kindness to animals, moderation, bravery and justice. In order to be civilized beings there needs to be morals or else no one will know what’s good from bad and everything would be chaos.
Research http: //www. hti. umich. edu/k/koran/browse. html You can browse this website and read the different stories written in the Koran. • http: //i-cias. com/e. o/koran. htm Very good website. It explains The Koran in full detail and you could search The Koran inside and read about different events. • http: //www. geocities. com/athens/agora/3958/islam. htm Goes in depth with the Islamic religion and The Koran. • Courtesy of Google Images The Koran
Works Cited • • “Arabic Book. ” Online Image. October 20, 2006. http: //www. pennyhead. com/images/arabicbook. jpg Applebee, Arthur N. , The Language of Literature. Evanston, IL: Mc. Dougal Littell Inc. , 2003. Garlick, Mark A. , “Milky Way. ” Online Image. October 20, 2006. http: //antwrp. gsfc. nasa. gov/apod/image/0501/mi lkyway_garlick. jpg “Money. ” Online Image. October 20, 2006. http: //www. gosfi. net/images/money. jpg “Numbers. ” Online Image. October 20, 2006. http: //www. goddessy. com/images/Numbers. jpg “Small USPS Truck. ” December 24, 2005. Online Image. October 20, 2006. http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Image: Small_USPS_ Truck. jpg“ “Surgery. ” Online Image. October 20, 2006. http: //www. ibd. nrc. ca/images/report_10_bottom. Jpg “Arabic Architecture” Online Image. October 21, 2006. http: //www. carlpanczak. com/blog/images/IMG_0430. jpg
Works Cited (continued) • Smitha, Frank E. . "Genghis Khan and the Mongols. " Genghis Khan. 2004. Macro History. 21 Oct 2006
Works Cited (continued) • What Happened This Day in Church History. " October 12, 1492: Columbus Landed in America. 2006. Christian History Institute. 23 Oct 2006
Works Cited (Continued) • “Muslim Woman. ” May 13 th 2005. Online Image. October 23, 2006. http: //www. political-news. org/breaking/10533/us-says- probeon-alleged-koran-abuse-will-be-carried-out. html • “The Koran. ” Online Image. October 20, 2006< http: // szalagologia. fw. hu/sikcsik/szalag 11. html> • “Persian Art” Online Image. October 22, 2006. http: //www. languages. umd. edu/persian/images 2/persian 2. jpg • “Tajikestan” Online Image. October 22, 2006. http: //upload. wikimedia. org/wikipedia/e n/7/7 b/Tajikestan. JPG • N. Brothers. “Mecca Top” Online Image. October 22, 2006. http: //mail. brain. com. pk/~nbrother/mecca-top_b 8. jpg • “Arabic Architecture” Online Image. October 23, 2006. http: //www. carlpanczak. com/blog/images/IMG_0430. jpg
Works Cited (Continued) • “Persian art. ” Online Image. October 23, 2006. http: //web. utk. edu/~persian/persianintro. jpg • “Persian Woman. ” Online Image. October 23, 2006. http: //www. cpt. org/afghanistan/afghanart/Min atur%20 by%20 Azhar%20 Hirawy%20%20 Persian%2 0 style%20 -%20 big. JPG • “Arabic Building. ” Online Image. October 23, 2006. http: //thewideworldofjohn. smugmug. com/photos/7669321 -S. jpg • “Persian Window” Online Image. October 23, 2006. http: //static. flickr. com/22/30913005_c 166472 a 9 c. jpg • “Persian Temple’s Ceiling” Online Image. October 22, 2006. http: //static. flickr. com/23/36189010_3 cf 6368358. jpg
“The Thousand One Nights: The Second Voyage of Sinbad the Sailor” Analay Perez Period 5 Picture of Sindbad. Courtesy of Google Images
