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Marieb’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Marieb w Hoehn Chapter 5 Integumentary System Lecture 12 Marieb’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Marieb w Hoehn Chapter 5 Integumentary System Lecture 12 1

Suggested Study Method 1. Look at the items on your Study Guide that pertain Suggested Study Method 1. Look at the items on your Study Guide that pertain to the topic for the upcoming lecture. 2. Read the lecture material (see my suggestions below) BEFORE coming to class. TAKE NOTES from the material you are reading IN YOUR OWN WORDS. While you’re reading, if you see something that was in the Study Guide, highlight it in your textbook. 3. Take some notes in class during lecture if you need to, and then as soon as possible after class COMBINE your reading notes for that topic with your class notes - AND COMPLETE THE STUDY GUIDE FOR THAT SECTION. 4. Once you’ve geared up to start studying for a test, try and CONDENSE your notes a little more without sacrificing. REMEMBER, when studying for an exam, you are now using ONLY your notes, not your textbook (unless you need clarification about something). Make sure you’ve gone over your notes and memorized them AT LEAST three times before the exam. 5. Finally, get a BLANK Study Guide, put your notes aside then answer the questions on the study guide and compare your answers to your notes. If you can’t answer the questions correctly or address the points on your Study Guide without looking at your notes, you’re not yet ready for the exam. Review/re-memorize those things you are still not solid on. A suggested method for reading your text prior to coming to lecture is the following: a. Skim the chapter section HEADINGS first to get an overview of the chapter contents b. Look at all the figures in the text and read the legends for the figures/tables before you actually read. Ask yourself what you know about the figures as you’re looking at them. c. Read over the Study Guide for the material (that I give you for each exam) before you read to focus your thoughts on the most important 20% of what you will have to know. d. Read the Chapter summary (yes, BEFORE you read the Chapter) and while you’re reading through it keep asking yourself what you already know and what you don’t know, and focus on the things that are mentioned in your Study Guide. e. Read the chapter material and, using the Study Guide and the Expert Questions, make notes on what you’re reading. Don’t COPY 2 sentences in your textbook word-for-word, but put a summary sentence for each paragraph you read IN YOUR OWN WORDS.

Lecture Overview • • • Functions of the Integumentary System Overview of the skin Lecture Overview • • • Functions of the Integumentary System Overview of the skin The epidermis The hypodermis (subcutaneous layer) Accessory structures of the integumentary system • Injury and Repair • Aging and the integumentary system 3

Where are We in Our Organizational Scheme? 4 Where are We in Our Organizational Scheme? 4

Some Questions… Skin is composed of an epithelial layer and a connective tissue layer. Some Questions… Skin is composed of an epithelial layer and a connective tissue layer. Is skin a membrane? Yes. The cutaneous membrane What is a membrane? Combination of ET and CT tissues combine to protect/cover other tissues Is there a difference between the skin (integument) and the integumentary system? Yes. Skin is the cutaneous membrane consisting of an epithelium (epidermis) and a dermis (CT). The integumentary system (IS) includes the skin, hair, nails, and glands (accessory structures). How does the structure of the integument, enable it to perform its functions of protection, temperature regulation, etc. ? That is the subject of this lecture… 5

Introduction to the Integumentary System • The integument constitutes 7% of our body weight Introduction to the Integumentary System • The integument constitutes 7% of our body weight and has a surface area of about 1. 5 – 2. 0 m 2 (15 – 20 ft 2) • Functions of the integument – Protection (from mechanical/chemical/bacterial damage, UV radiation) – Temperature regulation (extreme heat, extreme cold) and Fluid conservation – Excretion – Vitamin D production – Sensation (touch, pressure) 6

SKIN Accessory Structures Overview of the Integument Epidermis = protection; Dermis = nourishment of SKIN Accessory Structures Overview of the Integument Epidermis = protection; Dermis = nourishment of epidermis; Sub. Q = insulation Figure from: Martini, Anatomy & Physiology, Prentice Hall, 2001 7

Layers of the Epidermis - Overview 8 Layers of the Epidermis - Overview 8

Cells of the Epidermis • Epidermis of the skin is classified as a keratinized Cells of the Epidermis • Epidermis of the skin is classified as a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium • Cells of the epidermis include – Keratinocytes (90%) • Keratin – a tough, fibrous intracellular protein (protection) • Lamellar granules (waterproofing, extracellular) – Melanocytes (8%) • Produce melanin (protection from UV radiation) – Langerhans cells (1 -2%) • Migrate to skin from bone marrow • Participate in skin’s immune response (dendritic cells) – Merkel cells (< 1%) • Least numerous; specialized epithelial cells • Function in sensation of touch 9

