Скачать презентацию MARC in 2011 Alan Hopkinson a hopkinson mdx ac Скачать презентацию MARC in 2011 Alan Hopkinson a hopkinson mdx ac

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MARC in 2011 Alan Hopkinson a. hopkinson@mdx. ac. uk MARC in 2011 Alan Hopkinson a. [email protected] ac. uk

Early MARC • MARC developed by Library of Congress 1966; MARC II and UK Early MARC • MARC developed by Library of Congress 1966; MARC II and UK MARC developed in 1968 (UK MARC has more subfields) MARC II > LC MARC > US MARC > MARC 21 IFLA developed UNIMARC IN 1973 Many features were improvement on MARC • Record structure (ISO 2709) remained static

UNIMARC: origins • Joint project: Library of Congress, British Lib. , National Library of UNIMARC: origins • Joint project: Library of Congress, British Lib. , National Library of Canada to develop an interpretative manual to improve consistency of UNIMARC as international exchange format • Conversions developed between US MARC and UNIMARC and UK MARC and UNIMARC adopted by countries as a national exchange format: e. g. China, France, Italy, Japan, Portugal, South Africa, USSR, Yugoslavia

MARC or UNIMARC? • In 1997 LC changed policy: – renamed US MARC > MARC or UNIMARC? • In 1997 LC changed policy: – renamed US MARC > MARC 21 UNIMARC would not be used as international exchange format • Australia (1991), New Zealand UK (2004) national libraries change from national format (e. g. UK MARC) to US MARC / MARC 21

Changes • UNIMARC continued to be used in most countries – France, Italy, Portugal, Changes • UNIMARC continued to be used in most countries – France, Italy, Portugal, Slovenia and neighbours (COBISS’s COMARC), Russia (RUSMARC), Greece, China, Japan, Taiwan • South Africa, Czech Republic and Slovak Republic moved to MARC 21

MARC and cataloguing codes • Bibliographic exchange formats depend on cataloguing codes for their MARC and cataloguing codes • Bibliographic exchange formats depend on cataloguing codes for their data element definition • UNIMARC hospitable to ISBD related formats • MARC 21 hospitable to AACR > RDA (Resource Discovery and Access) • UNIMARC in process of implementing RDA

Other definitions used in UNIMARC • • Standard numbers, ISBN, ISMN, ISSN Authority records Other definitions used in UNIMARC • • Standard numbers, ISBN, ISMN, ISSN Authority records (UNIMARC/A) Classification schemes National practices (UNIMARC)

UNIMARC features – More logical structure (zoned) • • • 0 xx Standard Numbers UNIMARC features – More logical structure (zoned) • • • 0 xx Standard Numbers 1 xx Coded data 2 xx ISBD data 3 xx Notes 4 xx Linking data 5 xx Title Access points 6 xx Subject data 7 xx Name access points 8 xx National usage

Granularity of subfields • UNIMARC 700 $a. Hopkinson$b. Alan • MARC 21 100 $a. Granularity of subfields • UNIMARC 700 $a. Hopkinson$b. Alan • MARC 21 100 $a. Hopkinson, Alan

Title field MARC 21 v. UNIMARC • 245 14$a. The printer's manual$h[microform] /$cby Caleb Title field MARC 21 v. UNIMARC • 245 14$a. The printer's manual$h[microform] /$cby Caleb Stower ; with a new introduction by John Bidwell. The printer's companion / by Edward Grattan ; with a new introduction by Clinton Sisson. • 200 10$a. The printer's manual$bmicroform$fby Caleb Stower$gwith a new introduction by John Bidwell$c. The printer's companion$fby Edward Grattan$gwith a new introduction by Clinton Sisson

Coded data • UNIMARC: Many different fields • 100 General Processing Data 101 Language Coded data • UNIMARC: Many different fields • 100 General Processing Data 101 Language of the Item 102 Country of Publication or Production 105 Coded Data Field: Textual materials, Monographic 106 Coded Data Field: Textual materials – Physical Attributes 110 Coded Data Field: Continuing Resources 115 Coded Data Field: Visual Projections, Videorecordings and Motion Pictures 116 Coded Data Field: Graphics 117 Coded Data Field: Three-dimensional artifacts and realia

Coded data: MARC • 006 - Fixed-Length Data Elements - Additional Material Characteristics • Coded data: MARC • 006 - Fixed-Length Data Elements - Additional Material Characteristics • 007 - Physical Description Fixed Field • 008 - Fixed-Length Data Elements • Character Position BK CF MP MU CR VM MX 00 -05 Date entered on file ~ ~ ~ ~ • 06 Type of date/Publication status ~ ~ ~ ~

UNIMARC governance • IFLA Core activity led by National Library of Portugal • Permanent UNIMARC governance • IFLA Core activity led by National Library of Portugal • Permanent UNIMARC Committee: 9 members from different countries plus UK plus LC/OCLC • Anyone can make suggestions via members • Meets formally once per year

UNIMARC Guidelines 1. Guidelines for Using UNIMARC for Component Parts (May 1999) 2. Guidelines UNIMARC Guidelines 1. Guidelines for Using UNIMARC for Component Parts (May 1999) 2. Guidelines for Using UNIMARC for Microforms (May 1999) 3. Guidelines for Using UNIMARC for Older Monographic Publications (Antiquarian) (April 1998) 4. UNIMARC Minimal Level Record (Feb. 1999) 5. Multi-level Description: Encoding Options for UNIMARC (Feb. 1999) 6. Electronic Resources (Aug. 2000) 7. Music (July 2005) 8. Serials and Other Continuing Resources (October 2006)

Use of MARC in internet age • Key library management systems implement UNIMARC (ISO Use of MARC in internet age • Key library management systems implement UNIMARC (ISO 2709) • Import bibliographic records via Z 39. 50 • Bibliographic records sent in file from bookseller corresponding to book invoice • Records created by cataloguers where not available externally

Exchange format record structure • ISO 2709 adopted as international standard in 1973 (based Exchange format record structure • ISO 2709 adopted as international standard in 1973 (based on magnetic tape structure) • Marc. XML / Marc. Xchange, XML not ISO 2709 - - 01142 cam 2200301 a 4500 92005291 DLC 19930521155141. 9 920219 s 1993 caua j 000 0 eng -92005291 - 0152038655 : $15. 95

Marc. Xchange • ISO 25577: Marc. Xchange http: //www. loc. gov/standards/iso 25577/ISO_ DIS_25577__E_. pdf Marc. Xchange • ISO 25577: Marc. Xchange http: //www. loc. gov/standards/iso 25577/ISO_ DIS_25577__E_. pdf • Contains UNIMARC examples

New XML formats • MODS: Metadata Object Description Schema – Rich but not too New XML formats • MODS: Metadata Object Description Schema – Rich but not too rich metadata format – DL projects, archiving websites, OAI • METS: schema for containing digital data objects with their metadata • See standards showcase, ALA 2006 http: //www. loc. gov/standards/modsmets-ala/mods-mets-ala. html

Future of MARC formats • XML is more exchangeable on the WWW • Despite Future of MARC formats • XML is more exchangeable on the WWW • Despite XML alternatives, records are transferred via traditional ISO 2709 between suppliers and library management systems – Commercial reasons (easier to control) – Inertia (why change a system if it works) – Inflexibility of ISO 2709 helps

Future of UNIMARC • • Similar reasons as general reasons for MARC Extensive use Future of UNIMARC • • Similar reasons as general reasons for MARC Extensive use in various countries Support from IFLA Sources of records are being extended

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