Скачать презентацию MANUFACTURING Estimation of Manufacturing Output Intermediate Consumption and Скачать презентацию MANUFACTURING Estimation of Manufacturing Output Intermediate Consumption and

0f37798786b535eb315e2d7117fb18bd.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 28

MANUFACTURING Estimation of Manufacturing Output, Intermediate Consumption and Value Added International Workshop From Data MANUFACTURING Estimation of Manufacturing Output, Intermediate Consumption and Value Added International Workshop From Data to Accounts: Measuring Production in National Accounting 8 -10 June 2009, Beijing, China UN STATISTICS DIVISION

Content of presentation Ø Some basic principles in Manufacturing Ø International Recommendations for Industrial Content of presentation Ø Some basic principles in Manufacturing Ø International Recommendations for Industrial Statistics 2008

Some basic principles in Manufacturing Some basic principles in Manufacturing

Manufacturing industries Ø Industrial classifications, such as ISIC identify a group of manufacturing industries Manufacturing industries Ø Industrial classifications, such as ISIC identify a group of manufacturing industries Ø Manufacturing industries Ø Produce goods such as machinery Ø Produce industrial services such as machinery repair and installation Ø Both goods and services produced should be included in the Manufacturing output

Classification of units Ø Determines where the unit will be classified Principal activity Ø Classification of units Ø Determines where the unit will be classified Principal activity Ø The activity whose value added exceeds that of any other activity carried out within the same unit Ø Secondary activities Ø Activities carried out within a single producer unit in addition to the principal activity and whose output, like that of the principal activity, must be suitable for delivery outside the producer unit Ø Ancillary activities Ø Incidental to the main activity of an enterprise Ø Facilitate the efficient running of the enterprise but does not normally result in goods and services that can be marketed

Treatment of Ancillary Activities (1) Ø Ancillary activity – a productive activity undertaken with Treatment of Ancillary Activities (1) Ø Ancillary activity – a productive activity undertaken with the sole purpose of producing services for IC within the same enterprise Ø 1993 SNA – ancillary activities are integrated with the establishments they support Ø Depict the production process as it is performed Ø Ancillary unit is not recognized by its own activity Ø Structural decomposition of GDP by economic activity is not depicted correctly Ø Regional GDP can not be compiled accurately Ø 2008 SNA - units undertaking ancillary activities to be treated as an establishment in certain cases

Treatment of Ancillary Activities (2) Ø When an ancillary activity is recognized as a Treatment of Ancillary Activities (2) Ø When an ancillary activity is recognized as a separate establishment? Ø An enterprise in which different kinds of activities undertaken are either horizontally or vertically integrated Ø An establishment undertaking ancillary activities is statistically observable, i. e. records of its transactions are readily available Ø The ancillary units are in a geographical location different from the establishments they serve Ø Ø Ancillary establishment should be allocated to the industrial classification corresponding to its own principal activity Statisticians should not make extraordinary efforts to create separate establishments for these activities artificially in the absence of suitable basic data being available

Treatment of Ancillary Activities (3) Ø Output of ancillary establishment Ø Should be derived Treatment of Ancillary Activities (3) Ø Output of ancillary establishment Ø Should be derived on a sum of cost basis, i. e. all cost of production incl. the cost of capital used Ø Output is deemed to be market when the parent enterprise is a market producer and non-market otherwise Ø Output is treated as intermediate consumption of the establishments it serves and should be allocated using appropriate indicator (VA, output, employment)

Output of ancillary establishments VA=O 1+O 2–(IC 1+IC 2+IC 3) = = 140 VA=VA Output of ancillary establishments VA=O 1+O 2–(IC 1+IC 2+IC 3) = = 140 VA=VA 1+VA 2+VA 3 = = 140

Valuation principles (1) Output and VA Purchasers’ Price Producers’ Price Basic Price + Other Valuation principles (1) Output and VA Purchasers’ Price Producers’ Price Basic Price + Other taxes on production - Other subsidies on production Factor costs IC Factor costs + Taxes on products (excl. VAT and other deductible taxes) + Any transport and trade margins invoiced separately to the purchaser to take delivery - Subsidies on products Basic price Producers’ price

