Скачать презентацию MCSHANE 7 Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR C H Скачать презентацию MCSHANE 7 Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR C H

0630735b399e2e6461e2f1b9270aaecb.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 36

MCSHANE 7 Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR C H A P T E R S MCSHANE 7 Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR C H A P T E R S E V E N Workplace Emotions, Values, and Ethics Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 1 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Continental Airlines went from “worst to first” by changing MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Continental Airlines went from “worst to first” by changing employee attitudes and emotions. The result was improved morale, customer service, and performance. Courtesy of Continental Airlines Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 2 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Emotions Defined Feelings experienced toward an object, person, or MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Emotions Defined Feelings experienced toward an object, person, or event that create a state of readiness – Make us aware of events that may affect personal goals – Emotions are directed toward something Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 3 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR • Positive Affectivity - extent to which individuals experience MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR • Positive Affectivity - extent to which individuals experience wide shifts in their emotional states • Negative Affectivity - a perpetual bad, or negative mood – Not related, or ends of a continuum • Attitudes - cluster of beliefs, assessed feelings, and behavioral intentions toward an object Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 4 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Job Satisfaction and Behavior • Satisfaction reduces turnover, absenteeism MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Job Satisfaction and Behavior • Satisfaction reduces turnover, absenteeism • Weak association with job performance – General attitude with specific behaviors – Performance affects satisfaction through rewards – Satisfaction affects org. citizenship • Satisfaction increases customer satisfaction – Affects moods, positive behaviors – Less turnover, more consistent service Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 5 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Model of Attitudes and Behavior Beliefs Attitude Emotional Episodes MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Model of Attitudes and Behavior Beliefs Attitude Emotional Episodes Feelings Behavioral Intentions Behavior Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 6 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Job Satisfaction Model Outcomes/ inputs of others Amount Expected MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Job Satisfaction Model Outcomes/ inputs of others Amount Expected Past experience Job satisfaction Job dissatisfaction Inequity feelings Perceived amount received Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 7 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Organizational Commitment • Affective commitment – Emotional attachment to, MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Organizational Commitment • Affective commitment – Emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in an organization • Normative Commitment – Feeling of obligation or need to repay one’s organization • Continuance commitment – Belief that staying with the organization serves your personal interests Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 8 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Building Organizational Commitment • Maintain fairness and satisfaction • MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Building Organizational Commitment • Maintain fairness and satisfaction • Provide some job security • Support organizational comprehension • Involve employees in decisions • Build trust - positive expectations about another party’s intentions and actions toward them in risky situations Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 9 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Emotional Labor • Effort, planning and control needed to MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Emotional Labor • Effort, planning and control needed to express organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions • Problems with emotional labor: – True emotions leak out or explode – Cognitive dissonance - conflict between emotions, behavior, or beliefs about a topic – Varied display norms across cultures • Causes Stress and Burnout • Backstage Areas Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 10 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR “Hiring for Attitude” at Four Seasons Hotels and Resorts MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR “Hiring for Attitude” at Four Seasons Hotels and Resorts “hires for attitude, trains for skills. ” Applicants must have emotions compatible with the job and possess the emotional intelligence needed to serve guests effectively. Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill Courtesy of Four Seasons Hotels & Resorts. 11 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Emotional Intelligence • - ability to monitor your own MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Emotional Intelligence • - ability to monitor your own and other’s emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide your thinking and actions – Self-awareness • self-monitoring – Self-regulation – Self-motivation – Empathy – Social Skills Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 12 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Emotional Intelligence Self. Awareness Social Skill Emotional Intelligence Self. MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Emotional Intelligence Self. Awareness Social Skill Emotional Intelligence Self. Motivation Empathy Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill Self. Regulation 13 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Values at Work • Values - enduring beliefs and MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Values at Work • Values - enduring beliefs and expectations held to be important guides to behavior by a person or group of people • Generalized conceptions of the world • Include cross-cultural, ethical, and organizational culture values • Organizational Value Systems • Functional Values Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 14 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Cultural Values • Individualism - Collectivism - extent to MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Cultural Values • Individualism - Collectivism - extent to which people value their group membership and group goals or value their individuality and personal goals • Power Distance - acceptance of unequal distribution of power in a society • Uncertainty avoidance - toleration of ambiguity, feeling threatened by ambiguity and uncertainty Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 15 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Collectivism-Individualism Collectivism China Japan Germany United States Individualism Irwin/ MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Collectivism-Individualism Collectivism China Japan Germany United States Individualism Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 16 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Power Distance High Power Distance Mexico France Japan United MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Power Distance High Power Distance Mexico France Japan United States Germany Low Power Distance Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 17 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Uncertainty Avoidance High U. A. Japan Germany United States MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Uncertainty Avoidance High U. A. Japan Germany United States Hong Kong Low U. A. Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 18 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Achievement-Nurturing Achievement Japan The degree that people value assertiveness, MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Achievement-Nurturing Achievement Japan The degree that people value assertiveness, competitiveness, and materialism (achievement) versus relationships and well-being of others (nurturing) United States France Sweden Nurturing Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 19 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Long/Short-Term Orientation Long-Term Orientation China The degree that people MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Long/Short-Term Orientation Long-Term Orientation China The degree that people value thrift, savings, and persistence (long-term) versus past and present issues (short-term). Japan Netherlands United States Russia Short-Term Orientation Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 20 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Ethics • Ethics are not laws by any means MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Ethics • Ethics are not laws by any means • Ethics-beliefs about what is right or wrong • Moral Principles-societal rules of acceptable behavior – Governed by culture, values, etc. – One’s perspective • Moral Principles drive the rules of ethics Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 21 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Ethics • Societal Ethics-standards that govern how members of MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Ethics • Societal Ethics-standards that govern how members of a society are to deal with each other on issues of fairness, justice, poverty, and individual rights • Professional ethics-standards that govern members of a profession • Individual ethics-personal standards that govern individual interaction Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 22 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Three Ethical Principles • Utilitarianism – Greatest good for MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Three Ethical Principles • Utilitarianism – Greatest good for greatest number • Individual Rights – Fundamental entitlements in society • Distributive Justice – Inequality must have equal access – Inequality must benefit the least well off Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 23 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Influences on Ethical Conduct • Moral intensity – degree MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Influences on Ethical Conduct • Moral intensity – degree that issue demands ethical principles • Ethical sensitivity – ability to recognize the presence and determine the relative importance of an ethical issue • Situational influences – competitive pressures and other conditions affect ethical behavior Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 24 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Ethical Vs Unethical Decisions • Ethical decision-reasonable and acceptable MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Ethical Vs Unethical Decisions • Ethical decision-reasonable and acceptable because it aids stakeholders, organization, and society • Unethical decision-decision that a manager would prefer to disguise or hide from other people because of individual gain is placed above others needs • Rules of thumb Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 25 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Examples of Law/Ethical Difference • Students borrowing and investing MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Examples of Law/Ethical Difference • Students borrowing and investing money • Employment-at-will - employers are free to hire and fire employees for any or NO reason, but, employees can also quit at any time as well – A law that allows unethical behavior • Caveat emptor-buyer beware • Reputation-costs and benefits Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 26 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development • As people grow MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development • As people grow up they move through six stages of moral development • Not everyone makes it through all stages • Where do you fall? ? ? • Do you agree with the progression? ? ? • Are all behavior decisions made by an individual based on only one stage? ? ? Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 27 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational 6. 4 VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development 6 5 MCSHANE Organizational 6. 4 VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development 6 5 Social Contact 4 Law and Order 3 Interpersonal 2 Instrumental 1 Stages of Moral Development Universal Principles Obedience and Punishment Low (Child) Individual Development High (Adult) Adapted from Figure 6. 2 Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 28 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Stages of development • Obedience/Punishment - behaviors are performed MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Stages of development • Obedience/Punishment - behaviors are performed to avoid punishment • Instrumental - behaviors are performed to get what you want • Interpersonal - seeking approval of friends, family, etc. is important in determining behaviors “good person” Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 29 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Stages (cont. . . ) • Law and Order MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Stages (cont. . . ) • Law and Order - Respect for laws, authority and country, seeing individuals and society as important - legalistic • Social contract - There a few absolutes, but laws and ethics must be balanced in order to provide greatest good for the greatest number • Universal Principles - people that actually have a conscious Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 30 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Utilitarian Model • Greatest good for the greatest number, MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Utilitarian Model • Greatest good for the greatest number, but may hurt a few • How does this fit with the U. S. system? ? – Do we do the greatest good for the greatest number? – Or do a few people drive society in their desired direction? Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 31 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Stakeholder Theory • Any individual or group that has MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Stakeholder Theory • Any individual or group that has interests, rights, ownership, or is affected in any way by an organization • A broad net that covers many individuals and groups • Some groups more important or germane to the organization and its success Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 32 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational 6. 7 VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Stakeholders of the Organization Customers Employees Owners MCSHANE Organizational 6. 7 VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Stakeholders of the Organization Customers Employees Owners Unions Suppliers Local Community Government Strategic partners Society in General Adapted from Figure 6. 3 Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 33 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Conflict • It is difficult to impossible to balance MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Conflict • It is difficult to impossible to balance all stakeholder concerns • Owls Vs. Lumber • Pollution Vs. Jobs • Politics Vs. Profits • Firms might not know of a stakeholder until there is a problem Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 34 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Whistle-blowing • Whistle-blowing-reporting unethical or illegal behavior • Has MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Whistle-blowing • Whistle-blowing-reporting unethical or illegal behavior • Has many consequences and risks • When should you blow-the-whistle? Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 35 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000

MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Sexual Harassment • Quid pro quo sexual harassment - MCSHANE Organizational VON GLINOW BEHAVIOR Sexual Harassment • Quid pro quo sexual harassment - asking for or forcing sexual contact with an employee in exchange for reward or to avoid punishment • hostile work environment sexual harassment - lewd jokes, pornography, sexually oriented remarks about one’s appearance making that person uncomfortable Irwin/ Mc. Graw-Hill 36 © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000