- Количество слайдов: 77
Mao and the SPS Region: Asia Left-Wing Dictator
Group 1: Ideology-Thought Reform Tiffany Sun, Caitie Horan, Erica Falvey, Deborah Bakshiyev
Maoist Ideology - Key Components a. peasants as revolutionary class a. previously seen as incapable b. Mao thought peasants masses could be used to overthrow feudalism & capitalism b. 2 stage revolution a. On New Democracy by Map a. socialism would be result of 2 stage revolution b. stage 1 - bourgeois-democratic revolution c. stage 2 - socialist revolution c. Mass Line a. identify the masses' interests -> interpret with marxist principles -> tell them back to the masses b. developing close relations between the communist party and the people a. CCP cadres were to live with the peasants & learn rural life c. central maoist idea d. use masses to build socialism rather than imposing it on them
Maoist Ideology - Key Components Continued. a. Continuous Revolution & Rectification a. Mao thought revolution should be permanent/continuous part of communist rule b. people needed therue thoughts remolded, corrected and inspected regularly c. CCP officials used self-criticism to ensure they served the people selflessly. b. Worldwide Revolution a. Mao agreed with Trotsky's idea of a worldwide communist revolution b. intervened in Korean war (1950) c. aided communist guerrilla movements in Philippines, Vietnam, Malaya, Burma & Indonesia d. 1971 - Mao left this idea an perued democratic relations with US
Consolidation and Recovery: 1949 -52 a. CCP achievements: May Fourth a. restored China's unity and independence from foreign interference b. Communist leadership of the People's Republic decided to take on the technological and military might of the USA in the Korean War --> China fought US to a standstill --> saved communist North Korea from collapse c. had extensive experience of administering rural areas during 1930 s and 1940 s a. CCP challenges: a. had none of running towns or an urban economy b. had to tolerate other political parties to create a new China
Consolidation and Recovery: 1949 -52 a. People's Consultative Conference set up a provisional national assembly for China a. drafted a temporary constitution (the Organic Law) b. permitted 8 parties to function c. About new gov't: a. initially a coalition b. dominated by the CCP c. described by Mao as a 'people's democratic dictatorship' a. consisted of the 'national' and 'petty' bourgeoisie, peasants, industrial proletariat b. right to vote given only to people and not to reactionaries --> democratic dictatorship b. CCP divided China in six regions a. each region run by a bureau b. military had key role c. China officially became a one-party communist state in 1954 when a new constitution replaced the Organic Law d. People's National Congress created, but met infrequently and had no real power
Consolidation and Recovery: 1949 -52 a. power was exercised by a hierarchy of Communist Party committees a. Politburo at the top b. CCP sought aid from non-communists to help them govern China a. many officials who had served in GMD were used by CCP until CCP was able to increase its numbers and administrative competence of its own officials a. --> 1953: CCP membership increased from 4 million to 6. 1 million! --> growth allowed CCP to dispense with many noncommie officials c. major aim of CCP: restore unified control over what had been the Chinese Empire a. not completed in 1949 because most of South-West China was still under GMD control b. by the end of 1950, CCP was almost totally successful in reunifying China a. only Hong Kong (British), Macao (Portuguese), Outer Mongolia, Taiwan, and a few other GMD-controlled islands left
National Capitalism: 1949 -52 a. CCP main economic goal: achieve recovery after the damage and dislocation caused by the Sino-Japanese War and Civil War a. worked with 'national capitalists' (businessmen who had not had close connections with the GMD) to achieve goal a. CCP needed their management, financial skills, and experience b. Under National Capitalism: a. state took over ownership of heavy industry and banking system b. lighter industry and smaller factories remained under private ownership c. although national bourgeoisie could continue to make profits, they were subject to increasing state regulation in terms of wages and prices d. after all factories and businesses were nationalized, many former owners were kept as managers and still got an annual share of profits