Thick and Thin Skin Thin (0. 07 -0. 12 mm) (epidermal thickness) Thick (0. Thick and Thin Skin Thin (0. 07 -0. 12 mm) (epidermal thickness) Thick (0. 8 -1. 4 mm) (epidermal thickness) Thick skin - palms of hands, soles of feet; five epidermal layers Thin skin - everywhere else; four epidermal layers (no s. lucidum) Figure from: Martini, Anatomy & Physiology, Prentice Hall, 2001 10

Layers of the Epidermis basale “Bare Skin Gets Lots of Cuts” Figure from: Martini, Layers of the Epidermis basale “Bare Skin Gets Lots of Cuts” Figure from: Martini, Anatomy & Physiology, Prentice Hall, 2001 11

Layers of the Epidermis Stratum basale (Bottom) (germinativum) - lowest layer - single layer Layers of the Epidermis Stratum basale (Bottom) (germinativum) - lowest layer - single layer of dividing cells that continually replace more superficial epithelial cells - contains Merkel cells (touch) and melanocytes (pigment) - attached by hemidesmosomes to underlying basal lamina - epidermal ridges; contours of skin follow ridges = fingerprints Figure from: Martini, Anatomy & Physiology, Prentice Hall, 2001 12

Layers of the Epidermis Stratum spinosum (spiny) - 8 -10 layers of rounded cells Layers of the Epidermis Stratum spinosum (spiny) - 8 -10 layers of rounded cells with large nuclei - held together by desmosomes - cells continue to divide - Langerhans (immune) cells found here * Figure from: Martini, Anatomy & Physiology, Prentice Hall, 2001 13

Layers of the Epidermis Stratum granulosum (granular) - 3 -5 layers of keratinocytes - Layers of the Epidermis Stratum granulosum (granular) - 3 -5 layers of keratinocytes - most no longer divide * - begin making lots of keratin and keratohyalin (KH) * cells flatten and harden * cell membranes thicken * KH promotes dehydration and cross-linking of keratin fibers * nuclei begin to disintegrate and cells die Figure from: Martini, Anatomy & Physiology, Prentice Hall, 2001 14

Layers of the Epidermis Stratum lucidum (clear) - ONLY in THICK SKIN - flattened, Layers of the Epidermis Stratum lucidum (clear) - ONLY in THICK SKIN - flattened, densely packed, and filled with keratin (eleidin) - separates the s. corneum from the s. granulosum - Water resistant boundary layer of keratinized skin Figure from: Martini, Anatomy & Physiology, Prentice Hall, 2001 15

Layers of the Epidermis Stratum corneum (horny) - 15 -30 layers of dead keratinized Layers of the Epidermis Stratum corneum (horny) - 15 -30 layers of dead keratinized cells (dander) - exposed to outside * - tightly connected by desmosomes - remain for about 2 weeks Figure from: Martini, Anatomy & Physiology, Prentice Hall, 2001 - water-resistant * interstitial fluids slowly permeate and evaporate (insensible perspiration) * damage to epidermis greatly increases this water loss * fluid collection between cells creates blisters 16

What’s hiding in your bed? Mmmm…dander GOOOOD! Figure from: Saladin, Anatomy & Physiology, Mc. What’s hiding in your bed? Mmmm…dander GOOOOD! Figure from: Saladin, Anatomy & Physiology, Mc. Graw Hill, 2007 Dermatophagoides, The House Dust Mite 17

Skin Color Genetic Factors Physiological Factors • varying amounts and type • dilation of Skin Color Genetic Factors Physiological Factors • varying amounts and type • dilation of dermal blood vessels of melanin (erythema) • varying size/number of melanin granules • constriction of dermal blood • albinos lack melanin vessels (less pink, pale = pallor) (but not melanocytes!) • level of oxygenation of blood * normal = pink (fair-skinned) Environmental Factors * low = bluish (cyanosis) • sunlight • UV light from sunlamps • carotene -> Vit A (yellow) • X rays • jaundice (yellow) 18

Skin Color and Melanin Dark-skinned Fair-skinned Melanocytes and melanin facts - tyrosine (aa) melanin Skin Color and Melanin Dark-skinned Fair-skinned Melanocytes and melanin facts - tyrosine (aa) melanin - UV radiation up-regulates production of melanin - Caucasian vs. dark-skinned * number vs. activity * layer of epidermis Figure from: Martini, Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, Pearson Education, 2004 20

Other Epidermal Facts • Vitamin D 3 (“sunshine vitamin”) – After UV irradiation epidermal Other Epidermal Facts • Vitamin D 3 (“sunshine vitamin”) – After UV irradiation epidermal cells in s. spinosum and s. basale convert a cholesterol-related steroid to Vit D 3 (cholecalciferol) – Vit D 3 – absorption of calcium and phosphorus by small intestine • Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) – Produced in salivary glands and duodenum – Widespread effects on epithelia • • cell division in s. basale and s. spinosum production of keratin epidermal development and repair synthetic activity and secretion by epithelial glands 21

