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MATERIALS SCIENCE A Learner’s Guide & ENGINEERING AN INTRODUCTORY E-BOOK Anandh Subramaniam Project coordination MATERIALS SCIENCE A Learner’s Guide & ENGINEERING AN INTRODUCTORY E-BOOK Anandh Subramaniam Project coordination Kindly send your comments and feedback for improvement at this email address FB 408, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur- 208016 Phone: (+91) (512) 259 7215, Fax: (+91) (512) 259 7505 Email: [email protected] ac. in, URL: home. iitk. ac. in/~anandh Kantesh Balani Department of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur- 208016 Phone: (+91) (512) 259 6194, Fax: (+91) (512) 259 7505 Email: [email protected] ac. in, URL: http: //home. iitk. ac. in/~kbalani/ Funded by MHRD, Govt. of India through NMEICT

MATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING A Learner’s Guide Anandh Subramaniam Kantesh Balani To My Parents MATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING A Learner’s Guide Anandh Subramaniam Kantesh Balani To My Parents & My Daughter Luminaa MHRD, Govt. of India through NMEICT

Basic References q Though the reader can consult the following books; the contents of Basic References q Though the reader can consult the following books; the contents of the e-book course may often differ in the rigour and details from these and other books. q Materials Science and Engineering (5 th Edition) V. Raghavan Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. , 2004. q Callister's Materials Science and Engienering William D Callister (Adapted by R. Balasubramaniam) Wiley Inida (P) Ltd. , 2007. q The Science and Engineering of Materials Donald. R. Askeland & Pradeep Phulé Cengage Learning, 2006. Click here Slide 6: Jump to Navigator Page For Contents Click here Slide 8: Jump to Hyperlink Library Click here Video library: Jump to Video/Graphics Library

What will you learn? q Introduction to diverse kinds of engineering materials q Overview What will you learn? q Introduction to diverse kinds of engineering materials q Overview of what determines the properties of materials and how we engineer them q Structure of materials and various lengthscales: crystal structure, electromagnetic structure, defect structure, microstructure… q Stability and metastability of materials: thermodynamics and kinetics q The tools used in materials science: x-ray diffraction, phase diagrams, TTT diagrams… q Properties of materials: elasticity, plasticity, fracture, fatigue, creep, conduction, magnetism… This ebook hopefully will prove an invaluable guide to a ‘learner of materials science & engineering’ (Credits, Syllabus, Marks… are just incidental!) Click here to take a diagnostic test to see if you are ready for this course! “A teacher’s job is to uncover and not cover the syllabus”- Richard M Felder

Guidelines to Readers q The contents have been developed such that most of the Guidelines to Readers q The contents have been developed such that most of the material is in the form of figures, flow charts, video graphics and less is in the form of text. Hence, instead of saying happy reading we wish you happy viewing! q Instruction for viewing § § § Using Powerpoint files (. ppt). Click on the relevant hyperlink on the Navigator page. In the Power. Point presentations Right Click on the Menu bar to launch the web toolbar (you can use this to navigate back and forth) Using. pdf (Portable Document Format) files. Adobe Acrobat Reader- freeware (http: //get. adobe. com/uk/reader/) will be required for this purpose. Using Open Office. Powerpoint (. ppt) and Open Office Presentation (. odp) files can be opened with Open Office (http: //download. openoffice. org/). q VIEWING POWERPOINT FILES Start with the Power. Point files by double clicking on any file. To start Power. Point (PPT) presentation from the first slide press F 5 To start Power. Point (PPT) presentation from the current slide press Shift + F 5 To scroll down slides use Page Down or Text hyperlinks are underlined in blue colour q OTHER TIPS IN VIEWING Text boxes and figures may also be hyperlinked (curser has to be placed on the item to see that it is hyperlinked- arrow will change into a hand( )) Some of the hyperlinks may have screen tips place curser on the hyperlink to see tip If you want to open a hyperlink as a separate presentation Click on the hyperlink If you want to open a hyperlink within the current window in the current presentation press Control + Click on the hyperlink (this will work if you have launched the PPT file directly by double clicking) From a 'hyperlinked presentation' to come back to the main presentation press Esc

q Note on accompanying videos § § § At various places in the chapters q Note on accompanying videos § § § At various places in the chapters there are hyperlinks to videos (. mpg) files → to view these you will need an appropriate viewer (e. g. windows media player). (. gif graphics will directly play inside. ppt) A listing of these videos is given in the video_library. ppt Though the chapters are complete in themselves with figures, these videos give ‘classroom style’ explanation of concepts using models. Since concepts are presented in presentation mode, READ EVERY LINE AND EVERY WORD… q A note on the platform chosen for presentation Windows (XP) based applications have been used to develop the course material. These include: Word, Excel and Powerpoint (2003 versions) Users of Linux and other platforms may use the pdf version of the Word and Powerpoint files. Additionally, students not having access to Microsoft Office may use the Open. Office freeware to open the MS office files: http: //www. openoffice. org/ (download and install: http: //download. openoffice. org/) (there might be some losses in conversion- which is usually not major if Office 2003 is used along with Open Office 3. 1)