National Capitalism: 1949 -52 a. Results of National Capitalism: a. industrial and agricultural production recovered very successfully a. value of industrial output increased by 2 1/2 times b. grain production increased b. Communists tackled the hyperinflation which had totally destabilized China's economy under the GMD c. renminbi was introduced a. a new, carefully controlled currency d. budget was balanced a. because CCP was more effective at taxing the population than GMD
Land Reform (June 1950) a. Land Reform of 1950 = destruction of power and wealth of landlord class a. early years of CCP rule was more moderate b. peasants encouraged to take lead in attacking landlords b. Results: a. about 2 million landlords died b. many of the survivors had their land taken away and redistributed (to middle/poor peasants) c. gave peasants stake in revolution (they now had something to lose if CCP was overthrown) d. ownership of land was private (CCP moved gradually toward socialization of agriculture from the early 1950 s)
Mass Movements and Thought Reform a. CCP launched several campaigns to reshape attitudes and habits of the Chinese population b. want a socialist culture and mindset (in addition to a socialist economy) c. used mass movements to mobilize the population d. Wanted to establish tight control a. created structures where everyone was subject to surveillance b. Set up danwei a. work/neighborhood units e. Mass organizations created a. National Women's Association, New Democratic Youth League (14 -25 yr olds), Children's Pioneer Corps (ages 914) f. children instructed in the Five Loves a. country, people, labor, science, and public property
Campaign Against Counter. Revolutionaries (1950) a. Mao wanted to eliminated anyone within the government who supported the GMD b. Korean War (1950) - US troops were very close to North Korea's border with Manchuria a. triggered China's military intervention b. heightened CCP's anxiety about "enemies within" c. Mass demonstrations against the USA and other capitalist countries a. population mobilized to identify spies and traitors d. Within 6 months, 700, 000 people executed (most had links w/ GMD) e. 500, 000 people imprisoned in "reform through labor" camps
The Three and Five-Antis Campaigns (1951 -1952) a. CCP started putting more pressure on remaining former GMD officials and bourgeoisie a. launched two campaigns (claimed to be clamping down on corruption) b. The Three Anti (San Fan) Campaign (1951) a. targeted corruption, waste, elitism b. directed against officials (both former GMD and members of CCP) a. obliged to undergo self-criticism and criticism c. The Five Anti (Wu Fan) Campaign (1952) a. targeted bribery, tax evasion, fraud, theft of gov't property and of economic secrets b. directed against business community d. Both campaigns - offenders treated mildly (compared to Campaign Against Counter-Revolutionaries)
Thought Reform Movement (September 1951) a. CCP wanted to eradicate bourgeois and capitalist ideas from intellectuals b. 6500 intellectuals and university professors obliged to undertake courses in Communist thought c. Art and literature had to conform to CCP's political dictates a. art required to promote class struggle and loyalty to the Party b. Party silenced artists and writers who did not conform
Group 2: Social Reform Names: Samantha Giffen, Sara Erkal, Jesse Cushing, Shelly Grinshpun (we are awesome)
Social Reform a. War on Crime a. CCP punished, often executed, major criminals b. Treated prostitutes and drug addicts as victims a. Rehabilitation Programs c. CCP officials raided ad closed down brothels and gambling dens b. Education a. CCP launched a drive to increase literacy and expand educational provision b. Mid- 1950 s- 80% of the population was illiterate c. CCP received help from USSR a. Russians teaching in Chinese schools and universities b. Chinese being trained in Russian universities c. Marriage Reform a. 1950 - Marriage Law banned arranged and child marriages and polygamy b. Women given the right to divorce and right to own property c. Women continued to be treated as inferiors by many men
The Socialization of Agriculture a. CCP leadership was convinced that collectivization was essential for increasing agricultural efficiency as well fulfilling ideological aims a. They were aware of Stalin's agricultural disaster caused by collectivization, so they decided to gradually implement the introduction of socialism into the countryside b. CCP leadership argued over the correct pacing of collectivization b. After the Land Reform of 1950, peasants were encouraged to pool animals and equipment at certain times in the year a. Still retained private ownership of land/resources b. Acceptable to peasants - 40% in 1953 belonged to mutual-aid teams.
