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Marketing Channels and Retailing Chapter 14 Lamb, Hair, Mc. Daniel 2014 -2015 © Cengage Marketing Channels and Retailing Chapter 14 Lamb, Hair, Mc. Daniel 2014 -2015 © Cengage Learning 2015. All Rights Reserved.

Explain what marketing channels and channel 1 intermediaries are, and describe their functions and Explain what marketing channels and channel 1 intermediaries are, and describe their functions and activities Describe common channel structures and 2 strategies, and the factors that influence their choice 3 Discuss channel relationship types and roles, and their unique benefits and drawbacks 4 Explain the importance of the retailer within the channel and within the national economy © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 2

List and understand the different classifications and 5 types of retailers, as well as List and understand the different classifications and 5 types of retailers, as well as their different operational models 6 Explain the major tasks involved in developing a retail marketing strategy 7 Discuss the roles of CRM and customer data in retailer decision making 8 Describe trends in retail and channel management © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 3

Marketing Channels and Channel Intermediaries Explain what marketing channels and channel intermediaries are, and Marketing Channels and Channel Intermediaries Explain what marketing channels and channel intermediaries are, and describe their functions and activities 4 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 1

Marketing Channel A set of interdependent organizations that eases the transfer of ownership as Marketing Channel A set of interdependent organizations that eases the transfer of ownership as products move from producer to business user or consumer. Channel Members Negotiate with one another, buy and sell products, and facilitate the change of ownership between buyer and seller in the course of moving the product from the manufacturer into the hands of the final consumer. 1 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 5

Marketing Channel Functions Specialization and division of labor Overcoming discrepancies Providing contact efficiency 1 Marketing Channel Functions Specialization and division of labor Overcoming discrepancies Providing contact efficiency 1 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 6

Specialization and Division of Labor u Creates greater efficiency u Provides lower production costs Specialization and Division of Labor u Creates greater efficiency u Provides lower production costs u Create time, place, form, and exchange utility 1 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 7

Contact Efficiency Retailer Firms in the channel that sell directly to customers 1 Retailers Contact Efficiency Retailer Firms in the channel that sell directly to customers 1 Retailers simplify distribution by cutting the number of transactions required by consumers, making an assortment of goods available in one location. © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 8

Exhibit 14. 1 How Marketing Channels Reduce the Number of Required Transactions © 2015 Exhibit 14. 1 How Marketing Channels Reduce the Number of Required Transactions © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 9

Channel Intermediaries Merchant Wholesaler An institution that buys goods from manufacturers, takes title to Channel Intermediaries Merchant Wholesaler An institution that buys goods from manufacturers, takes title to goods, stores them, and resells and ships them. Agents and Brokers Wholesaling intermediaries who facilitate the sale of a product by representing channel members. 1 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 10

Channel Intermediaries Agents and Brokers Take Title to Goods Do NOT Take Title to Channel Intermediaries Agents and Brokers Take Title to Goods Do NOT Take Title to Goods 1 Merchant Wholesalers © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 11

Factors Suggesting Type of Wholesaling Intermediary to Use Product characteristics Buyer considerations Market characteristics Factors Suggesting Type of Wholesaling Intermediary to Use Product characteristics Buyer considerations Market characteristics 1 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 12

Channel Functions Performed by Intermediaries Contacting/Promotion Transactional Functions Negotiating Risk Taking Physically distributing Logistical Channel Functions Performed by Intermediaries Contacting/Promotion Transactional Functions Negotiating Risk Taking Physically distributing Logistical Functions Storing Sorting Facilitating Functions Researching Financing 1 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 13

Channel Structures Describe common channel structures and strategies, and the factors that influence their Channel Structures Describe common channel structures and strategies, and the factors that influence their choice 14 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 2

Exhibit 14. 2 Marketing Channels for Consumer Products © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. Exhibit 14. 2 Marketing Channels for Consumer Products © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 15

Exhibit 14. 3 Channels for Business and Industrial Products © 2015 by Cengage Learning Exhibit 14. 3 Channels for Business and Industrial Products © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 16

Alternative Channel Arrangements Dual or multiple distribution Nontraditional channels Strategic channel alliances 2 © Alternative Channel Arrangements Dual or multiple distribution Nontraditional channels Strategic channel alliances 2 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 17

