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MCA II Test Basics Curriculum and Instruction Rochester Minnesota - Fall 2005
Key Vocabulary n What should children learn? Strand Standards Benchmarks n How will we know they’ve learned it? Test Specifications Content Limits Item Samples
What the standards look like
Strand n This is the broadest statement of what we want students to learn. Under the umbrella of the strand, you will find all of the categories, known as sub-strands, and benchmarks that the MCA IIs will assess.
Math Strands n Math has 5 strands q q q Mathematical Reasoning (Assessed within the context of the other strands) Number Sense Patterns, Function, and Algebra Data, Statistics, and Probability Spatial Sense, Geometry and Measurement
Language Arts Strands n Language Arts has 3 strands q Reading and Literature n n q q Word Recognition, Analysis, and Fluency Vocabulary Expansion Comprehension Literature Writing Speaking, Listening, and Viewing
Standards n MN Academic Standards q q A standard is a generalized goal of what we want students to know and be able to do. Math Example n n Strand: Number Sense Standard: Represent whole numbers in various ways to quantify information and solve real world and mathematical problems. Understand the concept of decimals and fractions.
Benchmarks n n n Closest to the classroom Specific knowledge or skills that the student should acquire by the end of the grade level. Embedded in the curriculum
Layering it in: A Math Example n n n Strand Number Sense Standard Represent whole numbers in various ways to quantify information and solve real world and mathematical problems. Understand the concept of decimals and fraction. Benchmark Student will compare and order whole numbers.
Test Specifications n n Test Specifications help the test stay consistent over time, tell the test developers exactly what the test should look like, clarify, define and/or limit how test items will be written, and outline parameters of the test, for example q q q number of items on the test DRP level and number of passages (reading), and cognitive levels.
Interpreting Test Specifications
Cognitive Levels n n n A. Knowledge B. Understanding C. Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation
Bloom’s Taxonomy C= Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation B= Understanding A = Knowledge
Cognitive Level A and Questioning Knowledge: Knowledge is defined as the remembering of previously learned material. This may involve the recall of a wide range of material, from specific facts to complete theories, but all that is required is the bringing to mind of the appropriate information. Knowledge represents the lowest level of the cognitive domain. n Illustrative Behavioral Terms q q q n n Define Label Name Describe List Reproduce Identify Match State Recalling or locating information is the most common type of classroom assignment. Information is not interpreted in any way, just simply fed back. EXAMPLES q q What is 8 + 4? Recite the eight parts of speech. What is the name of the main character in this story? Who was Abraham Lincoln?
Cognitive Level B and Questioning Comprehension is defined as the ability to grasp the meaning of material. This may be shown by translating material from one form to another (words to numbers), and by interpreting material (explaining or summarizing). The students go one step beyond the simple remembering of material, and represent the lowest level of understanding. Comprehension is more than merely repeating something that has been heard or said. n Illustrative Behavioral Terms q q q n Convert Generalize Paraphrase Explain Give Examples Rewrite Extend Infer Summarize EXAMPLES q q Tell in your own words what the article is about. What does this cartoon mean? Summarize the main idea in chapter 2. Why are the days shorter in the winter than in the summer.
Don’t stop yet! n n The knowledge and comprehension levels form the foundation or launching pad for higher thinking. Thinking must be extended beyond these levels. Don't leave your students and lesson expectations just at levels A and B; move them to level C.
Cognitive Level C and Questioning Application refers to the ability to use learned material in new and concrete situations. This may include the application of such things as rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws, and theories. Lessons in this area require a higher level of understanding than those in the understanding category. n ILLUSTRATIVE BEHAVIORAL TERMS q q n Change Discover Prepare Show Compute Manipulate Produce Solve Demonstrate Operate Relate Use This is the beginning of creative thinking. The student applies learning to his/her own life or to new situations. EXAMPLES q q Following these directions, build a birdhouse. Using this recipe, bake a cake. If the main character came to your house, what would you ask him? If you had been the main character, whom would you have gone to visit?
Cognitive Level C and Questioning Synthesis SYNTHESIS Synthesis refers to the ability to put parts together to form a new whole. This may involve the production of a unique communication (theme or speech), a plan of operations (research proposal), or a set of abstract relations (scheme for classifying information). Learning in this area stresses creative behaviors, with major emphasis on the formulation of new patterns or structures. n ILLUSTRATIVE BEHAVIORAL TERMS q q q n Combine Create Generate Plan Reorganize Write Compile Devise Modify Rearrange Revise Compose Design Organize Reconstruct Rewrite At this level, students take what they have learned and create or invent something entirely new, usually a product such as a story, picture, diagram, model, etc. EXAMPLES q q q Write a new ending for "Red Riding Hood" that involves an elephant instead of a wolf. Compose a poem about the French Revolution. Draw a blueprint of a house in the year 2050
Cognitive Level C and Questioning Evaluation EVALUATION Evaluation is concerned with the ability to judge the value of material (statement, novel, poem, research report) for a given purpose. The judgments are to be based on definite criteria. These may be internal criteria (organization) or external criteria (relevance to the purpose), and the students may determine the criteria or be given the criteria. Learning in this are is at the highest of the cognitive hierarchy because the expectation contains elements of all the other categories plus value judgments based on clearly defined criteria. n ILLUSTRATIVE BEHAVIORAL TERMS q q n Compare Criticize Explain Relate Conclude Describe Justify Summarize Contrast Discriminate Interpret This level involves students making judgments and supporting those judgments with sound reasoning. If a student states an opinion about something, she/he is only operating at the evaluation level if she/he is able to tell why. EXAMPLES q q q Should capital punishment be abolished? Why or why not? Was the boy in the story running away? How can you tell? Which form of government is more fair, monarchy or democracy? Why?
Cognitive Level C: Analysis n n Analysis refers to the ability to break down material into its component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. This may include identification of the parts, analysis of the relationships between parts, and recognition of the organizational principles involved. Learning her represents a higher intellectual level than comprehension and application because analysis requires an understanding of both the content and the structural form of the material. ILLUSTRATIVE BEHAVIORAL TERMS q q n Break down Diagram Differentiate Discriminate Distinguish Outline Point Out Relate Select Separate Subdivide This level requires the ability to categorize: the ability to perceive similarity in different things and differences in similar things. EXAMPLES q q In what ways is the main character like you? different from you? Which things in the story were real and which were make-believe? Put the people in this article into categories according to their points of view. What were the causes of the Civil War and its effects on the lives of those in the South.
Mathematics Sample Level A Grade 5 Benchmark V. B. 4 Students will know the sum of the angles in triangles and quadrilaterals. From Minnesota Department of Education
Mathematics Sample Level B n n n Grade 5 Benchmark V. C. 2 Students will use a net of a cube or rectangular box to compute the surface area. From Minnesota Department of Education
Mathematics Sample Level C n n n Use the data sets given below to make conjectures about the meaning of the following terms: mean, median, mode, range Set A: 5, 12, 16, 10, 2 Set B: 1, 2, 2, 6, 7, 18 Mean: 9 Mean: 6 Median : 10 Median: 4 Mode: none Mode: 2 Range: 14 Range: 17 (The actual problem provides 8 data sets. ) From Minnesota Department of Education
Why use cognitive levels in your classroom? n n n Provides educators with a place to start when reviewing and revising units to better align with the Minnesota Academic Standards Provides educators with enhanced understanding of writing well-defined educational and instructional objectives that frame exemplary teaching Provides students with clearly defined expectations as to what they must learn From Minnesota Department of Education
Model Questions – Level A n n Model Questions and Key Words – Developing Questions Knowledge (eliciting factual answers, testing recall and recognition) q q Who What Why When Where How much Select Describe Define Match Omit Which one What is the one best Choose What does it mean
Level B - Comprehension n n n Which are facts, opinions… Is this the same as… What would happen if … Explain what is happening… Explain what is meant… Read the graph, table… Is it valid that … Which statement support the main idea… Show in a graph or table… What seems to be… Match… What seems likely… n n n n State in your own words… What does this mean… Judge… Give an example… Condense this paragraph… State in one word… Indicate… What part doesn't fit… What restrictions would you add… What exceptions are there… Which is more probable… What are they saying… Select…
Level C - Application n n Predict what would happen if … Identify… Explain… Tell what would happen… Tell how, when, where, why… n n n Select… Judge the effects… Tell how much change there would be… What would result… Choose the best statements that apply…
Level C - Analysis n n n Distinguish… The least essential statements are… Identify… What is theme? main idea? subordinate idea? What assumptions… What inconsistencies can you find in the text? What motive is there … What literary form is used… What conclusions… What persuasive technique… Make a distinction… What relationship between… n n n n What is the premise… What ideas apply? do not apply? What is the function of… Implicit in the statement is the idea of… What does the author believe? assume? State the point of view… What ideas justify the conclusion? What statement is q q relevant? extraneous? Related to…? not applicable?
Level C – Synthesis n n n Write (according to the following limitations)… How would you test …? Propose an alternative … Solve the following… How else would you …? Formulate a theory… n n n Develop… State a rule… Choose… Compose… Make up… Create…
Level C - Evaluation n n Appraise … What appear? q q q n n n fallacies, consistencies inconsistencies Judge… Defend… Criticize … n n Find the errors… What is q q q more important? more moral? more logical? more valid? more appropriate?
What’s are the biggest changes with MCA II? n n n The BST in reading and math at grade 8 is gone, replaced by the MCA II. Students will take the BST/MCA writing test in grade 9 beginning in 2007. The grade 10 reading MCA II GRAD will be scored as both a high-stakes test (required to pass for graduation) and a systemsaccountability test (school report cards).
What is the MCA GRAD? n n GRAD stands for Graduation-Required Assessments for Diploma The benchmarks are divided into four areas: q q n Assessed by Grad Common Assessments – either GRAD or MCA Assessed only for MCA Assessed only at the classroom level The MCA GRAD replaces the BST.
Sample Standard with MCA, Common, and GRAD
MDE Website n n n Practice tests are available for each grade level in both reading and math. Go to: http: //education. state. mn. us/mde/index. html Click on Accountability Programs Click on Assessment and Testing On the left side, click on Teachers in the Resources box Scroll down to find the sample test you want.