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Manufacturing Food These icons indicate that detailed teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are Manufacturing Food These icons indicate that detailed teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. 1 of 16 © Boardworks Ltd 2004

Scale of manufacturing 2 of 16 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 Scale of manufacturing 2 of 16 © Boardworks Ltd 2004

Can you remember? 3 of 16 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 Can you remember? 3 of 16 © Boardworks Ltd 2004

Large-scale production planning Time The manufacturer will have deadlines to meet and the product Large-scale production planning Time The manufacturer will have deadlines to meet and the product must be produced on time, but storage of the finished product is expensive. Purchase and storage of materials Buying ingredients in bulk is cheaper, but they have to be stored and used while they are still fresh. If they are not, wastage increases. Use of equipment and resources Equipment is expensive to buy and needs to be used to its full capacity whenever possible. Workers still have to be paid if they have nothing to do, so this must not happen. 4 of 16 © Boardworks Ltd 2004

HACCP What does that stand for? Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points Oh, right! HACCP What does that stand for? Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points Oh, right! Um, what does that mean then? It’s a way of making sure things don’t go wrong when we make our products. We have to look carefully at our processes, decide what things might go wrong and find ways to make sure they don’t. Oh, I see, that makes sense, but how do you actually do it? 5 of 16 First we identify hazards. Those are things that could go wrong. © Boardworks Ltd 2004

Hazards What sort of things are hazards? There could be biological hazards if we Hazards What sort of things are hazards? There could be biological hazards if we didn’t keep food cool enough or left it uncovered where bacteria could get to it. We also have to avoid things getting into the food that shouldn’t be there – bits of glass from a broken jar, for instance. We call those physical hazards. Ooh, nasty! What happens if cleaning Those are chemical hazards – we fluids get into the food? have to watch out for those too. 6 of 16 © Boardworks Ltd 2004

Critical control points So what can we do about these hazards then? First of Critical control points So what can we do about these hazards then? First of all we find the Critical Control Points. And they are? The points in our production process where we can control the hazards. Can you give me an example please? After we’ve cooked our pasta sauces, they are obviously hot. If we leave them standing in a warm place, bacteria can Oh, I see, so you cool them grow very quickly. down really quickly? 7 of 16 That’s right, and we monitor the temperature of the food when we do it. If the results show that the food wasn’t cooled properly (perhaps the refrigeration wasn’t working well), then we have to throw the food away because it might be dangerous. © Boardworks Ltd 2004

Quality assurance So HACCP is about making sure that our food is good quality? Quality assurance So HACCP is about making sure that our food is good quality? That’s right, it’s known as a quality assurance process. 8 of 16 © Boardworks Ltd 2004

HACCP words Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points aim to spot the things that HACCP words Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points aim to spot the things that might go wrong and build in preventative measures – ways of controlling them. Hazard Type Chicken not cooked thoroughly Biological Cooking Monitor cooking times and temperatures Hair in soup Physical Mixing Staff wear hats Nail varnish chip on bagel Physical Packing No nail varnish allowed Metal fragments Physical in frozen peas Packing Scan packs with x-rays Bleach in cake mix 9 of 16 CCP Chemical Cleaning Preventative measure Rinse equipment thoroughly © Boardworks Ltd 2004

Production charts A group of students are preparing samosas to serve at a evening Production charts A group of students are preparing samosas to serve at a evening of foods from around the world. Samosas have a filling inside a pastry case. The filling will be cooked before the samosas are filled. The samosas will be cooked and served hot. There will be meat samosas and vegetarian ones. 10 of 16 © Boardworks Ltd 2004

Production charts 11 of 16 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 Production charts 11 of 16 © Boardworks Ltd 2004

Production charts 12 of 16 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 Production charts 12 of 16 © Boardworks Ltd 2004

Making identical products When products are mass produced, they all need to be the Making identical products When products are mass produced, they all need to be the same (consistent). Some ways of doing this are: weighing all ingredients and final product to make sure all portions are the correct weight using computer controlled manufacture (CAM) to keep manufacturing processes consistent buying in standard components, such as stock cubes, cake mixes and ready-made pastry, from other manufacturers using moulds and templates to control the shape of products. 13 of 16 © Boardworks Ltd 2004

Making breakfast – The story of cornflakes 14 of 16 © Boardworks Ltd 2004 Making breakfast – The story of cornflakes 14 of 16 © Boardworks Ltd 2004

Cornflakes – quality assurance The materials used are quality checked before they are used Cornflakes – quality assurance The materials used are quality checked before they are used for production. The production process is carefully monitored following strict schedules, and the results are recorded analysed. The product is tested for ‘shelf life’. Samples are tested routinely to check that the proportion of ingredients is correct using computer controlled analysis. Experienced tasters meet regularly to compare and taste the cereals being made. Consumer taste tests are also carried out at the homes of people who eat breakfast cereal regularly. 15 of 16 © Boardworks Ltd 2004

Summary One-off processing is used by craftsmen to make special products, but it is Summary One-off processing is used by craftsmen to make special products, but it is expensive. Batch processing makes larger numbers of similar products in batches. Mass production is used to make large numbers of identical products. Continuous production machines run all the time. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points are points in the manufacturing process where hazards can be controlled. Quality assurance is used to make sure products are made to the right standards. 16 of 16 © Boardworks Ltd 2004