Dermis Papillary layer (contains papillae) - areolar connective tissue (CT) - capillaries and sensory Dermis Papillary layer (contains papillae) - areolar connective tissue (CT) - capillaries and sensory neurons - dermal papillae - fingerprints (with epi. ridges) Reticular layer (contains fibers) - dense, irregular CT - collagen fiber bundles extend upward and downward - also contains elastic fibers and cells of CT proper - accessory organs of integumentary system (from epi. ) - cleavage or tension lines - flexure lines Figure adapted from: Martini, Anatomy & Physiology, Prentice Hall, 2001 22

Dermis Circulation - cutaneous plexus (CP) - branches of CP supply hair follicles, glands, Dermis Circulation - cutaneous plexus (CP) - branches of CP supply hair follicles, glands, other structures - form papillary plexus Nerves - control blood flow - regulate gland secretion - monitor sensory reception - light touch (Meissner’s) - deep touch/pressure (Pacinian or lamellated corpuscles) - naked nerve endings to epithelium (pain, temperature) Figure adapted from: Martini, Anatomy & Physiology, Prentice Hall, 2001 23

Subcutaneous Layer - Stabilization of dermis - INSULATION - Areolar and adipose tissue - Subcutaneous Layer - Stabilization of dermis - INSULATION - Areolar and adipose tissue - Effect of hormones - Reservoir of blood Also called ‘hypodermis’. This is the superficial fascia. 24

Removal of Subcutaneous Fat - Liposuction Figures from: www. fda. gov/cdrh/liposuction/illustration 2. jpg and Removal of Subcutaneous Fat - Liposuction Figures from: www. fda. gov/cdrh/liposuction/illustration 2. jpg and http: //health. howstuffworks. com/liposuction 1. htm 25

Hair (pilo-) • epidermal cells • tube-like depression • extends into dermis • hair Hair (pilo-) • epidermal cells • tube-like depression • extends into dermis • hair root (in dermis) • hair shaft (outer 1/3) • hair papilla • dead epidermal cells • melanin • arrector pili muscle Nerves in root hair plexus Basal lamina (from epidermis) Figure from: Hole’s Human A&P, 12 th edition, 2010 A hair in the scalp grows for 2 -5 years, about 0. 33 mm/day 26

Hair Follicles Hair color Types of hair: 1. Lanugo – long, blond, fine (fetal, Hair Follicles Hair color Types of hair: 1. Lanugo – long, blond, fine (fetal, anorexia nervosa) 2. Vellus – short, blond (children, adult females) 3. Terminal – coarse, pigmented (adults) Some hair color Figure adapted from: Martini, Anatomy & Physiology, Prentice Hall, 2001 27

Hairs Emerging from Follicles Photo from: Saladin, Anatomy & Physiology, Mc. Graw Hill, 2007 Hairs Emerging from Follicles Photo from: Saladin, Anatomy & Physiology, Mc. Graw Hill, 2007 29

Hair Color and Texture Figure from: Saladin, Anatomy & Physiology, Mc. Graw Hill, 2007 Hair Color and Texture Figure from: Saladin, Anatomy & Physiology, Mc. Graw Hill, 2007 30

Sebaceous (Oil) Glands Figure from: Hole’s Human A&P, 12 th edition, 2010 • usually Sebaceous (Oil) Glands Figure from: Hole’s Human A&P, 12 th edition, 2010 • usually associated with hair follicles • holocrine glands • secrete sebum, a waxy, oily material • absent on palms and soles • inhibits growth of bacteria • lubricates and protects keratin of hair shaft, and conditions skin Sebaceous follicles – not associated with hair. Discharge directly on to skin. On face, back, chest, nipples and male sex organs. 31

Sweat Glands • also called sudoriferous glands • apocrine (merocrine secr. ) glands - Sweat Glands • also called sudoriferous glands • apocrine (merocrine secr. ) glands - associated with hair follicles - thick, odorous secretion Sweating (usu excessive) with visible wetness = diaphoresis • eccrine (merocrine secr. ) glands - most numerous - palms, soles, forehead, neck, back - directly on to surface - watery secretion - for thermoregulation Figure from: Hole’s Human A&P, 12 th edition, 2010 • ceruminous glands • mammary glands Specialized (apocrine secretion) 32

Nails (Perionychium) Figure from: Saladin, Anatomy & Physiology, Mc. Graw Hill, 2007 Hyponychium Know Nails (Perionychium) Figure from: Saladin, Anatomy & Physiology, Mc. Graw Hill, 2007 Hyponychium Know these terms – be able to label a diagram of the nail 33