Factors Affecting Channel Choice Market Factors Producer Factors 2 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Factors Affecting Channel Choice Market Factors Producer Factors 2 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 18

Market Factors 2 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 19 Market Factors 2 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 19

Product Factors Product Complexity Product Price Product Standardization Product Factors That Affect Channel Choices Product Factors Product Complexity Product Price Product Standardization Product Factors That Affect Channel Choices Product Life Cycle Product Delicacy 2 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 20

Producer Factors Producer Resources Number of Product Lines Producer Factors That Affect Channel Choices Producer Factors Producer Resources Number of Product Lines Producer Factors That Affect Channel Choices Desire for Channel Control 2 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 21

Levels of Distribution Intensity Intensive A form of distribution aimed at having a product Levels of Distribution Intensity Intensive A form of distribution aimed at having a product available in every outlet. Selective A form of distribution achieved by screening dealers to eliminate all but a few in any single area. Exclusive A form of distribution that established one or a few dealers within a given area. 2 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 22

Levels of Distribution Intensity Level Objective Number of Intermediaries Intensive Achieve mass market selling. Levels of Distribution Intensity Level Objective Number of Intermediaries Intensive Achieve mass market selling. Convenience goods. Many Selective Work with selected intermediaries. Shopping and some specialty goods. Several Exclusive Work with single intermediary. Specialty goods and industrial equipment. © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved One 23

Emerging Distribution Structures In recent years, rapid changes in technology and communication have led Emerging Distribution Structures In recent years, rapid changes in technology and communication have led to the emergence of new, experimental distribution methods and channel structures. 1 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 24

Types of Channel Relationships Describe channel relationship types and roles, and their unique benefits Types of Channel Relationships Describe channel relationship types and roles, and their unique benefits and drawbacks 25 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 3

Types of Channel Relationships Benefits Hazards Arm’s Length Relationship Fulfills a one time or Types of Channel Relationships Benefits Hazards Arm’s Length Relationship Fulfills a one time or unique need; low involvement/risk Parties unable to develop relationship; low trust level Cooperative Relationship Formal contract without Some parties may capital investment/long need more relationship -term commitment; definition “happy medium” Integrated Relationship Closely bonded relationship; explicitly defined relationships High capital investment; any failure could affect every channel member © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 26

Global Channel Relationships Global Channel Development Channel policies differ Gray marketing channels 3 © Global Channel Relationships Global Channel Development Channel policies differ Gray marketing channels 3 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved

Social Influences in Channels Power Control Leadership Conflict Partnering 3 © 2015 by Cengage Social Influences in Channels Power Control Leadership Conflict Partnering 3 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 28

Channel Power, Control, and Leadership Channel Power A channel member’s capacity to control or Channel Power, Control, and Leadership Channel Power A channel member’s capacity to control or influence the behavior of other channel members. Channel Control A situation that occurs when one marketing channel member intentionally affects another member’s behavior. Channel Captain A member of a marketing channel that exercises authority and power over the activities of other members. 3 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 29

Channel Conflict Inequitable channel relationships often lead to channel conflict, which is a clash Channel Conflict Inequitable channel relationships often lead to channel conflict, which is a clash of goals and methods among the members of a distribution channel. 3 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 30

Channel Partnering The joint effort of all channel members to create a channel that Channel Partnering The joint effort of all channel members to create a channel that serves customers and creates a competitive advantage. By cooperating, channel members can speed up inventory replenishment, improve customer service, and reduce the total costs of the marketing channel. 3 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 31

The Role of Retailing Explain the importance of the retailer within in the channel The Role of Retailing Explain the importance of the retailer within in the channel and within the national economy 32 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 4

Retailing All the activities directly related to the sale of goods and services to Retailing All the activities directly related to the sale of goods and services to the ultimate consumer for personal, nonbusiness use. 4 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 33

The Role of Retailing u U. S. retailers employ nearly 15 million people u The Role of Retailing u U. S. retailers employ nearly 15 million people u Retailers account for 10. 8 percent of U. S. employment u Retailing accounts for 10 percent of U. S. businesses u Retailers account for two-thirds of the U. S. GDP u Industry is dominated by a few giant organizations, such as Walmart 4 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 34