The Socialization of Agriculture a. CCP begins to organize peasants into Agricultural Producers' Co-operatives in 1954 a. Land pooled but private ownership retained b. Peasants rewarded according to what they contributed c. Rich peasants (oxymoron? ) not allowed to join APCs b. Oscillating policy towards co-operatives (1953 -56) a. 1953 - Mao condemns "Rash Advance" of co-ops, but then criticized the fall-off in number of co-ops. b. 1955 - Liu Shaoqi supported a slower approach, but Mao eventually won over the party in favor of his rapid approach
The Socialization of Agriculture a. 1956 - 80% of households in co-ops. a. This encouraged Mao to order the transition from Lower Level APCs to Higher Level APCs a. Land entirely collectively owned b. All peasants work for wages regardless of input of land or equipment c. By 1957, 90% of peasants in these Higher Level APCs
Results of Collectivization a. CCP gains more control over the countryside than any previous regime b. From 1953, the state became the only buyer/seller of grain a. Peasants required to sell fixed quotas to the state c. Collectivization integrated much more peacefully than in Russia a. Slower process b. Less wealth gap between peasants a. Less feelings of losing out by pooling resources d. Little disruption to economy e. 1957 - 5% increase in agricultural output f. Disagreement amongst historians over the amount of resistance encountered a. Marc Bletcher - limited to rich peasants who didn't want to share - slaughter livestock b. Philip Short - serious peasant rioting in 1954 lead to Mao's temporary halt to the process in Jan 1955
Socialist Transition o First Five Years Plan 1953 -1957 § Brought to an end the National Capitalist phase and saw, by February 1956, nationalism of all private industries and businesses in China § GMD received a lot of backing from USA so it is not surprising that Mao decided that PRC must lean to one side in international relations and go to Russia for help even though they didn’t get much support § CCP also had to turn to USSR for advice and help in building socialist economy since they lacked experience in industrial planning § 2/1950 – PRC signed Sino-Soviet Friendship Treaty (USSR would give China $300 million in loans which was repayable in low interest, Russian technicians, and economic advisors § First Five Year was highly centralized and concentrated on heavy industry à huge new industrial centers were built and factory management changed from team based approach to one-man management
cont'd o Results of First Five Year Plan’s Results § Completed the process of nationalism of industry, before this most industry was still under private ownership § Boosted urbanization – China’s urban population increased from 57 million to 100 million § Important infrastructure improvements such as Yangzi River Rail and Road Bridge linking north and south China § Heavy industrial output trebled and light industrial output rose by 70% and overall targets were exceeded by 20% § $300 million lent by USSR was only 3% of total investment under 5 Year Plan so Chinese government had to raise money to fund Plan from its own people § Agriculture was squeezed to pay for heavy industrial expansion – state set grain prices low, to produce a large profit which could be invested in industry § Agricultural investment was as low as 90% of state investment was in industry o This is one reason for relatively slow growth in agricultural output
The Hundred Flowers Campaign 1957 a. CCP decided to lift censorship: a. encourage intellectuals to voice opinions aka complaints about the party b. Mao wanted this from the start since May 1956 a. it failed when he first announced it b. intellectuals did not reply c. they thought it was a trap d. were treated badly by party in the past e. thought they would be punished by CCP c. Mao kept pushing for it then--> after his speech was published in People's Paper (April 1957) --->campaign started working (May)
The Hundred Flowers Campaign 1957 a. This campaign caused ----->LOTS of complaints about the party a. basically the party didn't realize that they were REALLY unpopular. . oops b. people complained about the party was alienated from masses c. this spread to universities and students a. They called for multi-party elections b. created a democracy wall at Beijing Uni. commies suck!