Valuation principles (2) Ø Total VA at basic prices = GO at basic prices Valuation principles (2) Ø Total VA at basic prices = GO at basic prices – IC at purchasers' prices If taxes and subsidies on products and production cannot be segregated Ø Total VA at factor cost = GO at factor cost - IC at purchasers' prices

International Recommendations for Industrial Statistics 2008 (IRIS 2008) International Recommendations for Industrial Statistics 2008 (IRIS 2008)

Background Ø Since 1950 s, UN has published international recommendations to establish a coherent Background Ø Since 1950 s, UN has published international recommendations to establish a coherent and uniform measurement of industrial activities – 1953, 1960, 1968 and 1983 Ø IRIS 2008 adopted by the 39 th session of the UN Statistical Commission

Need for Revision of IRIS Ø Revision of the 2008 SNA Ø Revision of Need for Revision of IRIS Ø Revision of the 2008 SNA Ø Revision of the ISIC, Rev. 4, and CPC, Ver. 2 Ø Ø Ø Efforts of countries to minimize the difference between the concepts of “census value added” and “national accounts value added” Change in the valuation of industrial output to basic prices in accordance with SNA principles Consistency with concepts, definitions and terminology used in statistical publications and regulations of other international organizations (IMF, OECD, ILO, Eurostat)

Scope of Industrial Sector Ø Economic activities included in terms of ISIC or a Scope of Industrial Sector Ø Economic activities included in terms of ISIC or a national classification compatible with ISIC: Ø Mining and quarrying (Section B) Ø Manufacturing (Section C) ISIC, Rev. 4 Ø Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply (Section D) Ø Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities (Section E) Ø Industrial activities in international waters, such as the operation of petroleum and natural gas wells, should be included if they are subject to the laws, regulations and control of the country concerned

Units of Industrial Sector (1) Ø In conformity with the 2008 SNA production boundary Units of Industrial Sector (1) Ø In conformity with the 2008 SNA production boundary all units engaged in economic activities within the scope of industrial sector should be covered Ø Units of all sizes and types of ownership, including: Ø Household unincorporated enterprises as well as goods produced by households engaging in industrial activities for own final consumption Ø Departments, establishments and similar units of General Government should be included if they are mainly engaged in industrial activities within the scope and are identifiable by accounting records kept by them Ø Government units operating for profit Ø Government units providing goods and services to themselves – printing, publishing, ammunitions factories, etc.

Units of Industrial Sector (2) Ø Establishment - appropriate for production and employment analysis Units of Industrial Sector (2) Ø Establishment - appropriate for production and employment analysis by economic activities Ø Enhance homogeneity in the measurement of the economic activity and more accurate presentation of regional economic reality Ø Allow grouping into similar kind of industries (ISIC) Ø Enterprise – appropriate for financial analysis by institutional sectors Ø Corporation Ø Non-profit Institution serving industrial businesses Ø Unincorporated enterprise

Outsourcing Ø Outsourcing of production - when the principal unit contracts another productive unit Outsourcing Ø Outsourcing of production - when the principal unit contracts another productive unit to carry out specific aspects of the production activity of the principal, in whole or in part in the production of a good or a service Ø Activity classification of the contractor – straightforward, does not change with the outsourcing Ø Activity classification of the principal - affected by the nature and extent of the outsourcing, requires conventions for a consistent treatment Ø Recommendation: the criterion on where to classify the principal should be based on the ownership of the physical input materials by the principal only

Types of Outsourcing (1) Ø Outsourcing of support functions - the principal carries out Types of Outsourcing (1) Ø Outsourcing of support functions - the principal carries out the production of goods or services, but outsources certain support functions, such as accounting or computer services, to the contractor Ø Principal remains classified to the respective ISIC class that represents the core production process Ø Contractor is classified to the specific support activity it is carrying out, e. g. ISIC class 6920 or 6202 Ø Outsourcing parts of the production process - the principal outsources a part of the production process, but not the whole process, to the contractor as the principal owns the material inputs to be transformed by the contractor and thereby has ownership over the final outputs Ø Principal is classified in the appropriate class of ISIC as if it were carrying out the complete production process Ø Contractor is classified according to the portion of the production process he is undertaking

Types of Outsourcing (2) Ø Outsourcing of complete production process Ø Outsourcing of service Types of Outsourcing (2) Ø Outsourcing of complete production process Ø Outsourcing of service producing activities, including construction Ø Both the principal and the contractor are classified as if they were carrying out the complete service activity support functions Ø Outsourcing of manufacturing activities to contractor, when the principal does not physically transform the goods at the location of its unit Ø Principal owns the material inputs and thereby has economic ownership of the outputs, but has the production done by others - he is classified to section C (Manufacturing) Ø Principal has the production done by others, but does not own the material inputs - should be classified to section G (Distributive trade) Ø Contractor is classified always to section C (Manufacturing)

Data Items (1) Ø IRIS 2008 provides summary definitions of data items for collection Data Items (1) Ø IRIS 2008 provides summary definitions of data items for collection in industrial statistics Ø 13 groups of data items, incl. data items in quantity and environmental protection expenditures Ø Employment Ø Employees engaged in own account production of fixed assets and intellectual property products (software and database development, R&D, mineral exploration and evaluation, entertainment, literary and artistic originals) should be distinguished separately for the purpose of calculating output and capital formation Ø Compensation of employees Ø Employee stock options are considered income in kind

Data Items (2) Ø Other expenditures (part of IC calculation) Ø Purchases of goods Data Items (2) Ø Other expenditures (part of IC calculation) Ø Purchases of goods and services Remember this item Ø Raw materials, parts and supplies – purchased from other enterprises and delivered by other establishments of the same enterprise Ø Gas, fuels and electricity purchased Ø Water and sewerage services Ø Services except rentals Ø Cost of industrial services purchased and also delivered by other establishments of the same enterprise – maintenance, repair, installation, contract and commission work Ø Cost of non-industrial services – transport, communication, advertising Ø Purchase of good and services for resale in the same condition as received Ø Rental payments Ø Non-life insurance premiums payable on establishment property

Data Items (3) Ø Sales (turnover), shipments and other revenues Ø Market sales to Data Items (3) Ø Sales (turnover), shipments and other revenues Ø Market sales to other enterprises, incl. transfers to other establishments of the same enterprise and barter Ø Sales of goods and services purchased for resale in the same condition as received Ø Receipts for industrial work done or industrial services rendered – contract and commission works, maintenance and repair, R&D from industrial nature Ø Other non-industrial service revenues (may not be ascertain at the establishment level) – revenues from operating cafeterias, hostels, storage, transportation Ø E-commerce sales Ø Value of own account fixed assets Remember this item

Data Items (4) Ø Inventories and capital formation Ø Changes in inventories - important Data Items (4) Ø Inventories and capital formation Ø Changes in inventories - important for the calculation of industrial output and intermediate consumption, valuation Ø Do not forget the new classification of non-financial assets Ø Intellectual property products – their output should be capitalized; if done on own account - the output should be valued at cost Ø Computer software and database Ø Research and development Ø Mineral exploration and evaluation Ø Entertainment, literary and artistic originals Ø Others

Gross output vs. Census output Ø Gross output at basic prices = + Value Gross output vs. Census output Ø Gross output at basic prices = + Value of sales (turnover), shipments and other revenues - Purchases of goods and services for resale in the same condition as received (usually from a secondary trade activity) + Change in work-in-progress + Change of inventories of finished goods + Change in inventories of goods purchased for resale in the same condition as received Ø Census output – recommended to be discontinued Census output = Cross output – Other nonindustrial service revenues

Intermediate consumption and Census input Ø Ø Intermediate consumption at purchasers’ prices = Revalue Intermediate consumption and Census input Ø Ø Intermediate consumption at purchasers’ prices = Revalue to + Purchases of raw materials and supplies current prices + Purchases of gas, fuel and electricity and adjusts the + Purchases of water and sewerage services purchases to uses + Purchases of services except rentals + Rental payments + Changes in inventories of materials, fuels and supplies Census input at purchasers prices – not recommended Census input = Intermediate consumption – Cost of non-industrial services

National Accounts VA and Industry VA Ø IRIS 2008 makes the concept of Industry National Accounts VA and Industry VA Ø IRIS 2008 makes the concept of Industry Value Added as close as possible to the concept of National Accounts Value Added However Ø Depending on the organization of the country some adjustments would still be needed to get to the National Accounts concept Ø FISIM - the cost is included in the interest paid and interest received Ø Insurance service charge - the cost is included in the premium

Thank You Thank You