Classes of Retail Operations List and understand the different classifications and types of retailers, Classes of Retail Operations List and understand the different classifications and types of retailers, as well as their different operational models 35 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 5

Classification of Retail Operations Ownership Level of Service Product Assortment Price 5 © 2015 Classification of Retail Operations Ownership Level of Service Product Assortment Price 5 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 36

Exhibit 14. 4 Types of Stores and Their Characteristics Service Level Type of Retailer Exhibit 14. 4 Types of Stores and Their Characteristics Service Level Type of Retailer Assortment Price Gross Margin Department Store Mod Hi-High Broad Mod-High Mod High Specialty Store High Narrow Mod-High Supermarket Low Broad Moderate Low Convenience Store Low Med-Narrow Mod High Drugstore Low-Mod Medium Moderate Low Full-line Discounter Mod-Low Med-Broad Mod Low Specialty Discounter Mod-Low Med-Broad Mod Lo-low Mod Low Warehouse Clubs Low Broad Low-very low Low Off-price Retailer Low Med-Narrow Low Restaurant Low-High Narrow Low-High © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved

Classification of Ownership Independent Retailers Owned by a single person or partnership and not Classification of Ownership Independent Retailers Owned by a single person or partnership and not part of a larger retail institution. Chain Stores Owned and operated as a group by a single organization. Franchises The right to operate a business or to sell a product. 5 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 38

Level of Service Full. Service Self. Service 5 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. Level of Service Full. Service Self. Service 5 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 39

Product Assortment Classification based on breadth and depth of product lines. 5 © 2015 Product Assortment Classification based on breadth and depth of product lines. 5 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 40

Price Gross Margin The amount of money the retailer makes as a percentage of Price Gross Margin The amount of money the retailer makes as a percentage of sales after the cost of goods sold is subtracted. 5 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 41

Major Types of Retail Operations Department Stores Discount Stores Specialty Stores Off-Price Retailers Supermarkets Major Types of Retail Operations Department Stores Discount Stores Specialty Stores Off-Price Retailers Supermarkets Used Goods Retailers Drugstores Restaurants Convenience Stores 5 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 42

Nonstore Retailing Automatic Vending Direct Mail Direct Retailing Shop-at-home TV Direct Marketing Online Telemarketing Nonstore Retailing Automatic Vending Direct Mail Direct Retailing Shop-at-home TV Direct Marketing Online Telemarketing 5 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 43

Top E-Tailers by Sales Volume America's Top Ten Retail Businesses Rank Web Sales Volume Top E-Tailers by Sales Volume America's Top Ten Retail Businesses Rank Web Sales Volume 1 Amazon. com Inc. $48. 08 2 Staples Inc. $10. 6 3 Apple Inc. $6. 66 4 Walmart. com $4. 9 5 Dell Inc. $4. 6 6 Office Depot Inc. $4. 1 7 Liberty Media (owns QVC) $3. 76 8 Sears $3. 6 9 Netflix Inc. $3. 2 10 44 Company CDW $3. 0 (in billions) Beyond the Book

The Basic Forms of Franchising Product and Trade Name Franchising Dealer agrees to sell The Basic Forms of Franchising Product and Trade Name Franchising Dealer agrees to sell in products provided by a manufacturer or wholesaler. Business Format Franchising An ongoing business relationship between a franchiser and a franchisee. 5 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 45

Top 10 New Franchises for 2013 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Top 10 New Franchises for 2013 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Kona Ice Menchie’s Orange Leaf Frozen Yogurt Shelf. Genie Bricks 4 Kidz Smashburger Game. Truck Paul Davis Emergency Services 9. Signal 88 Security 10. Mac Tools 5 46

Retail Marketing Strategy Explain the major tasks involved in developing a retail marketing strategy Retail Marketing Strategy Explain the major tasks involved in developing a retail marketing strategy 47 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 6

Retail Marketing Strategy Define a Target Market Choose a Retailing Mix 6 © 2015 Retail Marketing Strategy Define a Target Market Choose a Retailing Mix 6 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 48