The Hundred Flowers Campaign 1957 a. In response. . the govt thought they were being undermined • . . soooo they stopped the campaign • then they purged everyone that complained. . • they called this the Anti-Rightist Campaign o they forced people into hard labour reform o sent people to the countryside o kicked people out of their jobs • this in turn caused intellectuals to NEVER trust Mao again • and Mao was always suspicious of intellectuals
The Hundred Flowers Campaign 1957 a. Historiography a. Mao's motives: a. saw original campaign as type of rectification b. wanted to keep CCP pure and not a group of "privileged elite". . haha c. He thought that riots all over the world like in Poland in the 1956 were because people didn't have any say b. Philip Short says a. Mao tried to mix a totalitarian system with checksand balances. . (they are like oil and water) b. wanted to experiment c. others thought it was a clever trap to remove all critics
Group 3: The Great Leap Forward We are CHINA!! Nick, Deana, Mahir, Katie, Kai
Mao Adopts the Great Leap Forward Why Mao Abandons the Soviet Five Year Plan
The Great Leap Forward Launch a. Mao began a massive irrigation scheme of many cooperatives to transform and accelerate Chinese economy a. Co-operatives eventually came together to form a "communes, " the first in April, 1948. (rose to 26, 000) b. Mao thought so much organization would mean more labor for large projects (land reclamation, irrigation, Mommy! industry). a. Women began to work (canteens/créches) b. By '59, 70% children were in nurseries. c. Mao also wanted to set up a "People's Militia" for the CCP using the communes. Also wanted to develop industry --> set a target for steel production to double to 10. 7 million tons a year by '59 and 60 million by '60
GLF Launch (cont. ) a. Establishing communes in towns to improve agricultural and industrial production were not too successful (lacked space & time) a. Within factories, management shifted from one manager to a collective management with worker reps. a. GLF was intended to progress culture & politics and blur the line between peasants and workers, towns and countrysides. Also meant to shift focus from individual families and villages to the overall good of the Party and country.
Results of the Great Leap Forward a. Industry a. GNI (Gross National Income) increased by 8% in 1958 a. However fell by 30% in 1960 b. Steel production more or less reached the goals set by Mao a. Mainly due to use of backyard furnaces a. Steel produced was of very low quality and most could not be used b. Program was abandoned in 1959 c. Marked the start of rural industrialization a. Communes were successful in manufacturing agricultural tools, chemical fertilizers, and in mining uranium a. Uranium mining helped accelerate China's nuclear program d. Communes also helped develop large-scale irrigation and hydroelectric projects a. Became model for development in Third World countries
Results of the Great Leap Forward con't a. Agriculture a. 200 million tons of grain were harvested in 1958 a. But the government published an inflated number (260 mil) and set unrealistic targets for 1959 b. Harvests in 1959 and 1960 were very poor c. China entered a period of extreme famine 19591961 (aka "Three Bitter Years") a. Due to decreased grain production b. Death rate rose from 1. 46% in 1959 to 2. 54% in 1960 a. Death rate remained high in 1961 (1. 7%) c. It is estimated that over 20 million people died due to famine
Why did the GLF fail? a. CLP officials were unprepared for managing the vast size of the commune a. Very little planning was done b. Mass mobilization (Mao's idea) could not compensate for the lack of capital investment in technologically advanced processes like steel production c. 1960 - Sino-Soviet split made Khrushchev withdraw thousands of soviet advisers from China d. Flawed agricultural reforms a. Close planting, deep plowing, campaign against the "Four Pests" (rats, sparrows, flies, mosquitos) b. ^ These led to problems with farming e. Peasants were becoming exhausted by the demands of the CLP, so they abandoned agriculture and worked in steel production instead
Why did the GLF fail? a. Withdrawal of material incentives a. Ending of higher wages for skilled workers and great output - led to lack of motivation b. Abnormally bad weather a. Severe drought in Northeast China b. Flooding in South China c. CLP's refusal to accept failure - although Mao saw decrease in production, he didn't terminate the Great Leap Forward for a few years a. Mao also created a climate of fear in the CLP b. Everybody was afraid to challenge Mao's policies d. Early 1959 - Mao accepted the fact that the GLF was failing, so he reduced some of the policies a. Marshal Peng Duhuai criticized the entire GLF, so Mao threatened to engage in civil war with him if the rest of the Party did not back him b. Due to this, Mao reaffirmed his faith in the GLF a. famine intensified, and GLF continued until late 1960
