Скачать презентацию MBA 204 Week 2 Welcome back Please Скачать презентацию MBA 204 Week 2 Welcome back Please

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MBA 204 – Week 2 Welcome back! Please let me know if you were MBA 204 – Week 2 Welcome back! Please let me know if you were not here last week Ø Were you able to buy the book? Ø Have you gone to the website to download the syllabus? Any questions? Comments? Ø Are there any questions from last week’s class? Ø Any additional administrative items of importance? Ø Anything else? Let’s get started! Ø 1

Introduction - Organizational Behavior What types of topics will we cover in this course? Introduction - Organizational Behavior What types of topics will we cover in this course? Ø Ø Ø Ø Job satisfaction Personality traits and work performance Motivation Teamwork Leadership Power and politics HR policies and practices 2

Chapter 1 Ø What is Organizational Behavior? 3 Chapter 1 Ø What is Organizational Behavior? 3

What Do Managers Do? Get things done through other people Ø Make decisions, allocate What Do Managers Do? Get things done through other people Ø Make decisions, allocate resources, and direct the activities of others to attain goals Ø Do their work in an organization Ø 4

Management Functions Ø Planning Ø Organizing Ø Leading Ø Controlling 5 Management Functions Ø Planning Ø Organizing Ø Leading Ø Controlling 5

Management Skills Ø Technical Skills: The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise Ø Management Skills Ø Technical Skills: The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise Ø Human Skills: The ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups. PEOPLE SKILLS ARE CRITICAL FOR MANAGERS!!! Ø Conceptual Skills: The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations 6

“Effective” vs. “Successful” Managers…. 7 “Effective” vs. “Successful” Managers…. 7

So…. What is Organizational Behavior? 8 So…. What is Organizational Behavior? 8

There Are Few Absolutes in OB x Contingency Variables y 9 There Are Few Absolutes in OB x Contingency Variables y 9

Challenges and Opportunity for OB Ø Responding to Globalization Ø Managing Workforce Diversity Ø Challenges and Opportunity for OB Ø Responding to Globalization Ø Managing Workforce Diversity Ø Improving Quality and Productivity Ø Responding to the Labor Shortage Ø Improving Customer Service 10

Challenges and Opportunity for OB (cont’d) Ø Improving People Skills Ø Empowering People Ø Challenges and Opportunity for OB (cont’d) Ø Improving People Skills Ø Empowering People Ø Stimulation Innovation and Change Ø Coping with “Temporariness” Ø Working in Networked Organizations Ø Helping Employees Balance Work/Life Conflicts Ø Improving Ethical Behavior 11

The Dependent Variables y x 12 The Dependent Variables y x 12

Key Examples of Dependent Variables 13 Key Examples of Dependent Variables 13

The Dependent Variables (cont’d) 14 The Dependent Variables (cont’d) 14

The Dependent Variables (cont’d) 15 The Dependent Variables (cont’d) 15

The Dependent Variables (cont’d) 16 The Dependent Variables (cont’d) 16

The Independent Variables Individual-Level Variables: ability, IQ, personality, etc Group-Level Variables: Teamwork, leadership, etc The Independent Variables Individual-Level Variables: ability, IQ, personality, etc Group-Level Variables: Teamwork, leadership, etc Organization System-Level Variables: org culture, HR 17

SUMMARY Ø Ø Ø Managers need to develop their interpersonal (people skills) to be SUMMARY Ø Ø Ø Managers need to develop their interpersonal (people skills) to be effective in their jobs. OB is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within an organization. OB focuses on improving productivity, employee job satisfaction, citizenship behavior and reducing absenteeism and turnover. OB uses systematic study to improve predictions of behavior. OB recognizes and helps managers to improve their people skills and to see the value of workforce diversity and practices. It also seeks to improve organizations and help managers cope with the many changes faced in 18 today’s workplace.