Introduction • • Aladin and the Magic Lamp, Sindbad the Sailor, as well as Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves are just three stories found in The Thousand One Nights, a collection of stories world-renowned (Applebee 582). This collection, also called The Arabian Nights dates back to about the 15 th century A. D. However, typical of myth and legend, these stories circulated the Middle East for centuries prior to being written down (582). The Thousand One Nights is considered a frame story. The story’s framework or structure joins smaller stories together within a larger story or narrative (582). In The Thousand One Nights, Shahryar, a powerful Asian ruler is betrayed by one woman and begins to hate all women as a result. Each day Shahryar takes a new wife. When these don’t keep his attention, he has each executed the following day. Only Scheherezade, the daughter of the king’s vizier or prime minister, is smart enough to devise a plan to keep the king interested while stopping the violence against women. She begins the task of telling him nightly stories that are never finished. The king becomes intrigued by each tale and spares her life in order to finish the story the following night. Each night Scheherezade would begin a tale but never finish it. This continued for a thousand one nights until king Shahryar decides not to kill Scheherezade for he’s fallen in love with her (582). The tradition of using frame story seems to go back at least as far as ancient India. (582) The Panchatantra (Applebee 146) is organized in the frame story tradition. This Indian tale predates the Thousand One Nights by 1000 years. If scholars are correct, the story of Sindbad (one of many in The Thousand One Nights, is based on an Egyptian story called The Tale of a Shipwrecked Sailor, predating the Arabic tales by 3500 years (582). Map of Persia and Arabia. Courtesy of Google Images.
Introduction The Sindbad Tales: • The tale of Sindbad begins in Baghdad (capital of present day Iraq) (583). • A poor porter (luggage carrier) is sitting outside the palace wondering why the rich man inside deserves his riches (583). • Sindbad, the man inside, lets him in and begins to recount his tales (583). • By the end of their talk, the porter has grown to understand that Sindbad does indeed deserve his riches (583). • Sindbad gives some riches to the porter (583). “The Great Mosque” Courtesy of Google Images
Defining Key Concepts PLOT • When we refer to any story’s plot, we mean the relationship among the series of events that take place which comprise the whole story (583). • The story progresses when there is conflict, the central character’s struggle with another character, nature, special circumstances, even himself (583). • There are several types of conflict: man vs man, man vs society, man vs external force (nature, fate), man vs himself. • As the story progresses, new conflicts/complications arise (583). Courtesy of http: //thewideworldofjohn. smugmug. com
Key Concepts at Work! • Plot: This story circles around Sinbad and his journey trying to reach somewhere he can be safe as well as trying to face his courage through his struggles. • Conflict: At first, Sinbad started out with a crew on a vessel. They were well equipped and wanted to travel and sail that same day. Out of the several stops the crew made, there was one in which they stopped at an island. Sinbad left the crew to stroll around and little did he know something was going to completely change. Sinbad fell asleep and when he awoke there was no one there. The crew left him and he was there all alone now. • Complications: One of the first complications Sinbad faces is when he is left in an island because he accidentally falls asleep. He is there with no hope until he sees a bird and miraculously he picks him up. Another struggle Sinbad faces is when he goes inside the cave he distinguishes serpents that have wrapped themselves with jewels. He wants to obtain the jewels, but in order to do that he must first confront the serpents.