Nails – Sagittal Section Through Finger Figure from: Anatomy & Physiology Revealed, Mc. Graw Nails – Sagittal Section Through Finger Figure from: Anatomy & Physiology Revealed, Mc. Graw Hill, 2007 34

Regulation of Body Temperature Figure from: Hole’s Human A&P, 12 th edition, 2010 Hyperthermia Regulation of Body Temperature Figure from: Hole’s Human A&P, 12 th edition, 2010 Hyperthermia – Abnormally high body temperature May be caused by - environment (heat, humidity) - illness (fever [>=37. 20 C], pyrexia) - anesthesia (malignant h. ) Corrected by loss of heat by radiation, convection, conduction, evaporation Heat exhaustion (prostration) - Fatigue - Dizziness - Headache - Muscle cramps - Nausea - May lead to heat stroke 35

Regulation of Body Temperature Hypothermia – Abnormally low body temperature (at least 20 C Regulation of Body Temperature Hypothermia – Abnormally low body temperature (at least 20 C below normal body temp) May be caused by: - exposure to cold (primary) - illness (secondary) - surgical induction (clinical) Cardiac arrest is likely if temperature falls below 28 o. C (82 o. F) Figure from: Hole’s Human A&P, 12 th edition, 2010 Corrected by mechanisms to retain body heat (see left) 36

Healing of Cuts Figure From: Marieb & Hoehn, Human Anatomy & Physiology, 9 th Healing of Cuts Figure From: Marieb & Hoehn, Human Anatomy & Physiology, 9 th ed. , Pearson 1. Bleeding/clotting 2. Scab formation 3. Epidermal cell migration and collagen production 4. Shedding of scab; covering of wound with epithelium Tissue repair can occur by either: 1) regeneration – healing with tissue that was originally present 2) fibrosis – healing with ‘scar’ tissue 37

Types of Burns Figure from: Saladin, Anatomy & Physiology, Mc. Graw Hill, 2007 40 Types of Burns Figure from: Saladin, Anatomy & Physiology, Mc. Graw Hill, 2007 40

Rule of Nines Figure from: Hole’s Human A&P, 12 th edition, 2010 41 Rule of Nines Figure from: Hole’s Human A&P, 12 th edition, 2010 41

Life Span Changes • Scaly skin as sebaceous glands secrete less oil • Age Life Span Changes • Scaly skin as sebaceous glands secrete less oil • Age spots • Dermis becomes reduced • Loss of fat • Wrinkles • Sagging • Melanin production slows • Hair thins • Number of hair follicles decrease • Impaired nail growth • Sensory receptors decline • Inability to control body temperature • Less vitamin D production 42

Review • The Integumentary System has numerous functions that are related to its composition Review • The Integumentary System has numerous functions that are related to its composition and structure – Protection – Temperature regulation (sweat, blood vessels) – Excretion – Vitamin D production – Sensation (touch, pressure) • The epidermis – the outer, protective layer – S. basale, s. spinosum, s. granulosum, s. lucidum (thick skin only), s. corneum 43

Review • The dermis – the lower, nutritive layer – Papillary dermis – Reticular Review • The dermis – the lower, nutritive layer – Papillary dermis – Reticular dermis – Dermis contains accessory organs of skin • The hypodermis (subcutaneous) – insulates – The superficial fascia – ‘baby fat’ – reservoir of blood – NOT part of the skin 44

Review • Accessory structures of the integumentary system – Hair – Nails (parts of Review • Accessory structures of the integumentary system – Hair – Nails (parts of nails) – Sweat glands • Apocrine (merocrine) • Eccrine (merocrine) • Modified (mammary, ceruminous) – Sebaceous glands and sebaceous follicles – These structures are vital for skin repair since they act as a source of epithelial cells 45

Review • Skin color is due to many factors – Genetic (melanin) – Environmental Review • Skin color is due to many factors – Genetic (melanin) – Environmental (UV irradiation) – Physiologic • • Dilation of dermal blood vessels – erythema Poor oxygenation of blood – cyanosis Constriction of dermal blood vessels – pale skin Carotene, jaundice (yellow skin) 46

Review • Temperature regulation is an important function of the integumentary system – Body Review • Temperature regulation is an important function of the integumentary system – Body can lose heat by • • Radiation Evaporation Convection Conduction – Hyperthermia (ABOVE normal core temperature) • Dilation of dermal blood vessels • Increased sweat gland secretion – Hypothermia (BELOW normal core temperature) • Constriction of dermal blood vessels • Decrease in sweat gland secretion 47

Review • Stem cells in the epithelium and dermis are crucial to repair after Review • Stem cells in the epithelium and dermis are crucial to repair after injury – Wound healing and regeneration – Burns • Numerous changes occur in the integumentary system with age (Ugh!) 48