Termination of the Great Leap Forward (1961) a. Problems by the end of 1960: a. China suffering from worst ever famine b. Overall state of crisis c. Some provinces (ex: Sichuan, Anhui) saw a quarter of the population starving to death d. Desperate peasants in four wester provinces and Tibet launched armed rebellions a. PLA dispatched to restore order b. Response to problems: a. CCP turned to Liu Shaoqi (PRC Chairman) and Deng Xiaoping (CCP General Secretary) to restore economy and grain supplies
Termination (continued) a. Liu and Deng a. Abandoned the Great Leap b. Emphasized the need to pursue economic policies that worked, rather than placing strict adherence to communist principles b. Took five years for agricultural production to recover from damage caused by Great Leap c. Industrial output recovered more quickly a. Doubled by 1965 due to the discovery of major oil and gas fields in Daqing
Causes for Economic Recovery (early 1964) a. Changes orchestrated by Liu and Deng b. CCP reverted to highly centralized economic planning a. Returned power to state planning officials in central bureaucracy c. 25 million unemployed urban workers returned to countryside d. Introduced: a. Material incentives b. Wage differentials for skilled and unskilled workers e. Private plots and markets encouraged in countryside a. Most arable land remained under control of communes b. CCP introduced household responsibility schemes a. Individual families contracted to farmland
Economic Recovery (Continued) a. Increase in grain imports a. Huge amounts from Australia and Canada throughout 1960 s b. 1961: 6 million tons imported b. Subdivision of communes a. 1961 b. Reduced them in size by two thirds c. Marked major retreat from the collectivisation of 1950 s
Mao retires to the second front a. Planned to step back since 1950 s b. Wanted to move to "second front" a. Concentrate on strategic thinking and planning b. Left younger colleagues to take over c. 1959: Gave up position as PRC Chairman a. Before Great Leap was declared failure b. Forced into background due to disasters of GLF a. "Dead ancestor" b. Disagreement about the extent to which Mao's influence was limited
Group 4: CCP Division Names: Nam. Q, Leigh, Em, Dishy
Bitter Faction-Fighting within CCP a. Constant tension between. . . a. Radical Communists (Mao) vs. Pragmatists (Liu/Deng) a. Pragmatists: Economically more flexible b. Mao up until 1962 considered Liu to be his successor a. BUT Mao did not like the economic policies a. Ex. Liu supported "household responsibility" system a. Mao saw this as abandoning socialism b. Mao was very orthodox, so he did not approve c. From 1962 on Mao did everything to keep the "revisionist" and "capitalist" influence out Keep it Communist Baby
Socialist Education Movement (196263) a. Why the brotha did Mao launch it? a. Bring back his control and tr to mass mobilize Communist ideology b. What the brotha was it? a. Movement/Attempt to a. Re-educate the population politically with Socialist ideals. b. Change the POV the Chinese saw the world (More Socialist scope) c. Establish 3 isms --> Collectivism, Patriotism, Socialism c. How the brotha were they going to do it? (4 Clean Ups) a. Focus on: Politics, Economy, Organization of CPC, Ideology
Socialist Education Movement (196263) a. PLOT TWIST!? !? ! a. Liu/Deng changed the movement up (They were in upper level gov't too) b. They ordered CCP leadership to break down into work teams not mass mobolization c. Each team would go into schools and factories to. . . a. Educate the people b. Try to identify/remove corrupt local officials b. Mao couldn't get a mass campaign rolling until 1966 a. This will be known as the Cultural Revolution
Power-base to launch Cultural Revolution a. Mao's "Little Red Book" Lin Biao remained faithful to Mao after Mao's disgrace. Lin helped Mao regain followers through publishing the "Little Red Book" of Mao's quotes c. The book essentially became the Bible of the people. a. b. Jiang Qing a. Third wife of Mao b. Former singer and actress c. Active member of CCP d. Banned all cultural items from foreign countries: music, furniture, etc. c. Shanghai forum Led by Jiang Qing Berated a play of a medieval soldier who was kicked out because he criticized the emperor. c. They argued that the soldier represented and degraded Mao a. b.