The following hyperlinks are to file-wise substructure. Content-wise substructure will appear in respective chapters. The following hyperlinks are to file-wise substructure. Content-wise substructure will appear in respective chapters. 1. CHAPTER 1: Introduction 1. 1 Introduction to Materials 1. 2 Hierarchy of Lengthscales 2. CHAPTER 2: Equilibrium and Kinetics 2. 1 Thermodynamics 2. 2 Kinetics 3. CHAPTER 3: Crystal Geometry 3. 1 Overview, Geometry of Crystals 3. 2 Miller Indices 3. 3 X-ray Diffraction 4. CHAPTER 4: Structure of Solids 4. 1 Metallic Solids 4. 2 Ionic and Covalent Solids 5. CHAPTER 5: Crystal Imperfections 5. 1 Overview 5. 2 Point Defects (0 D) 5. 3 Dislocations (1 D) 5. 4 Two Dimensional and Volume Defects (3 D) 6. CHAPTER 6: Phase Diagrams Detailed 7. CHAPTER 7: Diffusion in Solids 8. CHAPTER 8: Phase Transformations Surface Energy and Surface Tension Heat Treatment Solidification, Crystallization and Glass Transition Recovery, Recrystallization and Grain Growth 9. CHAPTER 9: Mechanical Behaviour of Materials 5. 1 Introduction 5. 2 Elasticity 5. 3 Plasticity 5. 4 Creep 5. 5 Fracture 5. 6 Fatigue 10. CHAPTER 10: Electrical Conductivity 11. CHAPTER 11: Semiconductors 11. CHAPTER 12: Magnetic Materials

Guidelines to Teachers & Instructors q The course contents are extensive in some places Guidelines to Teachers & Instructors q The course contents are extensive in some places and instructors may want to reduce the content in some topics. q Instructors may download the appropriate files and delete the portion not needed. This will help tailor the contents for any specific syllabus or need. (I. e. you can copy left, right and centre!!). q If you still want to cite you can use the following: MATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING: A Learner’s Guide, Anandh Subramaniam, http: //home. iitk. ac. in/~anandh/E-book. htm. q Any feedback or comments on improvement from instructors and students alike would be highly appreciated ([email protected] ac. in). q Kindly take time out ask yourself and me questions: “a well phrased question is half the answer in itself”.

Hyperlink library Basics_of_Thermodynamics. ppt bonding_and_properties. ppt Laue_picture. ppt line_broadening. ppt close_packed_crystals. ppt connection_between_symmetry_and_geometry. ppt Hyperlink library Basics_of_Thermodynamics. ppt bonding_and_properties. ppt Laue_picture. ppt line_broadening. ppt close_packed_crystals. ppt connection_between_symmetry_and_geometry. ppt constructive_interference. ppt defect_association. ppt defect_in_defect. ppt magnetic_groups. ppt Making_crystals. ppt models_for_crystal_structures. ppt Motifs. ppt dislocation_stress_fields. ppt mystry_missing_lattices. ppt from_L+M_SG. ppt Graphene_crystal. ppt HCP. ppt interfaces. ppt ionicity_of_bond. ppt lattice. ppt other_signals_xray. ppt ordered_structures. ppt parallopiped_space_filling. ppt

Hyperlink library continued… UC_OR_lattice. ppt peierls_stress. ppt Point_groups_detailed. ppt proof_rotations_crystal. ppt Understanding_stress. ppt Quasicrystals. Hyperlink library continued… UC_OR_lattice. ppt peierls_stress. ppt Point_groups_detailed. ppt proof_rotations_crystal. ppt Understanding_stress. ppt Quasicrystals. ppt unit_cell. ppt reciprocal_lattice. ppt simple_to_complex_crystal_structures. ppt video_library. ppt size_factor_compounds. ppt voids_in_crystals. ppt space. ppt weak_interactions. ppt structure_factor_calculations. ppt sublattice. ppt symmetry. ppt Symmetry_create_1 D_lattice. ppt symmetry_of_solids. ppt XRD_lattice_parameter_calculation. ppt XRD_sample_patterns. ppt

Acknowledgments q MHRD is acknowledged for funding for the project via the NMEICT. q Acknowledgments q MHRD is acknowledged for funding for the project via the NMEICT. q I thank Prof. Rajesh Prasad (Applied Mechanics, IIT Delhi) for his ‘fundas’ and teaching style. q I thank all my students who have motivated me to make continuous improvement to the book. [Kindly help by pointing out mistakes and suggestions for improvement]. q I am sincerely indebted to all the feedback, queries, encouragement and kudos* I have received from across the globe (few are as below). § Please accept my congrads for your excellent lectures notes provided in your webpage. I have addressed them to students who need rich and training metallurgical materials. I was wondering if you intend to add the lecture notes on Dislocations and Plasticity topic? if not, any chance that I can have the same? Good luck, Ahmad Rezaeian, Research Associate at Mc. Gill University in Canada. § I found your talk "Voids in crystals" in the internet and it seems impressive for me. Is it possible to get the referred movies? Frank Rietz, University Magdeburg & Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization Göttingen, Germany. § I teach an undergraduate course in Materials Science at Vanderbilt University. I ran into a powerpoint of yours that describes octahedral and tetrahedral voids. I would be grateful if I may use them ONLY for the edification of my students. Ashok Choudhury, Ph. D. , CLP, Sr. Licensing Officer, Adjunct Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, , Center for Technology Transfer and Commercialization, Vanderbilt University, USA. § My name is Shachar Richter from Tel Aviv University, I am teaching a surface science course and would like to ask you to use one of your ppt files related to 2 D Bravis lattices for this course, Best Shachar, Center for Nano Science and Nanotechnology, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel. § This past semester, I used a couple slides from your webpage as a tutorial. Namely, the ones on diffusion and crystal structures. They were really helpful for my teaching practices. Thank you for putting efforts into making them. I am sure a lot of students all over the world are finding them helpful. Yours sincerely, * Kudos: From Greek meaning acclaim or praise. Sanket Sunil Navale, Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.