Defining a Target Market Demographics Step 1: Segment the Market Geographics Psychographics 6 © Defining a Target Market Demographics Step 1: Segment the Market Geographics Psychographics 6 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 49

Choosing the Retailing Mix Product Promotion Price Personnel STEP 2: Choose the Retailing Mix Choosing the Retailing Mix Product Promotion Price Personnel STEP 2: Choose the Retailing Mix Place Presentation 6 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 50

Exhibit 14. 6 The Retailing Mix © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights Exhibit 14. 6 The Retailing Mix © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 51

Choosing the Retailing Mix Product Offering The mix of products offered to the consumer Choosing the Retailing Mix Product Offering The mix of products offered to the consumer by the retailer; also called the product assortment or merchandise mix. 6 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 52

Retail Promotion Strategy Advertising Public Relations Publicity Sales Promotion 6 © 2015 by Cengage Retail Promotion Strategy Advertising Public Relations Publicity Sales Promotion 6 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 53

The Proper Location Choosing a Community Economic growth potential Competition Geography 6 © 2015 The Proper Location Choosing a Community Economic growth potential Competition Geography 6 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 54

The Proper Location Choosing a Specific Site Socioeconomic characteristics Choosing the Type of Site The Proper Location Choosing a Specific Site Socioeconomic characteristics Choosing the Type of Site Freestanding Store Traffic flows Land costs Zoning Regulations 6 Shopping Center Mall Public Transportation © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 55

Retail Prices Low Price Good Value Single Price Point High Price Quality Image 6 Retail Prices Low Price Good Value Single Price Point High Price Quality Image 6 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 56

Presentation of the Retail Store Employee type and density Merchandise type and density Fixture Presentation of the Retail Store Employee type and density Merchandise type and density Fixture type and density Sound Odors 6 Visual factors © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 57

Personnel Trading Up Two Common Selling Techniques Suggestion Selling 6 © 2015 by Cengage Personnel Trading Up Two Common Selling Techniques Suggestion Selling 6 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 58

Channel and Retailing Decisions for Services Prioritize customer service by focusing on four areas: Channel and Retailing Decisions for Services Prioritize customer service by focusing on four areas: • Minimizing wait times • Managing service capacity • Improving service delivery • Establishing channel-wide network coherence 6 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 59

Shopper Marketing Shopper marketing is becoming increasingly popular as businesses see the implications of Shopper Marketing Shopper marketing is becoming increasingly popular as businesses see the implications of this new method of customer research. These implications include the strategic alignment of customers segments and supply chain adaptation. 6 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 60

The Relationship between Retailer Decision Making and Customer Data Discuss the roles of CRM The Relationship between Retailer Decision Making and Customer Data Discuss the roles of CRM and customer data in retailer decision making 61 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7

Retailing and CRM Data Retailers gain insight to who purchases product CRM Database Build Retailing and CRM Data Retailers gain insight to who purchases product CRM Database Build stronger relationships with customers 7 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 62

New Developments in Retailing and Channel Management Describe trends in retail and channel management New Developments in Retailing and Channel Management Describe trends in retail and channel management 63 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 8

New Developments in Retailing M-commerce Purchasing goods through mobile devices. Online retailers offer greater New Developments in Retailing M-commerce Purchasing goods through mobile devices. Online retailers offer greater variety of options for delivery, including one-use package delivery boxes. 8 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 64

Chapter 14 Video New Balance Hubway is a bike sharing system in the Boston Chapter 14 Video New Balance Hubway is a bike sharing system in the Boston area that uses automated stations to provide a bike service to people looking to go short distances. In this clip, employees discuss how the retailing model works for Hubway, and how the difference between brick and mortar and ebusiness models allowed them to succeed in the Boston area. CLICK TO PLAY VIDEO 65 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved

Part 4 Video Scripps Networks Interactive Distribution Decisions Scripps Networks Interactive owns the content Part 4 Video Scripps Networks Interactive Distribution Decisions Scripps Networks Interactive owns the content on popular networks such as Food Network, DIY, and the Cooking Channel. Deciding how to best get their content (both digital and solid products) into different locations takes some careful thought, and various decision makers discuss the process in this video clip. CLICK TO PLAY VIDEO 66 © 2015 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved