- Количество слайдов: 33
Market-Based Conservation NRCS Market-Based Incentives Washington, DC January 10, 2006 Douglas Lawrence Director Resource Economics and Social Sciences Division
Market-Based Conservation What are Market-Based Solutions? • Market-oriented approaches rely on the use of economic and marketplace principles to achieve beneficial environmental outcomes. • The premise is that markets are more efficient at allocating resources than mechanisms such as government regulations. Markets and their prices reveal collective preferences. • The concept is evolving • Not a replacement for current approaches
Market-Based Conservation What is a Market? • A market allows people to trade, under the protection of law, and thereby allocates resources through prices that reflect collective preferences. • In practical terms it is a set of rules for exchanging goods and services. (Bazaars, e-bay Safeway, used car dealers, Car. Max, conservation easements, employment, TSPs. . . )
Market-Based Conservation Three Approaches to Market-Based Incentives 1. Creation of ecological markets (Chicago Board of Trade Carbon Market, Wetland Mitigation banking, Comet VR) 2. Use of economic principles to influence existing non-ecological markets (Cost sharing, information, education, research…) 3. Use of marketplace business practices to enhance conservation adoption (market segmentation, marketing, competition, partnerships)
Market-Based Conservation What are the Benefits of Market. Based Allocations of Resources? • Under perfect competition, a system of free markets will lead to an optimal allocation of resources. • Reduction of government costs and private compliance costs • Incentives for technological innovation.
Market-Based Conservation Market-Oriented Approaches Include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Using Economic approaches (auctions, cap-trade, improving information (KBC)) Applying business practices (precision marketing, fostering customer loyalty) Encouraging competition (RFPs, bid-downs with multiple pools) Informing the conservation investment decisions of others (Landcare) Leveraging Resources (Wall Mart, PRS) Providing information and tools to allow environmental markets to evolve or develop (Comet VR CCX)
Market-Based Conservation Market-Oriented Approaches • Focus on incentives (monetary and nonmonetary) • Implementation of performance-based conservation (CSP Enhancement Payments) • Fostering knowledge-based conservation • Negotiating (NRCS has many assests)
Market-Based Conservation Conventional Market-Based Tools • • • Environmental Credit Trading Sale of Environmental Services Auctions and Bidding Mitigation Banking Green Labeling C
Market-Based Conservation Cuationary Notes Related to Market-Oriented Solutions • Regulation often required (Dennis King Aritcle: Limits of Environmental Credit Trading) • New York City Watershed - Gretchen Daily Book (Caution, what is presented is really cost-sharing not credit trading)
Market-Based Conservation Economic Principles: Perfect Competition • Atomicity – buyers and sellers are price takers. • Homogeneity -- goods and services in a given market are perfect substitutes. • Perfect and complete information -- information is available to all, transparency • Equal access -- to production technologies, and resources (including information). • Free entry -- any firm may enter or exit the market as it wishes.
Market-Based Conservation Economic Principles: Supply and Demand Shifters: Price • Input prices Supply • Technology Shifters: • Other prices (substitutes and complements) Demand Quantity • Income • Tastes and Preferences
Market-Based Conservation Market for Conservation Tillage Equipment Supply Shifters: Price • Input prices Supply Demand with Higher energy costs • Technology Demand Shifters: • Other prices (substitutes and complements) Demand Quantity • Income • Tastes and Preferences The net result is that as diesel prices increase, the demand for No-till equipment increases, thereby enhancing conservation.
Market-Based Conservation Business Principles: Marketing • • Advertising Market research Marketing strategy New Product Development Direct Marketing Precision Marketing Partnerships Business to business
Market-Based Conservation Business Principles: Marketing
Market-Based Conservation Behavior Changing Policy Instruments Conservation Payments Education Cross Compliance Information Regulation Bad Actors Stewards
Market-Based Conservation Business Principles: • “Get, Keep, Grow” Focus on Customer Loyalty • Advisory Boards – A group of executives, professionals or customers appointed by a company to provide guidance and support on issues critical to the organization. A Board of Advisors is a working as opposed to an honorary body that offers guidance versus governance • Customer Focus, help them “Get the Job done” – Innovation and growth possibilities emerge from knowing what other supporting, ancillary or related jobs customers may want to get done in conjunction with the primary job. – Value is also created by helping customers get a specific job done more efficiently. Companies must be able to capture from customers the set of metrics — that define how they want to get the job done
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Market-Based Conservation USDA Policy Market-Based Environmental Stewardship • USDA is launching a market-based conservation initiative which supports the White House Cooperative Conservation Conference and the Under Secretary’s Legacy Goals.
Market-Based Conservation USDA Policy Market-Based Environmental Stewardship • The Policy – Defines USDA roles and responsibilities – Formalizes a Coordination Council and a mechanism to evaluate and resolve issues – Formalizes a work-group to support the Coordination Counsel
Market-Based Conservation USDA Policy Market-Based Environmental Stewardship • USDA will Cooperate with other Federal departments, Tribal, State, and Local governments, and NGOs to: – Establish a role for agriculture and forestry in providing environmental offsets and enhancements – Develop accounting procedures for quantifying environmental goods and services.
Market-Based Conservation USDA Policy Market-Based Environmental Stewardship – Enable USDA partners to take advantage of and promote the awareness of stewardship markets. – Promote the use of environmental credit trading and voluntary reporting registries, etc.
Market-Based Conservation USDA Policy Market-Based Environmental Stewardship – Develop innovative tools to quantify environmental impacts – Conduct outreach, education, technology transfer, and partnership building activities – Increase awareness of environmental stewardship markets within USDA
Market-Based Conservation USDA Policy Market-Based Environmental Stewardship • Status of the NRCS Market-based Incentives Strategy Team: • Core work-group meeting (NRCS, FSA, FS and OCE) • Partnership with DOD • Co-sponsor - National Water Quality Trading Conference – May 23 -25, 2006, Pittsburgh, PA • Co-sponsor - Annual Conference on Mitigation and Conservation Banking – April 10 -13, 2006, Portland, OR • Agency Strategic and Business Plans – Market-based Incentives Emphasis Area in B-Plan – Strategic Plan overarching approach • 2006 Ag Outlook Forum (February, 2006) – Concurrent session on Market-based Environmental Stewardship
Market-Based Conservation Current Market Oriented Solutions Used by NRCS • • Easements (FRPP, WRP, GRP) EQIP Buy-Down (pre 2002) Environmental Credit Trading (CIG, Ohio ) Implementation of Comet VR Program performance awards Transparency in program allocations Advisory Boards Development of Marketing Strategies
Market-Based Conservation Opportunities for Using Market-Based Solutions • Informing Investments of Others (Conservation Certification, measuring carbon credits) • Knowledge-Based Conservation • Performance Payments (Cherry grower, EQIP incentive payments for pest management used for weather stations. ) • Stimulating Industry Innovation (precision farming) • Supporting Tradable Development Rights programs • Mitigation Banks (Wetlands, FPPA) • Auctions (85 percent reduction FA costs in AUS) • Reverse auctions for State allocations (TA bids for FA, FA cost share bids for FA and TA)
Market-Based Conservation Opportunities for Using Market-Based Solutions • Using Economic Principles (program auctions, cap-trade, improving information (KBC)) • Applying business practices (precision marketing, fostering customer loyalty) • Encouraging competition (RFPs, bid-downs with multiple pools) • Informing the conservation investment decisions of others (reducing their risk) • Focusing on incentives (monetary and non-monetary, health insurance, enterprise planning, ) • Implementing performance-based conservation (CSP Enhancement Payments) • Fostering knowledge-based conservation • Negotiating
Market-Based Conservation Opportunities for Using Market-Based Solutions • Yield indemnification • Expand the use of partial interest in land • “Think like a farmer” (Boot camp, “mile in my boots, Farm Management Training) • Leveraging regulations • Use PRS as a platform for the accomplishments of others, NGOs, agencies, industry, etc.
Market-Based Conservation Summay 1. Use economic principles (incentives) 2. Apply sound marketplace or business practices 3. Encourage competition 4. Inform the conservation investment decisions of others 5. Leverage resources of others (partnerships) 6. Provide information and tools to allow environmental markets to evolve or develop (Comet VR)
Market-Based Conservation • Incentives