Mao's motives for starting the Cultural Revolution a. Regain power a. Mao held a grudge against Liu Shaoqi, Deng Xiaoping, and Peng Dehuai for bringing him down b. In order to regain power, he needed to regain support and destroy his opposition b. Destroy bourgeois a. Mao also wanted to destroy any traces of capitalism that would threaten communism c. Restore "revolutionary spirit" in the younger generation a. Mao complained that the younger generation weren't as revolutionary as the men he led in the long march. b. As a result he started the Red Guard
Initiation of the Culture Revolution a. May 1966 - growing unrest in universities a. struggle between radical Maoists and the pragmatists intensified b. Great Swim a. Mao swam in the Yangzi River to show he was 'back' • Mao publicly expressed his support for the Red Guard movement • 1966, first huge Maoist rally o over 1 million Red Guards in Tiananmen Square o PLA took over the railway to transport young people o hysterical mass rallies
"BOMBARD THE CCP HEADQUARTERS" a. called on students to seek out and destroy all those who were taking the "capitalist road" within the CCP • led to a wave of revolutionary enthusiasm
Development of the Cultural Revolution a. Large scaled purges carried out by the Red Guards a. Mao urged them to attack the 'Four Olds' a. old thought, old culture, old practices, old customs b. Schools and universities shut down c. Mao withdrew to central China, leaving Lin Biao and Jiang Qing to direct affairs a. clashes between rival Red Guard factions and between workers and students a. thousands were killed b. ceremonial cannibalism by Red Guards b. democratic workers' movement emerged c. party leaders worried that China was on the verge of a civil war d. 1967 Zhou called on the Red Guard to stop their violence a. they did not stop e. The PLA was given the key role on new Revolutionary Committees a. Late 1968 RC returned order in most places f. Mao called on the Red Guards to leave the cities and go to the country side
Why did Mao Retreat from Radicalism? a. Purges and violence went much further than Mao had intended b. When the Shanghai's People's Commune emerged it threatened the CCP's power. c. The Revolution was causing chaos within China and threatening a war with the USSR. d. Military commanders worried purges would extend into the PLA.
What were the results of the Cultural Revolution? a. As a result of the cultural revolution it is estimated that up to 100 million people suffered from it. b. About 500, 000 people died the main victims were not officers though, but intellectuals. c. 20 -30 million people migrated out of the cities to the countryside. d. Schools were set up to re-educate Party officials each year in Maoist thought.
Effect on Art and Literature Chinese art and literature became sterile, Qing imposed strict regulations on what art, performances and writings can be created. Also, ancient art was destroyed by the Red Guards.
Results Cont'd a. China became isolated and westerners were attacked. b. by 1970 Industrial Output had risen to record levels, however much was invested in the Military-industrial development in North-west and South-west, this was seen as a waste of resources. c. In 1969, a new constitution was created outlining 'Marxism. Leninism-Mao-Zedong Thought'. d. Liu-Shaqoui was defeated and Deng Xiaoping was rehabilitated and helped shape China's economic policies.
Group 5: Mao's Last Years and Foreign Policy Names: Aleks, Matt K, Kevin, Ashley (The c 00 l group)
Mao's Last Years: 1971 -1976 The Rise and Fall of Lin Bao a. Lin Bao came from the Cultural Revolution in a strong position • 1969 - Became Mao's successor • I 969 - 10 of the 16 Politburo members were members of the armed forces • Only 3 of the 10 were Lin supporters, making Mao doubt Lin • When Lin mysteriously disappeared in 1971, CCP said he had been planning a coup and wanted to assassinate Mao. Lin fled by plane to Russia but died in a crash over Mongolia. • Lin purged by Mao because Lin opposed closer links with USA
Mao's last years: 1971 -1976 Faction Struggle Continues (1971 -1976): the Radicals and Pragmatists battle for control of the Party a. From 1971, Zhou Enlai and Mao ran the Party effectively • They were aging and in 1972, Zhou diagnosed with cancer • 1973 - Deng Xiaoping was allowed back to Bejing and appointed Vice-Premier • Not sure whether the radicals or pragmatists would take control of Party after Mao died o 1970's- debate about direction of economic policy o Radicals- maintain centralized controls and emphasized the importance of mass mobilization and production focused on quantity and speed o Modernizers (led by Deng and Zhou)- stressed gradualism, quality production and expansion of incentives and wage differentials.