Chapter 2: Foundations of Individual Behavior 19 Chapter 2: Foundations of Individual Behavior 19

Individuals: Biographical Characteristics Personal characteristics—such as age, gender, race and tenure—that are objective and Individuals: Biographical Characteristics Personal characteristics—such as age, gender, race and tenure—that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records 20

Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence Ability An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence Ability An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job Intellectual Ability The capacity to do mental activities Physical Abilities The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics 21

The Ability-Job Fit Employee’s Abilities Ability-Job Fit Job’s Ability Requirements 22 The Ability-Job Fit Employee’s Abilities Ability-Job Fit Job’s Ability Requirements 22

Part 2 of Chapter 2 --- Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior that Part 2 of Chapter 2 --- Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience Learning • Involves change • Is relatively permanent • Is acquired through experience 23

Types of Reinforcement Ø Positive reinforcement l Providing a reward for a desired behavior Types of Reinforcement Ø Positive reinforcement l Providing a reward for a desired behavior Ø Negative reinforcement l Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs 24

Theories of Learning Ø Classical conditioning Ø Operant conditioning Ø Social-learning theory Ø Shaping Theories of Learning Ø Classical conditioning Ø Operant conditioning Ø Social-learning theory Ø Shaping 25

Reinforcement Ø Punishment l Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior (NOTE: Reinforcement Ø Punishment l Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior (NOTE: THIS IS NOT THE SAME AS NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT) Ø Extinction l Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its cessation 26

Shaping Behavior Shaping: Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to Shaping Behavior Shaping: Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response Key Concepts • Reinforcement is required to change behavior. • Some rewards are more effective than others. • The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence. 27

Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced each time it is Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstrated Intermittent Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated 28

Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed-Interval Schedule Rewards are spaced at uniform **TIME** intervals Variable-Interval Schedule Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed-Interval Schedule Rewards are spaced at uniform **TIME** intervals Variable-Interval Schedule Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses 29

Intermittent Reinforcement 30 Intermittent Reinforcement 30

Intermittent Reinforcement 31 Intermittent Reinforcement 31

Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed-ratio 32 Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed-ratio 32

Chapter 3 – What are attitudes? Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, Chapter 3 – What are attitudes? Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events Cognitive Component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude Affective Component The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude Behavioral Component An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something 33

Measuring the A-B Relationship A B Recent research indicates that attitudes (A) significantly predict Measuring the A-B Relationship A B Recent research indicates that attitudes (A) significantly predict behaviors (B) when moderating variables are taken into account. 34

Self-Perception Theory Attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an Self-Perception Theory Attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred. And, B A! 35

Types of Attitudes Job Satisfaction A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an Types of Attitudes Job Satisfaction A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job Job Involvement Identifying with the job, actively participating in it, and considering performance important to self-worth Organizational Commitment Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the organization (Affective, Normative, and Continuance Commitment) 36

Types of Attitudes, cont’d Perceived Organizational Support (POS) Degree to which employees feel the Types of Attitudes, cont’d Perceived Organizational Support (POS) Degree to which employees feel the organization cares about their well-being Employee Engagement An individual’s involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the organization 37

An Application: Attitude Surveys Eliciting responses from employees through questionnaires about how they feel An Application: Attitude Surveys Eliciting responses from employees through questionnaires about how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, and the organization 38

Attitudes and Workforce Diversity Ø Training activities that can reshape employee attitudes concerning diversity: Attitudes and Workforce Diversity Ø Training activities that can reshape employee attitudes concerning diversity: l l Participating in diversity training that provides for self-evaluation and group discussions Volunteer work in community and social service centers with individuals of diverse backgrounds 39

Job Satisfaction Ø Measuring Job Satisfaction l l Single global rating Summation score Ø Job Satisfaction Ø Measuring Job Satisfaction l l Single global rating Summation score Ø How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? l l In general, people are satisfied with their jobs. Depends on facets of satisfaction—tend to be less satisfied with pay and promotion opportunities 40

Expressing Dissatisfaction Exit Voice Behavior directed toward leaving the organization Active and constructive attempts Expressing Dissatisfaction Exit Voice Behavior directed toward leaving the organization Active and constructive attempts to improve conditions Loyalty Neglect Passively waiting for conditions to improve Allowing conditions to worsen 41