Plot Sequence & Analysis • • • The story, told in first-person point of view, is narrated by Sindbad. After spending a relatively quiet time in Baghdad, he once again gets the craving for adventure around the world (584). Sindbad embarks on a sailing vessel down the Tigris River to the port city of Basrah (584). From there, Sindbad travels with some merchants from island to island (584). “Destiny” which is capitalized, personifying an abstract concept similar to an allegory, intercedes. The men reach an island, and Sindbad goes off my himself (584). He falls asleep. By the time he awakens, Sindbad realizes ship and crew have abandoned him (584). In desperation, he bewails his predicament by saying “now your end has come, Sindbad! The jar that drops a second time is sure to break!” (584). This last proverb is based on an analogy, a comparison that uses a known or familiar thing to explain something else. Sindbad compares risking his life a second time on a dangerous journey to a jar dropping. His point is that he probably won’t be lucky a second time. In fact, he explicitly states, “I cursed the day I bade farewell to the joys of a contented life and bitterly repented my folly in venturing again upon the hazards and hardships of the sea, having so narrowly escaped death in my first voyage (584). Sindbad gathers his courage and sets about to solve his problem (584). He discovers a white dome, which turns out to be the egg of a gigantic bird called “roc. ” Sindbad comes to understand about the bird because he’d heard about this creature from old tales he’d heard. Once again, the story reinforces story telling and an oral tradition. Sindbad ties himself to the bird’s talons. In the morning, the bird takes off, transporting Sindbad until he came to the top of a hill (584). Sindbad unties himself in time for the roc to go after a large black creature (snake) (585). The “serpent of immeasurable length” is just one of the hyperboles which give Sindbad’s tales their grandeur (585). Sindbad found himself on top of a steep hill. He once again laments his choices saying “would that I had remained in that island!” (585). Such a statement, the second through which Sindbad expresses the importance of not being impetuous, must serve to emphasize a life of simplicity. It also reinforces the idea of negating that the grass is always greener on the other side. Once again, the narrator (Sindbad) states “no sooner do I escape from one peril than I find myself in another more grievous” (585). Clearly this is meant to be a moral teaching.
Plot Sequence & Analysis • • • (Continued) As Sindbad descends the steep hill, he notices beautiful jewels covering the entire valley protected by dormant but deadly snakes which were wrapped around the treasures. These beasts were taller than giant palm trees and could swallow an elephant, other examples of hyperbole (585). Sindbad roams the valley with caution not to awaken the snakes, the natural enemy of the rocs, in order to find a shelter for the night. He finally comes upon a cave but notices that this cave is the home of another giant snake (585 -586). Sindbad asks for Allah’s help to keep vigil at night (586). This is the second example of Allah being referenced in the work. The previous time, Sindbad exclaimed “glory to Him who never sleeps!” (585). The next day, Sindbad leaves the cave somewhat staggering since he did not get a good night’s sleep (586). Sindbad next finds raw flesh falling into the valley from rocks above. This once again reminds him of a story where flesh was being used to capture and embed jewels. “The gems on which they fell penetrated the soft flesh and became embedded in it. At midday rocs and mighty vultures would swoop down upon the mutton and carry it away in their talons to their nests” (586). This would allow the merchants to follow the birds until they dropped the meat. In this way, the jewels could be taken from the snakes. This story gives Sindbad the idea to gather jewels in his turban but to also strap himself to the carcasses (586). He is once again swept off by the roc and placed on top of a mountain (586). Just as the bird is to feed on the flesh Sindbad is strapped to, the bird flew off after seeing a man (586). The man, who was also looking for diamonds in the flesh, questions Sindbad announces that his tales are great. Sindbad also shares some of his jewels with the man, who “was overjoyed at the unexpected gift” (586). This part reinforces the Islamic belief of generosity. The men sit around to listen to Sindbad’s tale once again refering to Allah by saying “by Allah, your escape was a miracle; for no man has ever set foot in that valley and returned alive” (586). This exchange praises Allah and Sindbad’s great courage. A picture of Sinbad. Courtesy of Google Images.
Plot Sequence & Analysis (Continued) • Sindbad is given shelter, food and drink by the men (588). • The next day, the men traveled by land seashore (588). • The men came to an island where they saw the sap of giant trees turn into crystal gum (588). The fact that the story mentions this could be significant. Perhaps this was a new invention to traveling merchants. • Sindbad claims to see a karkadan or rhinoceros. This beast is capable of killing an elephant. When the elephant’s fat covers the rhino’s eyes, both are prey to the rocs (588). • “Nature” carves the nature of man on the rhino’s horn (588). • Sindbad notices different species of rhinos on that island (588). • He trades a great amount of diamonds for other merchandise and goes port to port selling his goods (588). • He returns to Bagdad, the City of Peace (epithet) to relax from the perils and hardships of sea (588). • From far away, men gather to hear Sindbad’s tales, and he promises to tell them about his third voyage (588). Obviously Sindbad is a courageous man who tempts fate.
Storyline Elements… Climax: The moment in the story where the audience’s interest and the intensity is at its peak. Usually an important discover, decision has been reached. Rising Action: As the story progresses, complications/conflicts arise causing more problems for main characters. Exposition: This stage of story provides groundwork for plot, characters are introduced, conflict is identified. The exposition is Act I in a movie which concludes with catalyst and big event. Falling Action: Events that occur after the climax to resolve conflict. In a movie, we would see a showdown followed by some realization. Denouement: All loose ends are tied up in the end. “The Great Mosque” Courtesy of Google Images
Vocabulary • • • Jubilant: extremely joyful (Applebee 584) Confounded: Confused; befuddled (585) Oblivious: not aware; unmindful (585) Tumult: disorderly noisiness or disturbance (586) Sumptuous: costly; magnificent (588) Carcass: dead body of animal: the dead body of an animal, especially one slaughtered and prepared for use as meat. (MSN Encarta) This is a picture of the Arabian allure. Courtesy of Google Images
Significance of Work The significance of this folk tale was to show us the Islamic belief that if one is courageous and relies on Allah for help, one will be victorious. Sinbad had to face many struggles including trying to find someone to help him get out of the deserted island, as well as fighting the vicious serpents in the cave, and trying to find food and shelter. At the end he got through his obstacles unscathed, obtained the riches/jewels, gave alms to those he came in contact with, traded his goods, and rested in Baghdad, the City of Peace. Sindbad’s journey begins and ends in Baghdad, so his story is circular. His unrest is certainly something the story tackles, but reliance on his courage and on Allah save Sindbad. Picture of Arabian coast. Courtesy of Google Images
Research • http: //www. bartleby. com/65/n-/N-1001 Nigh. html This website explains The Thousand One Nights very clearly and briefly. • http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Sindbad_the_Sailor This website explains in full detail about the story as well as Sinbad. • http: //www. answers. com/topic/the-book-of-one-thousand-onenights Very elaborate and through about The Thousand One Nights.
Questions 1. 2. 3. Based on the story, do you think Sinbad deserves his wealth? Explain your response. After reading the story I believe Sinbad does deserve his wealth. The crew left him and he was basically stranded in an island with no one, until a bird picked him up. Then he encountered serpents and had to defeat them in order to get the jewels. Besides all of that, he also hardly had any food or protection. I also think he deserves his wealth because at the end he shares it with the merchant and he gives his friends jewels as well. (With a classmate) Does Sinbad succeed more because he is lucky or because he is clever? Support your opinion with examples. I believe he succeeds by luck. He succeeds by luck when the bird comes out nowhere and rescues him. In that case, he didn’t do anything for the bird to come to him.
Questions 3. Another way he succeeds by luck Is when he’s in the cave and he remembers what to do with the serpent and how to confront it. I believe he wouldn’t have come up with that. 4. Judging from the story, do you think Sinbad deserves to be called a heroic character? I do think he should be considered a heroic character because first of all, he was always looking for adventure. He didn’t care about the dangers he would face because he like adventures. Secondly, he defeats the serpent and he fights danger in every possible way he can. Finally, he treats others with respect and he is thoughtful because after going through all the trouble, he ended up share his jewels. 5. How do you think King Shahryar might respond to Scheherezade’s story about the Sinbad Sailor? I think King Shahryar might be surprised yet amazed and will appreciate Scheherezade’s story about Sinbad the Sailor.
Questions 6. In your opinion, does the greatest success belong to those who, like Sinbad, take the biggest risks? Explain. I do believe the greatest success belongs to those who take the biggest risks because you can learn a lot from it. For example, is Sinbad wouldn’t have fought the snakes he wouldn’t have obtained the jewels. Arabian desert. Courtesy of Google Images
Works Citied • • "The Thousand One Nights. " www. google. com. 21 Oct 2006