Mao's last years: 1971 -1976 Faction Struggle Continues (1971 -1976): the Radicals and Pragmatists battle for control of the Party a. 1975 -76 Debate centered around Deng and Zhou's proposed "Four Modernizations" • Radicals o Still a force in the Party o In 1973 three of them appointed to the Politburo o Wang Hongwen was presented as Mao's successor o To balance the radicals, Mao decided that Deng Xiaoping should be rehabilitated and restored to the Central Committee (1973) o 1973 'Criticize Confucius and Lin Biao' Campaign- They launched a propaganda attack on Zhou and his revisionist policies
Mao's last years: 1971 -1976 Faction Struggle Continues (1971 -1976): the Radicals and Pragmatists battle for control of the Party a. Jan. 1976 - Zhou Enlai died • Mao backed Hua Guofeng as new Premier after Enlai's o Compromise candidate • Deng removed as Vice-Premier o after Tiananmen Square demonstrations for Enlai o Guofeng sided with radicals • Sept. 1976 - Mao died o Guofeng orders radicals arrested (called Gang of Four) § Accused of planning coup § Put on trial, sentenced to death, changed to life in prison • Deng became #3 in CCP o Wanted increased USA and Japan trade o Died in 1997
Mao's last years: 1971 -1976 Faction Struggle Continues (1971 -1976): the Radicals and Pragmatists battle for control of the Party a. 1977 - Deng became number 3 in the Party hierarchy or CCP secretary • Deng shaped China's economic policies • Late 1970 s- 1997 (his death) -> Deng dominant figure in CCP • Deng was a modernizer, wanted greater trade with USA and Japan, and introduced reforms like increased incentives and decentralization.
Postscript: Deng takes China down the 'capitalist' road Deng Xiaoping shifts China towards capitalism a. Agriculture o Reforms to increase productivity o Peasants encourage to maximize private plots of land § Made up 40% of peasant family income o "Household responsibility system" introduced § Each peasant household could own land § Responsible for producing grain that state must buy § Any extra sold by peasants on open market • Later incentive and more autonomy offered o Still shortage of usable land
Postscript: Deng takes China down the 'capitalist' road a. Industry a. 1976 - Ten Year Plan set unrealistic production targets b. Major reforms in late 1970 s a. abandoned economic self-sufficiency b. joined International Monetary Fund and World Bank c. four Special Economic Zones increased foreign investment and trade d. Emphasized production of consumer good to have incentives for workers and peasants e. Less state control of industry a. Inflation b. Industrial growth and increased output c. 4 th largest overall economy d. Resulted in social inequality, unemployment, strikes
The Democracy Movement and Tiananmen Square Massacre a. 1970 s: CCP liberalizes the Chinese economy, becoming the fourth largest aggregate economy b. 1980 s: rise of economic reforms made public demand political freedom a. Caused by government's foreign education policy a. 1986: student demonstrations b. Encouraged by Mikhail Gorbachev's USSR reforms a. Visited Beijing in May 1989 c. Brought on by economic slump in late 1980 s
The Democracy Movement and Tiananmen Square Massacre a. CCP leadership divided in decision a. Zhao Ziyang: concessions and liberalization b. Li Ping, Deng Xiaoping: repression b. Military action ensued a. Zhao eliminated b. Troops sent in to clear demonstrators a. Over 1000 killed c. CCP continued to be single-party state a. Shocking departure from Marxism in economic matters
Chinese Foreign Policy 1949 -76
Chinese Foreign Policy 1949 -1976 a. The Establishment of The People's Republic of China a. 1945 -1947: Marshall Mission a. President Truman sent troops to help create a peace in China b. Helped GMD, but not much a. Because they realized GMD was corrupt b. 1948: Congress passed China Aid Act c. 1949: Mao's victory over Chiang Kai-shek d. US failed to recognize The People's Republic a. Due to the Republican belief Democrats had done too little, too late b. Also tied in with fear of Communism a. Coincided with Red Scare and Mc. Carthyism c. Finally accepted The People's Republic in 1979
Chinese Foreign Policy 1949 -1976 a. The Sino-Soviet Treaty a. 1950 b. Relations between Mao and Stalin hadn't been great a. Mao had previously opposed pro-Soviets, and essentially received no USSR aid during Civil War b. Stalin had suggested Mao aim for less power c. Mao finally decided to work with Stalin in light of the developing Cold War c. Signed a 'friendship treaty' a. Stalin to withdraw from Lushun by 1952 b. China given $300 million in loans c. USSR given concessions in Xinjiang and Manchuria
Chinese Foreign Policy 1949 -1976 a. The Korean War a. 1950 -1953 b. Background a. 1910 -1945: Japan ruled Korea b. 1945: Korean nationalists and communists set up the Korean People's Republic a. Korean Democratic Party also created at this time c. 1945: Soviet troops occupied northern Korea, US occupied southern Korea d. 1946: Opposing governments helped to form a. Syngman Rhee - Republic of Korea in the south b. Kim II-Sung - Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the north e. 1949: Both Soviets and US withdrew from their
Chinese Foreign Policy 1949 -1976 a. The Korean War a. 1950: Before the Invasion a. 1949: Kim visits Moscow and is denied permission to invade S. Korea b. 1950: Kim visits Moscow and is approved permission to invade S. Korea a. Had to consult Mao before invading
Chinese Foreign Policy 1949 -1976 a. The Korean War a. 1950: Invasion of the South a. June 1950: invasion begins a. S. Korean and UN forces pushed back to southern tip of S. Korea "Pusan Pocket" b. Sept. 1950: Gen. Mac. Arthur pushes back against N. Korean forces a. N. Koreans fled to 38 th Parallel b. US policy change: liberate all of Korea from communism
Chinese Foreign Policy 1949 -1976 a. The Korean War a. 1950: Chinese Intervention a. Efforts led to Chinese intervention a. 200, 000 troops sent in b. October 1950: Mao sends in "People's Volunteers" troops to aid a. Push UN forces back past 38 th Parallel b. Capture Seoul c. Mao is overambitious and tries to unite a communist Korea d. UN forces recapture Seoul e. Mao supports ceasefire negotiations f. July 1951: negotiations begin g. July 1953: armistice reached: 38 th parallel divides North and South Korea
Chinese Foreign Policy 1949 -1976 a. Taiwan a. Chiang's government withdrawn to Taiwan a. USA recognizes it as rightful governent of China a. Blocks PRC's admission to UN until 1971 b. 1954: USA signs Defense Treaty with Taiwan c. Caused by PRC threatening Nationalit-held Quemoy and Matsu d. 1958: PRC threatens Quemoy and Matsu again e. USA sends 7 th Fleet to patrol Taiwan f. USSR unwilling to support PRC
Chinese Foreign Policy 1949 -1976 a. The Sino-Soviet Split a. CCP leaders unwilling to be in "underneath" role to the Russian communists a. Angry with Khrushchev over Destalinization speech a. CCP praised Stalin in public, would lose face b. Mao disagreed on Khrushchev's peaceful coexistence policy b. USSR leadership saw Mao to be reckless a. Regretted promising PRC the help of building an atomic bomb a. Mao thought the world could survive a nuclear war
Chinese Foreign Policy 1949 -1976 a. The Sino-Soviet Split a. Mao felt USSR had not given enough support over Quemoy and Matsu crises b. 1959: Khrushchev revokes his promise of helping PRC build an atomic bomb a. Khrushchev publically criticizes the Great Leap Forward c. 1960: Khrushchev withdraws all Soviet engineers and technicians from China a. Split becomes public at congress in Bucharest d. 1963: CCP denounces Test Ban Treaty a. End of formal contact for 26 years
Chinese Foreign Policy 1949 -1976 a. Rapprochement with the USA a. 1971 -1972 b. Mao, despite previously putting down the idea of coexistence, resumes relations with the US a. Because Mao was afraid of war with USSR c. Paved the way for China's growing foreign trade b. China and the 'Third World' a. China makes friends with Asian and African countries a. Hoping to spread communism and influence b. Hoped Mao's Marxism would catch on better in third world countries a. Relied on a peasant's revolution c. Supplied weapons and aid to Vietminh and Malaysian, Filipino, and Burmese communists
Chinese Foreign Policy 1949 -1976 a. China and the 'Third World' a. 1955: Bandung Conference a. Zhou Enlai raised The People's Republic's international image by taking lead a. Moved to create a non-aligned movement of African and Asian states b. Sought to avoid Western domination c. People's Republic provided economic aid to several African countries